Literature Library

Currently indexing 8248 titles

Carbon isotope fractionation in the mangrove Avicennia marina has implications for food web and blue carbon research

Kelleway JJ, Mazumder D, Baldock JA, Saintilan N. Carbon isotope fractionation in the mangrove Avicennia marina has implications for food web and blue carbon research. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science [Internet]. 2018 ;205:68 - 74. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272771417310090
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The ratio of stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) is commonly used to track the flow of energy among individuals and ecosystems, including in mangrove forests. Effective use of this technique requires understanding of the spatial variability in δ13C among primary producer(s) as well as quantification of the isotopic fractionations that occur as C moves within and among ecosystem components. In this experiment, we assessed δ13C variation in the cosmopolitan mangrove Avicennia marina across four sites of varying physico-chemical conditions across two estuaries. We also compared the isotopic values of five distinct tissue types (leaves, woody stems, cable roots, pneumatophores and fine roots) in individual plants.

We found a significant site effect (F3, 36 = 15.78; P < 0.001) with mean leaf δ13C values 2.0‰ more depleted at the lowest salinity site compared to the other locations. There was a larger within-plant fractionation effect, however, with leaf samples (mean ± SE = −29.1 ± 0.2) more depleted in 13C than stem samples (−27.1 ± 0.1), while cable root (−25. 8 ± 0.1), pneumatophores (−25.7 ± 0.1) and fine roots (−26.0 ± 0.2) were more enriched in 13C relative to both aboveground tissue types (F4, 36 = 223.45; P < 0.001).

The within-plant δ13C fractionation we report for A. marina is greater than that reported in most other ecosystems. This has implications for studies of estuarine carbon cycling. The consistent and large size of the fractionation from leaf to woody stem (∼2.0‰) and mostly consistent fractionation from leaf to root tissues (>3.0‰) means that it may now be possible to partition the individual contributions of various mangrove tissues to estuarine food webs. Similarly, the contributions of mangrove leaves, woody debris and belowground sources to blue carbon stocks might also be quantified. Above all, however, our results emphasize the importance of considering appropriate mangrove tissue types when using δ13C to trace carbon cycling in estuarine systems.

Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Wetlands of Australia

Saintilan N, Rogers K, Kelleway JJ, Ens E, Sloane DR. Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Wetlands of Australia. Wetlands [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13157-018-1016-7
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

The Australian continent spans coastal wetland settings ranging from extensive mangrove forest and sabkha plains occupying in the tropical north, to the southern half of the continent, where high wave energy constrains wetlands within numerous barrier-fronted estuaries, drowned river valleys and coastal embayments. Only on the island of Tasmania are mangroves absent; elsewhere mangroves, Casuarina, Melaleuca and saltmarsh interact in ways illustrative of the effects of ongoing climate, tidal and sea-level change. Observations over several decades have suggested that recent anthropogenic climate change may already be impacting Australian coastal wetlands in important ways. A period of accelerating sea-level rise has been associated with saline intrusion, mangrove encroachment and Melaleuca dieback in the tropical north, punctuated by widespread mangrove mortality in drought periods. The consistent trend of mangrove encroachment and replacement of saltmarsh in the south, is associated with an “accretion deficit” in saltmarsh during contemporary sea-level rise. We review the ecological and cultural implications of these changes, including impacts on habitat provision for migratory birds, fisheries values, carbon sequestration and Indigenous cultural values. Current legislative and policy protections may not be sufficient to meet the increasingly dynamic impacts of climate change in altering wetland boundaries, composition and function.

Fisheries Enforcement on the High Seas of the Arctic Ocean: Gaps, Solutions and the Potential Contribution of the European Union and Its Member States

Papastavridis E. Fisheries Enforcement on the High Seas of the Arctic Ocean: Gaps, Solutions and the Potential Contribution of the European Union and Its Member States. The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/15718085-13320002
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $30.00
Type: Journal Article

Although there is no fishing activity within the central Arctic Ocean at present, commercial fishing activity does occur in the high seas areas of the North Atlantic and North Pacific, and within the exclusive economic zone of the Arctic coastal States. Climate change will most probably lead to an increase in fishing activity, through the reduction in sea ice, opening up new areas of the Arctic to fisheries, including the Central Arctic Ocean. This prospect has fuelled intensive negotiations—still ongoing—for the signing of a legally binding agreement to prevent unregulated fisheries therein. What seems missing, though, from both the ongoing negotiations on this agreement and the scholarly literature is reference to fisheries enforcement in the Arctic. Accordingly, this article identifies the most effective tools that could be employed for fisheries enforcement purposes, including port and flag State measures, and addresses their potential application in the Arctic.

Ecosystem-based management of coastal zones in face of climate change impacts: Challenges and inequalities

Fernandino G, Elliff CI, Silva IR. Ecosystem-based management of coastal zones in face of climate change impacts: Challenges and inequalities. Journal of Environmental Management [Internet]. 2018 ;215:32 - 39. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479718302615
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Climate change effects have the potential of affecting both ocean and atmospheric processes. These changes pose serious threats to the millions of people that live by the coast. Thus, the objective of the present review is to discuss how climate change is altering (and will continue to alter) atmospheric and oceanic processes, what are the main implications of these alterations along the coastline, and which are the ecosystem-based management (EBM) strategies that have been proposed and applied to address these issues. While ocean warming, ocean acidification and increasing sea level have been more extensively studied, investigations on the effects of climate change to wind and wave climates are less frequent. Coastal ecosystems and their respective natural resources will respond differently according to location, environmental drivers and coastal processes. EBM strategies have mostly concentrated on improving ecosystem services, which can be used to assist in mitigating climate change effects. The main challenge for developing nations regards gaps in information and scarcity of resources. Thus, for effective management and adaptive EBM strategies to be developed worldwide, information at a local level is greatly needed.

Protecting marine mammals, turtles, and birds by rebuilding global fisheries

Burgess MG, McDermott GR, Owashi B, Reeves LEPeavey, Clavelle T, Ovando D, Wallace BP, Lewison RL, Gaines SD, Costello C. Protecting marine mammals, turtles, and birds by rebuilding global fisheries. Science [Internet]. 2018 ;359(6381):1255 - 1258. Available from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/359/6381/1255
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Reductions in global fishing pressure are needed to end overfishing of target species and maximize the value of fisheries. We ask whether such reductions would also be sufficient to protect non–target species threatened as bycatch. We compare changes in fishing pressure needed to maximize profits from 4713 target fish stocks—accounting for >75% of global catch—to changes in fishing pressure needed to reverse ongoing declines of 20 marine mammal, sea turtle, and seabird populations threatened as bycatch. We project that maximizing fishery profits would halt or reverse declines of approximately half of these threatened populations. Recovering the other populations would require substantially greater effort reductions or targeting improvements. Improving commercial fishery management could thus yield important collateral benefits for threatened bycatch species globally.

TurtleCam: A “Smart” Autonomous Underwater Vehicle for Investigating Behaviors and Habitats of Sea Turtles

Dodge KL, Kukulya AL, Burke E, Baumgartner MF. TurtleCam: A “Smart” Autonomous Underwater Vehicle for Investigating Behaviors and Habitats of Sea Turtles. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 ;5. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2018.00090/full?utm_source=F-NTF&utm_medium=EMLX&utm_campaign=PRD_FEOPS_20170000_ARTICLE
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Sea turtles inhabiting coastal environments routinely encounter anthropogenic hazards, including fisheries, vessel traffic, pollution, dredging, and drilling. To support mitigation of potential threats, it is important to understand fine-scale sea turtle behaviors in a variety of habitats. Recent advancements in autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) now make it possible to directly observe and study the subsurface behaviors and habitats of marine megafauna, including sea turtles. Here, we describe a “smart” AUV capability developed to study free-swimming marine animals, and demonstrate the utility of this technology in a pilot study investigating the behaviors and habitat of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). We used a Remote Environmental Monitoring UnitS (REMUS-100) AUV, designated “TurtleCam,” that was modified to locate, follow and film tagged turtles for up to 8 h while simultaneously collecting environmental data. The TurtleCam system consists of a 100-m depth rated vehicle outfitted with a circular Ultra-Short BaseLine receiver array for omni-directional tracking of a tagged animal via a custom transponder tag that we attached to the turtle with two suction cups. The AUV collects video with six high-definition cameras (five mounted in the vehicle nose and one mounted aft) and we added a camera to the animal-borne transponder tag to record behavior from the turtle's perspective. Since behavior is likely a response to habitat factors, we collected concurrent in situ oceanographic data (bathymetry, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, currents) along the turtle's track. We tested the TurtleCam system during 2016 and 2017 in a densely populated coastal region off Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, where foraging leatherbacks overlap with fixed fishing gear and concentrated commercial and recreational vessel traffic. Here we present example data from one leatherback turtle to demonstrate the utility of TurtleCam. The concurrent video, localization, depth and environmental data allowed us to characterize leatherback diving behavior, foraging ecology, and habitat use, and to assess how turtle behavior mediates risk to impacts from anthropogenic activities. Our study demonstrates that an AUV can successfully track and image leatherback turtles feeding in a coastal environment, resulting in novel observations of three-dimensional subsurface behaviors and habitat use, with implications for sea turtle management and conservation.

Lessons from Philippines MPA Management: Social Ecological Interactions, Participation, and MPA Performance

Twichell J, Pollnac R, Christie P. Lessons from Philippines MPA Management: Social Ecological Interactions, Participation, and MPA Performance. Environmental Management [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00267-018-1020-y
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

International interest in increasing marine protected area (MPA) coverage reflects broad recognition of the MPA as a key tool for marine ecosystems and fisheries management. Nevertheless, effective management remains a significant challenge. The present study contributes to enriching an understanding of best practices for MPA management through analysis of archived community survey data collected in the Philippines by the Learning Project (LP), a collaboration with United States Coral Triangle Initiative (USCTI), United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and partners. We evaluate stakeholder participation and social ecological interactions among resource users in MPA programs in the Palawan, Occidental Mindoro, and Batangas provinces in the Philippines. Analysis indicates that a complex suite of social ecological factors, including demographics, conservation beliefs, and scientifically correct knowledge influence participation, which in turn is related to perceived MPA performance. Findings indicate positive feedbacks within the system that have potential to strengthen perceptions of MPA success. The results of this evaluation provide empirical reinforcement to current inquiries concerning the role of participation in influencing MPA performance.

Charting the course for a blue economy in Peru: a research agenda

McKinley E, Aller-Rojas O, Hattam C, Germond-Duret C, San Martín IVicuña, Hopkins CRachael, Aponte H, Potts T. Charting the course for a blue economy in Peru: a research agenda. Environment, Development and Sustainability [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10668-018-0133-z
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Ocean- and coastal-based economic activities are increasingly recognised as key drivers for supporting global economies. This move towards the “blue economy” is becoming globally widespread, with the recognition that if ocean-based activities are to be sustainable, they will need to move beyond solely extractive and exploitative endeavours, aligning more closely with marine conservation and effective marine spatial planning. In this paper we define the “blue economy” as a “platform for strategic, integrated and participatory coastal and ocean development and protection that incorporates a low carbon economy, the ecosystem approach and human well-being through advancing regional industries, services and activities”. In Peru, while the seas contribute greatly to the national economy, the full potential of the blue economy has yet to be realised. This paper presents the findings of an early career scientist workshop in Lima, Peru, in March 2016. The workshop “Advancing Green Growth in Peru” brought together researchers to identify challenges and opportunities for green growth across three Peruvian economic sectors—tourism, transport and the blue economy with this paper exploring in detail the priorities generated from the “blue economy” stream. These priorities include themes such as marine spatial planning, detailed evaluations of existing maritime industries (e.g. guano collection and fisheries), development of an effective MPA network, support for sustainable coastal tourism, and better inclusion of social science disciplines in understanding societal and political support for a Peruvian blue economy. In addition, the paper discusses the research requirements associated with these priorities. While not a comprehensive list, these priorities provide a starting point for future dialogue on a co-ordinated scientific platform supporting the blue growth agenda in Peru, and in other regions working towards a successful “blue economy”.

Plastic pollution in islands of the Atlantic Ocean

Monteiro RCP, Sul JAIvar do, Costa MF. Plastic pollution in islands of the Atlantic Ocean. Environmental Pollution [Internet]. 2018 ;238:103 - 110. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749117334310
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Marine plastic pollution is present in all oceans, including remote oceanic islands. Despite the increasing number of articles on plastic pollution in the last years, there is still a lack of studies in islands, that are biodiversity hotspots when compared to the surrounding ocean, and even other recognized highly biodiverse marine environments. Articles published in the peer reviewed literature (N = 20) were analysed according to the presence of macro (>5 mm) and microplastics (<5 mm) on beaches and the marine habitats immediately adjacent to 31 islands of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. The first articles date from the 1980s, but most were published in the 2000s. Articles on macroplastics were predominant in this review (N = 12). Beaches were the most studied environment, possibly due to easy access. The main focus of most articles was the spatial distribution of plastics associated with variables such as position of the beach in relation to wind and currents. Very few studies have analysed plastics colonization by organisms or the identification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Islands of the North/South Atlantic and Caribbean Sea were influenced by different sources of macroplastics, being marine-based sources (i.e., fishing activities) predominant in the Atlantic Ocean basin. On the other hand, in the Caribbean Sea, land-based sources were more common.

Shellfish aquaculture and resilience: Leadership experiences from Kesennuma Bay, Japan

Vlachopoulou EIoanna, Mizuta DDanielle. Shellfish aquaculture and resilience: Leadership experiences from Kesennuma Bay, Japan. Marine Policy [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17307868
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Resilience is a wide term that encompasses a variety of characteristics of different systems. The most common interpretation of resilience is the capacity of a system to absorb a change and reorganise to maintain its functions. This study explores the characteristics of resilience exhibited by a shellfish aquaculture-reliant coastal community in Kesennuma Bay, Japan, after the Great East Japan Earthquake, in relation to the principles of resilience as affected by local leadership. The community was greatly impacted by the tsunami and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant meltdown in terms of ecological, social, economic damage. A local non-profit organisation (NPO) played a central role in the community's effort to respond to the devastation and reorganise to become functional again and maintain its structures. The leadership potential exhibited throughout the process of community recovery was the key factor in achieving high levels of collective action and a reorganisation of the community.

Linking home ranges to protected area size: The case study of the Mediterranean Sea

Di Franco A, Plass-Johnson JG, Di Lorenzo M, Meola B, Claudet J, Gaines SD, García-Charton JAntonio, Giakoumi S, Grorud-Colvert K, Hackradt CWerner, et al. Linking home ranges to protected area size: The case study of the Mediterranean Sea. Biological Conservation [Internet]. 2018 ;221:175 - 181. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320717311187
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
Yes
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Protected areas not allowing extractive activities (here called fully protected area) are a spatially explicit conservation management tool commonly used to ensure populations persistence. This is achieved when an adequate fraction of a species' population spends most of its time within the boundaries of the protected area. Within a marine context, home ranges represent a tractable metric to provide guidance and evaluation of fully protected areas. We compiled peer-reviewed literature specific to the home ranges of finfishes and invertebrates of ecological and/or commercial importance in the Mediterranean Sea, and related this to the size of 184 Mediterranean fully protected areas. We also investigated the influence of fully protected areas size on fish density in contrast to fished areas with respect to home ranges. Home range estimations were available for 11 species (10 fishes and 1 lobster). The European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas had the smallest home range (0.0039 ± 0.0014 km2; mean ± 1 SE), while the painted comber Serranus scriba (1.1075 ± 0.2040 km2) had the largest. Approximately 25% of Mediterranean fully protected areas are larger than 2 times the size of the largest home range recorded. Fish densities were significantly higher when fully protected areas were larger than the home range, while no change in density occurred when home ranges were larger than fully protected areas. These results display a direct link between the effectiveness of fully protected areas and species' home range, suggesting that fully protected areas of at least 3.6 km2 may increase the density of local populations of these coastal marine species.

Submerged Coral Reefs in the Veracruz Reef System, Mexico, and its implications for marine protected area management

Ortiz-Lozano L, Colmenares-Campos C, Gutiérrez-Velázquez A. Submerged Coral Reefs in the Veracruz Reef System, Mexico, and its implications for marine protected area management. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2018 ;158:11 - 23. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117307561
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Submerged coral reefs (SCRs) are found on the continental shelves of the tropical regions of the world. Unlike shallow reefs, such submerged structures have been little studied in the world despite their ecological importance. We present the results of several explorations carried out between 2015 and 2017 in the Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano National Park (SAVNP) and surrounding areas, which account for the presence of 18 SCRs both inside and outside the National Park. The location of these reefs was based on user information, literature and official documents. Through the use of echo sounder, the dimensions and morphological conformation of the reefs were identified. The protection of submerged coral reefs in the SAVPN is limited. They are not fully considered in the MPA creation decrees, and most of them are located in areas assigned to artisanal fisheries. Connectivity, fisheries, port activities and the lack of scientific information are issues to be attended by environmental authorities to guarantee the protection of these ecosystems.

Tourism and beach erosion: valuing the damage of beach erosion for tourism in the Hoi An World Heritage site, Vietnam

Thinh NAn, Thanh NNgoc, Tuyen LThi, Hens L. Tourism and beach erosion: valuing the damage of beach erosion for tourism in the Hoi An World Heritage site, Vietnam. Environment, Development and Sustainability [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10668-018-0126-y
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The Hoi An World Heritage site in Vietnam has faced increasing coastal erosion as a result of both natural and anthropogenic causes since the 2010s. Main drivers are the construction of hydropower dams on the Vu Gia and Thu Bon Rivers, illegal sand mining in the South China Sea, and sea level rise along the Central Coast Vietnam. Coastal erosion affects the tourism attraction of this area. A challenge for both the national government and the local authorities is understanding the nature of the contemporary coastal erosion; this includes the beach erosion and tourism relationship. This study deals with the damage valuation of the beach erosion in relation to the tourism revenue based on the hedonic pricing method. Cua Dai beach of Hoi An is structured into 23 beach sectors along the shore, each of which shows a relative homogeny in physical characteristics, anthropogenic activities, and socioeconomics. The beach value is function of morphological variables such as beach width and distance to the city center, and tourism variables such as tourist area, coastal businesses, the number of hotels, and the number of hotel rooms. The two-stage least squares (2SLS) of the custom-log model is the most accurate approach. The total projected revenue losses are more than an estimated 29 million US dollars by 2040. The present values of the total annual revenue losses in 2020, 2030, and 2040 are about 29.6, 21.4, and 14 million US dollars, respectively, at an interest rate of 5%. The results suggest mitigation strategies and policy recommendations. The proposal includes improving the adaptation capacity to coastal erosion using innovative, smart, and wise solutions. Beach nourishment and coastal defense structures can be sustainable management tools combating coastal erosion only if the multicausal coastal processes are properly considered and a detailed cost–benefit analysis is performed.

Biodiversity, Coastal Protection and Resource Endowment: Policy options for improving ocean health

Nguyen KAnh Thi, Jolly CM, Nguelifack BMerlin. Biodiversity, Coastal Protection and Resource Endowment: Policy options for improving ocean health. Journal of Policy Modeling [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0161893818300279
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The paper develops a production function for the Global Ocean Health Index (OHI) for 2013. Data from the Ocean Health Statistics, plus from the Human Development Index (HDI) for 151 countries are used. We employ two-stage regression model to conduct this evaluation. The tobit model, used to obtain the estimated dependent variable, results show Coastal Protection, Livelihoods and Economies, Tourism and Recreation, Iconic Species, Clean Water and Biodiversity, Food Provision, Artisanal Fisheries Opportunities, Natural Products, and Carbon Storage are significant variables. The rank regression in the second stage showed that HDI and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) significantly influenced the predicted value of the OHI. Policy makers should note that biodiversity increases have the greatest effect on OHI, and its improvement is within reach of even the poorest country. Countries with varying levels of resource endowment may choose different techniques to improve OHI, but the implementation of MPAs should be priority.

Combining local fishers' and scientific ecological knowledge: Implications for comanagement

Medeiros MCorreia, Barboza RRilke Duar, Martel G, Mourão Jda Silva. Combining local fishers' and scientific ecological knowledge: Implications for comanagement. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2018 ;158:1 - 10. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117300820
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

This study was conducted in the fishing community of the Cabedelo municipality (NE Brazil, Paraíba) and characterized the socioeconomic profile of the fishers, their local ecological knowledge and their main usage of fish species. Overall, 80 fishers were interviewed. Snowball, direct observation, guided tours, free interviews and structured and semi-structured questionnaires were used for data collection, which occurred from December 2010 to June 2011 in fortnightly visits to the city of Cabedelo. Most fishers ranged from 36 to 45 years, with low education and low income levels, and approximately 87% fished in the municipality. At least 33 fish species were recorded as important for family consumption and trade. The most commonly caught fish families were Carangidae, Mugilidae, Lutjanidae and Scombridae. The fishes most used for commerce were Lutjanidae, Scombridae, and Serranidae. Fishers demonstrated a high knowledge about the temporal distribution of fishes and categorized them as “fishes of summer”, “fishes of winter” and “fishes around all year”; fishes' vertical distributions were categorized as either “bottom fish” or “water flower”. Fishers also classified eating habits, some types of behavior and reproduction of most exploited species. Fishermen's understanding of the fish stocks distribution and fish ecology is potentially imperative for scientific knowledge and future shared management plans.

Environmental Management of Marine Ecosystems

Islam MNazrul, Jorgensen SErik. Environmental Management of Marine Ecosystems. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2018. Available from: https://www.crcpress.com/Environmental-Management-of-Marine-Ecosystems/Islam-Jorgensen/p/book/9781498767729
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $219.95
Type: Book

This book will illustrate the current status, trends and effects of climate, natural disturbances and anthropogenic stressors on marine ecosystems. It shows how to integrate different management tools and models in an up-to-date, multidisciplinary approach to environmental management. Through several case studies, it provides a powerful framework for identifying management tools and their applications in coral reefs, fisheries, migratory species, marine islands and associated ecosystems such as mangroves and sea grass beds, including their ecosystem services, the threats to their sustainability, and the actions needed to protect them.

The price of success: integrative long-term study reveals ecotourism impacts on a flagship species at a UNESCO site

Monti F, Duriez O, Dominici J-M, Sforzi A, Robert A, Fusani L, Grémillet D. The price of success: integrative long-term study reveals ecotourism impacts on a flagship species at a UNESCO site. Animal Conservation [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/acv.12407/full
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

Disturbance of wildlife by ecotourism has become a major concern in the last decades. In the Mediterranean, sea-based tourism and related recreational activities are increasing rapidly, especially within marine protected areas (MPAs) hosting emblematic biodiversity. We investigated the impact of ecotourism in the Scandola MPA (UNESCO World Heritage Site, Corsica island), on the population of a conservation flagship, the Osprey Pandion haliaetus. Over the 37-year study period, tourists flow increased sharply. Osprey breeding performance initially increased, but then dropped for pairs nesting within the MPA compared to those breeding elsewhere in Corsica. We examined several hypotheses that could explain such reduction in breeding performance. Recent osprey breeding failures in the MPA are not caused by food scarcity. Using underwater fish surveys, we showed that fish consumed by ospreys were more numerous within the MPA. Focal observation at nests revealed that the overall number of boat passages within 250 m of osprey nests were three times higher inside the MPA compared to a control area. Elevated boat traffic significantly modified osprey time-budgets, by decreasing prey provisioning rate by males, and increasing time spent alarming and flying off the nest in females. This caused stress, and corticosterone levels in chick feathers were three times higher in high-traffic areas compared to places with lower touristic flow in Corsica, the Balearic Islands and Italy. Overall, our integrative, long-term study demonstrates the negative impact of sea-based ecotourism on the Corsican osprey population. This stresses the worldwide importance of rigorously implementing sustainable ecotourism, within well-enforced MPAs.

There is no Planet B: A healthy Earth requires greater parity between space and marine research

Elliott M. There is no Planet B: A healthy Earth requires greater parity between space and marine research. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2018 ;130:28-30. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X18301607
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $55.20
Type: Journal Article

Exploring our planetary boundaries (i.e. the safe operating space for humanity) has demonstrated that we have already exceeded three of the 10 defined variables which support our wellbeing: the rate of biodiversity loss, the biogeochemical fluxes of nitrogen and climate change (Rockström et al., 2009Steffen et al., 2015). Recently more than 15,000 international scientists have warned that humanity was exceeding the limits of the planet (Ripple et al., 2017). Similarly, in marine ecosystems, biogeochemical fluxes and biosphere integrity exceed their safe boundaries (Nash et al., 2017). Despite the uncertainties and criticisms of the methodologies applied (Montoya et al., 2018), those authors agree that “it would be unwise to drive the Earth System substantially away from a Holocene-like condition. A continuing trajectory away from the Holocene could lead, with an uncomfortably high probability, to a very different state of the Earth System, one that is likely to be much less hospitable to the development of human societies” ( Steffen et al., 2015).

Giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, increases faunal diversity through physical engineering

Miller RJ, Lafferty KD, Lamy T, Kui L, Rassweiler A, Reed DC. Giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, increases faunal diversity through physical engineering. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences [Internet]. 2018 ;285(1874):20172571. Available from: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/285/1874/20172571
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $29.25
Type: Journal Article

Foundation species define the ecosystems they live in, but ecologists have often characterized dominant plants as foundational without supporting evidence. Giant kelp has long been considered a marine foundation species due to its complex structure and high productivity; however, there is little quantitative evidence to evaluate this. Here, we apply structural equation modelling to a 15-year time series of reef community data to evaluate how giant kelp affects the reef community. Although species richness was positively associated with giant kelp biomass, most direct paths did not involve giant kelp. Instead, the foundational qualities of giant kelp were driven mostly by indirect effects attributed to its dominant physical structure and associated engineering influence on the ecosystem, rather than by its use as food by invertebrates and fishes. Giant kelp structure has indirect effects because it shades out understorey algae that compete with sessile invertebrates. When released from competition, sessile species in turn increase the diversity of mobile predators. Sea urchin grazing effects could have been misinterpreted as kelp effects, because sea urchins can overgraze giant kelp, understorey algae and sessile invertebrates alike. Our results confirm the high diversity and biomass associated with kelp forests, but highlight how species interactions and habitat attributes can be misconstrued as direct consequences of a foundation species like giant kelp.

Microplastics in sub-surface waters of the Arctic Central Basin

Kanhai LDaana K, Gårdfeldt K, Lyashevska O, Hassellöv M, Thompson RC, O'Connor I. Microplastics in sub-surface waters of the Arctic Central Basin. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2018 ;130:8 - 18. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X18301565
Freely available?: 
No
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Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Polar oceans, though remote in location, are not immune to the accumulation of plastic debris. The present study, investigated for the first time, the abundance, distribution and composition of microplastics in sub-surface waters of the Arctic Central Basin. Microplastic sampling was carried out using the bow water system of icebreaker Oden (single depth: 8.5 m) and CTD rosette sampler (multiple depths: 8–4369 m). Potential microplastics were isolated and analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Bow water sampling revealed that the median microplastic abundance in near surface waters of the Polar Mixed Layer (PML) was 0.7 particles m−3. Regarding the vertical distribution of microplastics in the ACB, microplastic abundance (particles m−3) in the different water masses was as follows: Polar Mixed Layer (0–375) > Deep and bottom waters (0–104) > Atlantic water (0–95) > Halocline i.e. Atlantic or Pacific (0–83).

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