Literature Library

Currently indexing 7175 titles

Biodiversity loss from deep-sea mining

Van Dover CL, Ardron JA, Escobar E, Gianni M, Gjerde KM, Jaeckel A, Jones DOB, Levin LA, Niner HJ, Pendleton L, et al. Biodiversity loss from deep-sea mining. Nature Geoscience [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: https://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ngeo2983.html
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $18.00
Type: Journal Article

To the Editor —

The emerging deep-sea mining industry is seen by some to be an engine for economic development in the maritime sector1. The International Seabed Authority — the body that regulates mining activities on the seabed beyond national jurisdiction — must also protect the marine environment from harmful effects that arise…

Incentivizing More Effective Marine Protected Areas with the Global Ocean Refuge System (GLORES)

Hameed SO, Cornick LA, Devillers R, Morgan LE. Incentivizing More Effective Marine Protected Areas with the Global Ocean Refuge System (GLORES). Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2017 ;4. Available from: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2017.00208/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Healthy oceans are essential to human survival and prosperity, yet oceans are severely impacted worldwide by anthropogenic threats including overfishing, climate change, industrialization, pollution, and habitat destruction. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been implemented around the world and are effective conservation tools that can mitigate some of these threats and build resilience when designed and managed well. However, despite a rich scientific literature on MPA effectiveness, science is not the main driver behind the design and implementation of many MPAs, leading to variable MPA effectiveness and bias in global MPA representativity. As a result, the marine conservation community focuses on promoting the creation of more MPAs as well as more effective ones, however no structure to improve or accelerate effective MPA implementation currently exists. To safeguard marine ecosystems on a global scale and better monitor progress toward ecosystem protection, robust science-based criteria are needed for evaluating MPAs and synthesizing the extensive and interdisciplinary science on MPA effectiveness. This paper presents a strategic initiative led by Marine Conservation Institute called the Global Ocean Refuge System (GLORES). GLORES aims to set standards to improve the quality of MPAs and catalyze strong protection for at least 30% of the ocean by 2030. Such substantial increase in marine protection is needed to maintain the resilience of marine ecosystems and restore their benefits to people. GLORES provides a comprehensive strategy that employs the rich body of MPA science to scale up existing marine conservation efforts.

Distributional performance of a territorial use rights and co-managed small-scale fishery

Villanueva-Poot R?l, Seijo JCarlos, Headley M, Arce AMinerva, Sosa-Cordero E, Lluch-Cota DBernardo. Distributional performance of a territorial use rights and co-managed small-scale fishery. Fisheries Research [Internet]. 2017 ;194:135 - 145. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783617301522
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

This work reports on how benefits are distributed among the owners of fishing grounds in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) fishery of Punta Allen, Mexico. This MSC certified (2012) small-scale fishery, has been co-managed as a Territorial Use Rights Fishery (TURF) since 1969. Members of the local fishing cooperative, have exclusive access to individual fishing grounds. The fishery is based on the use of artificial shelters. These bottom devices provide refuges for lobsters, reduce predation mortality, and facilitate harvesting by free diving and the use of hand nets. Data from the fishing cooperative logbooks were used to calculate fishing incomes indicators per fisher (revenues, quasi-profits of the variable costs, profits, and resource rent) achieved in seven lobster fishing seasons (2007–2014). Distributions statistics (shape parameters and log transformations), and inequality metrics (Lorenz curve and Gini index G) were applied to the income indicators. The analysis was complemented with a fishers’ perceptions survey about the effectiveness of joint Government and cooperative regulations. The Gindex of the fishing revenues distributions showed low values (0.387 ± 0.017) and a stable trend in the seven lobster seasons analyzed. The calculated G values of the fishing income indicators increased from 0.387 to 0.490. There were no statistically significant differences in the resource rent earned by the age groups of campo owners. This finding could indicate intergenerational equity among current resource users. The results showed that in the lobster fishery of Punta Allen, the fishing incomes are spread more equally than most fisheries where distributional performance has been assessed.

Global marine fisheries discards: A synthesis of reconstructed data

Zeller D, Cashion T, Palomares M, Pauly D. Global marine fisheries discards: A synthesis of reconstructed data. Fish and Fisheries [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/faf.12233/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

As part of the global marine fisheries catch reconstruction project conducted by the Sea Around Usover the last decade, estimates were derived for discards in all major fisheries in the world. The reconstruction process derives conservative but non-zero time-series estimates for every fisheries component known to exist, and relies on a wide variety of data and information sources and on conservative assumptions to ensure comprehensive and complete time-series coverage. Globally, estimated discards increased from under 5 million t/year (t = 1,000 kg) in the early 1950s to a peak of 18.8 million t in 1989, and gradually declined thereafter to levels of the late 1950s of less than 10 million t/year. Thus, estimated discards represented between 10% and 20% of total reconstructed catches (reported landings + unreported landings + unreported discards) per year up to the year 2000, after which estimated discards accounted for slightly less than 10% of total annual catches. Most discards were generated by industrial (i.e. large-scale) fisheries. Discarding occurred predominantly in northern Atlantic waters in the earlier decades (1950s–1980s), after which discarding off the West Coast of Africa dominated. More recently, fleets operating in Northwest Pacific and Western Central Pacific waters generated the most discards. In most areas, discards consist essentially of marketable taxa, suggesting a combination of poor fishing practices and poor management procedures is largely responsible for the waste discarding represents. This is important in an era of increasing food security and human nutritional health concerns, especially in developing countries.

The Pliocene marine megafauna extinction and its impact on functional diversity

Pimiento C, Griffin JN, Clements CF, Silvestro D, Varela S, Uhen MD, Jaramillo C. The Pliocene marine megafauna extinction and its impact on functional diversity. Nature Ecology & Evolution [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-017-0223-6
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $32.00
Type: Journal Article

The end of the Pliocene marked the beginning of a period of great climatic variability and sea-level oscillations. Here, based on a new analysis of the fossil record, we identify a previously unrecognized extinction event among marine megafauna (mammals, seabirds, turtles and sharks) during this time, with extinction rates three times higher than in the rest of the Cenozoic, and with 36% of Pliocene genera failing to survive into the Pleistocene. To gauge the potential consequences of this event for ecosystem functioning, we evaluate its impacts on functional diversity, focusing on the 86% of the megafauna genera that are associated with coastal habitats. Seven (14%) coastal functional entities (unique trait combinations) disappeared, along with 17% of functional richness (volume of the functional space). The origination of new genera during the Pleistocene created new functional entities and contributed to a functional shift of 21%, but minimally compensated for the functional space lost. Reconstructions show that from the late Pliocene onwards, the global area of the neritic zone significantly diminished and exhibited amplified fluctuations. We hypothesize that the abrupt loss of productive coastal habitats, potentially acting alongside oceanographic alterations, was a key extinction driver. The importance of area loss is supported by model analyses showing that animals with high energy requirements (homeotherms) were more susceptible to extinction. The extinction event we uncover here demonstrates that marine megafauna were more vulnerable to global environmental changes in the recent geological past than previously thought.

A novel habitat-based approach to predict impacts of marine protected areas on fishers

Teixeira JB, Moura RL, Mills M, Klein C, Brown CJ, Adams VM, Grantham H, Watts M, Faria D, Amado-Filho GM, et al. A novel habitat-based approach to predict impacts of marine protected areas on fishers. Conservation Biology [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cobi.12974/abstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

While marine protected areas (MPAs) can simultaneously contribute to biodiversity conservation and fisheries management, the global network is biased towards particular ecosystem types, as it was largely established in an ad hoc fashion. The optimization of trade-offs between biodiversity benefits and socio-economic values increases implementation success and minimizes enforcement costs in the long run, but is often neglected in marine spatial planning (MSP). Although the acquisition of spatially explicit socioeconomic data is often perceived as a costly/secondary step in MSP, it is critical to account for lost opportunities by people whose activities will be restricted, especially fishers. Here we present an easily-reproducible habitat-based approach to estimate the spatial distribution of opportunity cost to fishers in data poor regions, assuming that the most accessible areas have higher values and their designation as no-take zones represents increased loss of fishing opportunities. Our method requires only habitat and bathymetric maps, a list of target species, the location of ports, and the relative importance for each port and/or vessel/gear type. The potential distribution of fishing resources is estimated from bathymetric ranges and benthic habitat distribution, while the relative importance of the different resources is estimated for each port, considering total catches (kg), revenues and/or stakeholder perception. Finally, the model can combine different cost layers to produce a comprehensive cost layer, and also allows for the evaluation of tradeoffs. The development of FishCake was based on data from a contentious conservation-planning arena (Abrolhos Bank, Brazil) in which attempts to expand MPA coverage failed due to fishers’ resistance. The opportunity cost approach that we introduce herein allows for the incorporation of economic interests of different stakeholders and evaluation of tradeoffs among different stakeholder groups. The novel approach can be directly used to support conservation planning, in Abrolhos and elsewhere, and is expected to facilitate community consultation.

Evaluating marine protected areas for managing marine resource conflict in Hawaii

Stevenson TC, Tissot BN. Evaluating marine protected areas for managing marine resource conflict in Hawaii. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2013 ;39:215 - 223. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X12002321
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Conflict surrounding commercial fisheries is a common phenomenon when diverse stakeholders are involved. Harvesting reef fish for the global ornamental fish trade has provoked conflict since the late 1970s in the State of Hawaii. Two decades later the state of Hawaii established a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) on the west coast of the island of Hawaii (“West Hawaii”) to protect and enhance the fish resources and alleviate conflict between stakeholders, principally between commercial dive tour operators and aquarium fishers. The perceptions held by these stakeholders on West Hawaii and Maui were evaluated to understand how MPAs influenced conflict dimensions, as the former location had a well-established MPA network designed to alleviate conflict, while the latter did not. This was accomplished by analyzing the following questions: (1) perceptions about the effectiveness of MPAs to alleviate conflict and enhance reef fish; (2) perceived group encounters and threats to coral reefs; (3) willingness to encourage fishing; and (4) value orientations toward the aquarium fish trade. The results indicate the MPAs in West Hawaii were moderately effective for alleviating conflict, encounters between stakeholders occurred on both islands, dive operators strongly opposed commercial fishing and perceived aquarium fishing as a serious threat to the coral reef ecosystem, and polarized value orientations toward the aquarium fish trade confirms pervasive social values conflict. The conflict between these groups was also asymmetrical. MPAs are inadequate for resolving long term conflict between groups who hold highly dissimilar value orientations toward the use of marine resources. Future marine spatial planning and MPA setting processes should include stakeholder value and conflict assessments to avoid and manage tensions between competing user groups.

Using conservation as a tool to resolve conflict: Establishing the Piran–Savudrija international Marine Peace Park

Mackelworth P, Holcer D, Lazar B. Using conservation as a tool to resolve conflict: Establishing the Piran–Savudrija international Marine Peace Park. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2013 ;39:112 - 119. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X12001996
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Border disputes between neighbouring States are a regular occurrence and have the potential to undermine relations at national, regional, local and even individual level. In this instance the conflict over Piran Bay in the Northern Adriatic Sea has led to conflict between the neighbouring States of Croatia and Slovenia. The lack of resolution of this conflict resulted in Croatia being delayed in its accession into the European Union (EU). The border dispute remains unresolved and will go to international arbitration in 2013. Yet it is unlikely that arbitration will provide a solution agreeable to all stakeholders. It is likely that residual feelings of injustice will remain, especially at local level. Analysis of the political context of the dispute and recognition of the biological importance of the region has led to opportunity to combine politics and biological conservation to establish an International Marine Peace Park (IMPP) as a potential mitigation measure to help resolve the conflict. This initiative aims to develop regional ownership over a shared marine space linking the local communities of Slovenia and Croatia that co-habit the adjacent Istrian peninsula. The area of the proposed Piran–Savudrija IMPP hosts numerous habitat types and species which are representative of the region and are of international and national conservation importance. The policies and opportunities associated with EU accession provide the potential political, economic and environmental frameworks to develop a regional agency or a bi-national steering committee for the management of the area. This could allow local communities to develop equitable management and restore good relations while preserving an important regionally representative marine area.

Principles for Stakeholder Involvement in Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning

Anon. Principles for Stakeholder Involvement in Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning. Udall Foundation, U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution; 2011.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

In the CMSP decision-making process, as outlined in the NOP, decision-making authority is provided to the regional planning bodies, which are composed of federal, tribal, and state officials. The NOP recognizes that the coastal and marine spatial plans will need to respond to the needs of all who rely on the marine environment for economic and environmental services, and that effective consultation with the full range of these groups is essential to build the relationships needed to achieve national and regional goals for ocean management. Therefore, stakeholder involvement in the development of regional plans is an important responsibility assigned to the regional planning bodies.

The purpose of this document is to provide an overarching set of suggested principles for effectively engaging all stakeholders in a CMSP process. In developing this informational resource document, the Udall Foundation’s U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution (U.S. Institute) reviewed current and past CMSP stakeholder processes in the United States and internationally, analyzed academic literature on stakeholder engagement best practices, and reviewed surveys and white papers about desirable stakeholder involvement mechanisms from various interest groups, including government, tribal, environmental and ocean user groups. The principles described in this document are drawn from this research and from the U.S. Institute’s experience in developing similar guidelines for a range of complex federal and regional stakeholder involvement efforts.

Conflict resolution in coastal resource management: Comparative analysis of case studies from four European countries

Stepanova O. Conflict resolution in coastal resource management: Comparative analysis of case studies from four European countries. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2015 ;103:109 - 122. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096456911400341X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Coastal resource management requires the resolution of local resource use conflicts. The research on coastal conflict resolution is still scarce despite the progress made in fisheries and marine related conflict studies. Utilizing qualitative methodology this paper makes comparative analyses of strengths and deficits of coastal conflict resolution practices in three conflicts from the Swedish west coast and five conflicts from the United Kingdom, Italy and Belgium, all studied in the context of the European research project SECOA (Solutions to Environmental Contrasts in Coastal Areas). The analyses focus on power relations among the stakeholders and their practices of knowledge use, including knowledge integration and joint learning. The results show deficits of research and practical neglect of these aspects in coastal management. In the discussion the question of how approaches to conflict resolution can be improved and integrated into long-term strategies of sustainable resource management in coastal areas is addressed. It is concluded that complex conflicts over natural resource use require context specific combinations of formal and informal resolution methods. The interconnected components of transformation of power relations, knowledge integration and joint learning are seen as key components of conflict resolution.

Governance of areas beyond national jurisdiction for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use: Institutional arrangements and cross-sectoral cooperation in the Western Indian Ocean and South East Pacific

von Bieberstein KRogalla, Christensen M, Fletcher R, Fletcher S, Guarás D, Martin J, Pietila K, Sokolowski A, Thomas H. Governance of areas beyond national jurisdiction for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use: Institutional arrangements and cross-sectoral cooperation in the Western Indian Ocean and South East Pacific. Cambridge, UK: UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre; 2017 p. 120 pp. Available from: https://www.unep-wcmc.org/resources-and-data/governance-of-abnj
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

This study describes the intergovernmental organizations and legal agreements that pertain to conservation and sustainable use in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) in the Western Indian Ocean and the South East Pacific and considers the progress that has been made towards a collaborative and integrated approach to ocean governance in ABNJ.

The analysis was done as part of the ABNJ Deep Seas Project, a collaborative GEF funded project with UN Environment and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN.  For more information see http://www.commonoceans.org/

Governance Challenges, Gaps and Management Opportunities in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction

Anon. Governance Challenges, Gaps and Management Opportunities in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction. Global Environment Facility; 2016. Available from: https://www.thegef.org/council-meeting-documents/governance-challenges-gaps-and-management-opportunities-areas-beyond
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive mapping and description of the current regulatory landscape of the ocean areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) and to identify potential gaps and weaknesses in the system and its management. The starting point of this exercise is the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), supplemented by a review of other key conventions and institutions that have mandates in relation to activities in ABNJ. The study also provides an overview of global commitments to conservation and sustainable use of the ocean and marine ecosystems to identify opportunities to enhance their implementation through targeted action in ABNJ.

By increasing the understanding of the legal challenges related to ABNJ, the study seeks to support states and global institutions such as the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to identify and implement activities that can achieve an overall net benefit to the global environment from investments in ABNJ. 1 The study seeks to support the GEF partnership, other organisations and states in identifying key opportunities for future conservation and sustainable utilization of ABNJ in the current GEF 6 and upcoming GEF 7 programs.

Environmental and resource conflicts and conflict resolution practices in coastal areas of the North American Great Lakes: towards an integrated approach for policymaking

Skarlato O. Environmental and resource conflicts and conflict resolution practices in coastal areas of the North American Great Lakes: towards an integrated approach for policymaking. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba; 2013. Available from: https://mspace.lib.umanitoba.ca/handle/1993/22033
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Thesis

Environmental conflicts are multi-dimensional. Individual components of environmental and resource-related conflicts are closely interlinked with other structural societal elements, including economic, social, political and cultural developments. Coastal areas are significant for people’s subsistence, as well as industrial development, cultural heritage, and waterways; therefore, they require integrated research approaches and the implementation of comprehensive strategies of resource management, dispute resolution and conflict prevention. This qualitative exploratory study contributes to the development of the field of environmental conflict resolution (ECR) by examining the perceptions and experiences of 52 key stakeholders from the coastal areas of the Great Lakes region of Canada and the United States (US) with regards to environmental and resource conflicts and conflict resolution approaches. The study invited coastal stakeholders such as environmental policymakers, researchers, academics, educators and NGO members to share their perceptions, images, experiences and knowledge about environmental and resource conflicts and conflict resolution practices in the coastal areas of the Great Lakes. The framework of this holistic study integrates public policy, alternative dispute resolution, conflict analysis, project evaluation, dialogue and public participation, education and other creative interventions into an inclusive strategy of integrated environmental and resource management of coastal areas. Analysis of the study participants’ responses revealed several key findings. First, the multi-dimensional character of environmental and resource conflicts and the wide range of coastal stakeholders involved necessitate creating spaces for dialogue and communication among coastal stakeholders, which may facilitate relationship building and encourage collaborative problem solving and constructive conflict resolution. Second, establishing links between science and policymaking within environmental and resource management, as well as introducing conflict resolution education for coastal stakeholders, may significantly enhance the capacity of coastal stakeholders in ECR. Third, coastal stakeholders in the Great Lakes have an extensive and wide-ranging existing local knowledge, experience and expertise in resolving environmental and resource conflicts. Fourth, a conflict resolution system’s design developed in this study may serve as an integrated framework for the analysis and resolution of environmental and resource conflicts. This ECR system design involves such important components as conducting conflict and stakeholder analysis; identifying the root causes of conflict; bringing conflict participants together to discuss resolution options; and building in continuous evaluation of environmental conflict resolution processes.

Marine Protected Areas in the High Seas and Their Impact on International Fishing Agreements

Punt MJ, Weikard H-P, Van Ierland EC. Marine Protected Areas in the High Seas and Their Impact on International Fishing Agreements. Natural Resource Modeling [Internet]. 2013 ;26(2):164 - 193. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1939-7445.2012.00133.x/abstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are gaining momentum as tools within fisheries management. Although many studies have been conducted to their use and potential, only few authors have considered their use in the High Seas. In this paper, we investigate the effects of fish growth enhancing MPAs on the formation of regional fisheries management organisations (RFMOs) for highly migratory fish stocks. We argue that in absence of enforcement MPAs constitute a weakest-link public good, which can only be realized if everyone agrees. We combine this notion with a game theoretic model of RFMO formation to derive potentially stable RFMOs with and without MPAs. We find that MPAs generally increase the parameter range over which RFMOs are stable, and that they increase stability in a number of cases as compared to the case without MPAs. They do not necessarily induce a fully cooperative solution among all fishing nations. In summary, results of this paper suggest a positive role for MPAs in the High Seas.

Review of potential legal frameworks for effective implementation and enforcement of MPAs in the high seas

Delfour-Samama O, Leboeuf C. Review of potential legal frameworks for effective implementation and enforcement of MPAs in the high seas. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2014 ;71(5):1031 - 1039. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article/71/5/1031/647372/Review-of-potential-legal-frameworks-for-effective
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine protected areas (MPAs) were initially introduced to protect coastal zones and are increasingly being proposed as part of a solution to an integrated approach in managing the oceans. There is also pressure for the use of marine reserves to play a part in the conservation strategy and management of mobile demersal and pelagic species in the high seas. However, as there is no coastal State, all States are free to use the open seas, and the relative success of MPAs depends on whether or not measures can be imposed on both domestic and foreign vessels. Therefore, the question is whether current international and national legislation is sufficiently effective to implement a solution to aid the success of MPAs or if new legal norms need to be introduced to aid the governance of the high seas. The implementation of a surveillance programme of maritime spaces would help to establish the efficacy of any review of the current legislation. New technical developments being utilized in surveillance have opened up the possibility of exploiting technology with a view to surveying and monitoring planet earth in an objective manner. But technical applications employed to manage risks can themselves be dangerous, as they create new risks for the maritime sector (e.g. espionnage). The maritime domain is a difficult and unpredictable environment in which to operate and, therefore, precludes the assured presence of human beings to perform monitoring tasks. Technology offers us the opportunity to overcome the physical difficulties by putting into practice surveillance using more effective methods. Identifying the appropriate technology and providing funding is a priority.

Marine spatial planning in the high seas

Ardron J, Gjerde K, Pullen S, Tilot V. Marine spatial planning in the high seas. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2008 ;32(5):832 - 839. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X08000729
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Although high seas resources are being exploited, reciprocal legal obligations to protect its environment have not been met. Marine spatial planning (MSP) is clearly a practical way forward, particularly for the high seas, where non-spatial monitoring is difficult, and where data gaps obstruct conventional management approaches. To ensure the effective application of MSP in the high seas, however, some institutional reforms are necessary. This paper outlines the main hurdles, summarizes existing high seas spatial protections, presents an example of a high seas marine protected area that resulted through MSP, identifies three institutional priorities, and suggests three immediate steps.

Marine Spatial Planning, A Step-by-Step Approach toward Ecosystem-based Management

Ehler C, Douvere F. Marine Spatial Planning, A Step-by-Step Approach toward Ecosystem-based Management. Paris: UNESCO; 2009.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

During recent years, marine spatial planning has been the focus of considerable interest throughout the world, particularly in heavily used marine areas. Numerous attempts have been made to define the scope and nature of marine spatial planning, but few have discussed how to put it into practice. Read more

The guide uses a clear, straightforward step-by-step approach to show how marine spatial planning can be set up and applied toward achieving ecosystem-based management. Most steps are illustrated with relevant examples from the real world.

The guide aims at providing:

  • Understanding what marine spatial planning is about
  • Insight in the consecutive steps and tasks of setting up a successful marine spatial planning initiative that can help achieving ecosystem-based management
  • Awareness of what has worked and what has not in marine spatial planning practice around the world

The 10 steps for marine spatial planning include:

Step 1 Defining need and establishing authority
Step 2 Obtaining financial support
Step 3 Organizing the process (pre-planning)
Step 4 Organizing stakeholder participation
Step 5 Defining and analyzing existing conditions
Step 6 Defining and analyzing future conditions
Step 7 Developing and approving the spatial management plan
Step 8 Implementing and enforcing the spatial management plan
Step 9 Monitoring and evaluating performance
Step 10 Adapting the marine spatial management process

Is the Montreal Protocol a model that can help solve the global marine plastic debris problem?

Raubenheimer K, McIlgorm A. Is the Montreal Protocol a model that can help solve the global marine plastic debris problem?. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2017 ;81:322 - 329. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16307096
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The impacts of plastic debris on the marine environment have gained the attention of the global community. Although the plastic debris problem presents in the oceans, the failure to control land-based plastic waste is the primary cause of these marine environmental impacts. Plastics in the ocean are mainly a land policy issue, yet the regulation of marine plastic debris from land-based sources is a substantial gap within the international policy framework. Regulating different plastics at the final product level is difficult to implement. Instead, the Montreal Protocol may serve as a model to protect the global ocean common, by reducing the production of virgin material within the plastics industry and by regulating both the polymers and chemical additives as controlled substances at a global level. Similar to the Montreal Protocol, national production and consumption of this virgin content can be calculated, providing an opportunity for the introduction of phased targets to reduce and eliminate the agreed substances to be controlled. The international trade of feedstock materials that do not meet the agreed minimum standards can be restricted. The aim of such an agreement would be to encourage private investment in the collection, sorting and recycling of post-consumer material for reuse as feedstock, thereby contributing to the circular economy. The proposed model is not without its challenges, particularly when calculating costs and benefits, but is worthy of further consideration by the international community in the face of the global threats posed to the ocean by plastics.

Drivers of coral reef marine protected area performance

Hargreaves-Allen VAlexa, Mourato S, Milner-Gulland EJane. Drivers of coral reef marine protected area performance Ferse SCA. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2017 ;12(6):e0179394. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0179394
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Coral reefs are severely threatened and a principal strategy for their conservation is marine protected areas (MPAs). However the drivers of MPA performance are complex and there are likely to be trade-offs between different types of performance (e.g. conservation or welfare related outcomes). We compiled a global dataset from expert knowledge for 76 coral reef MPAs in 33 countries and identified a set of performance measures reflecting ecological and socio-economic outcomes, achievement of aims and reduction of threats, using spatial or temporal comparisons wherever possible. We wanted to test the extent to which distinct types of performance occurred simultaneously, understood as win-win outcomes. Although certain performance measures were correlated, most were not, suggesting trade-offs that limit the usefulness of composite performance scores. Hypotheses were generated as to the impact of MPA features, aims, location, management and contextual variables on MPA performance from the literature. A multivariate analysis was used to test hypotheses as to the relative importance of these “drivers” on eight uncorrelated performance measures. The analysis supported some hypotheses (e.g. benefit provision for the local community improved performance), but not others (e.g. higher overall budget and more research activity did not). Factors endogenous to the MPA (such as size of the no-take area) were generally more significant drivers of performance than exogenous ones (such as national GDP). Different types of performance were associated with different drivers, exposing the trade-offs inherent in management decisions. The study suggests that managers are able to influence MPA performance in spite of external threats and could inform adaptive management by providing an approach to test for the effects of MPA features and management actions in different contexts and so to inform decisions for allocation of effort or funds to achieve specific goals.

Fisheries assessment within the Gulf of Mexico Large Marine Ecosystem

Jiménez-Badillo L, Galindo-Cortes G, Meiners-Mandujano C. Fisheries assessment within the Gulf of Mexico Large Marine Ecosystem. Environmental Development [Internet]. 2017 ;22:63 - 70. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211464516302445
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Journal Article

The status of main fisheries along the Mexican portion of the Gulf of Mexico Large Marine Ecosystem (GoM-LME) was assessed considering the resources’ most relevant aspects, the fisheries fleet, the fisheries market and the problems that they currently face, with the aim of increasing the stakeholders knowledge, to move towards the implementation of an ecosystem management approach in the region. Several recommendations are made for improving the recovery and sustainability of GoM-LME fisheries. With regard to the tuna fishery, the fishery status is completely exploited. Northern brown shrimp and Atlantic seabob fisheries are within the maximum sustainable yield level, whereas the status of northern pink, red-spotted shrimp and brown rock shrimp fisheries are considered as deteriorated. Striped and white mullet fisheries are completely exploited as well as that of shark and skates. The snook fishery is exploited to the maximum sustainable level. Several initiatives are presented based on an ecosystem approach that has been generated to reinforce traditional management plans in order to avoid further deterioration of these resources. Some economic alternatives are identified to increase the profitability of the fisheries of the GoM-LME along the Mexican coast.

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