Literature Library

Currently indexing 6491 titles

ICAN - Best Practice Guide to Engage your Coastal Web Atlas User Community

Kopke K, Dwyer N eds. ICAN - Best Practice Guide to Engage your Coastal Web Atlas User Community. Paris: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO; 2016 p. 35 pp. Available from: http://www.iode.org/index.php?option=com_oe&task=viewDocumentRecord&docID=18262
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

The long-term strategic goal of the IODE ICAN (International Coastal Atlas Network) project is to encourage and help facilitate the development of digital atlases of the global coast based on the principle of distributed, high-quality data and information. These atlases can be local, regional, national and international in scale. ICAN aims to achieve this by sharing knowledge and experience among atlas developers in order to find common solutions for coastal web atlas development whilst ensuring maximum relevance and added value for the users.

User interactions between CWA developers and hosts and their target audiences have been explored since the beginning of the ICAN project, through workshops, and practically through the development of the various atlases by the membership of ICAN. We believe that the wealth of experience gained within ICAN should be made available to new and existing atlas developers in order to provide practical guidance on how best to interact with atlas audiences.

This hand book was compiled by gathering information from ten atlas developers as well as extracting relevant information from ICAN workshop reports. This information is summarised and analysed here leading to two sets of recommendations, one focused on the development of new atlases and the other focused on how to maintain interactions with audiences of already developed atlases. The handbook will therefore allow both new and established CWA developers and hosts to benefit from best practice examples as well as learn from mistakes made in the past, in order to increase capacity to successfully interact with user communities and target audiences, while managing coastal and marine data and information in a user friendly way. The final product is a resource that hopes to complement and link to a variety of OceanTeacher activities, support IODE training in courses, and it will be made available within the OceanTeacher Digital Library, thereby being of value to all who manage and present marine data and information.

Going deep for lionfish: designs for two new traps for capturing lionfish in deep water

Gittings SR, Fogg AQ, Frank S, Hart JV, Clark A, Clark B, Noakes SE, R. Fortner L. Going deep for lionfish: designs for two new traps for capturing lionfish in deep water. Silver Spring, MD: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries; 2017 p. 9 pp. Available from: http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/science/conservation/lionfish-trap-guide.html
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

While sustained removals of lionfish in shallow water can limit the impacts of these invasive species in certain locations, devices conceived for deep water control have not yet proven effective. Two new trap designs are presented that can target lionfish in deep water and reduce negative effects on native species that are ecologically, recreationally, or commercially important. The traps may also support efforts to meet the increasing demand for lionfish in the seafood market. The proposed designs have structural components that provide vertical relief to attract lionfish, and low profile frames that remain open during deployment. They have several benefits over conventional fish traps, including high attraction rates for lionfish, limited or no by-catch, no mortality from containment during the soak period, no bait to attract non-targeted species, no potential for ghost fishing, and easy portability on a fishing vessel.

Predatory fish depletion and recovery potential on Caribbean reefs

Valdivia A, Cox CEllen, Bruno JFrancis. Predatory fish depletion and recovery potential on Caribbean reefs. Science Advances [Internet]. 2017 ;3(3):e1601303. Available from: http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/3/e1601303
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The natural, prehuman abundance of most large predators is unknown because of the lack of historical data and a limited understanding of the natural factors that control their populations. Determining the supportable predator biomass at a given location (that is, the predator carrying capacity) would help managers to optimize protection and would provide site-specific recovery goals. We assess the relationship between predatory reef fish biomass and several anthropogenic and environmental variables at 39 reefs across the Caribbean to (i) estimate their roles determining local predator biomass and (ii) determine site-specific recovery potential if fishing was eliminated. We show that predatory reef fish biomass tends to be higher in marine reserves but is strongly negatively related to human activities, especially coastal development. However, human activities and natural factors, including reef complexity and prey abundance, explain more than 50% of the spatial variation in predator biomass. Comparing site-specific predator carrying capacities to field observations, we infer that current predatory reef fish biomass is 60 to 90% lower than the potential supportable biomass in most sites, even within most marine reserves. We also found that the scope for recovery varies among reefs by at least an order of magnitude. This suggests that we could underestimate unfished biomass at sites that provide ideal conditions for predators or greatly overestimate that of seemingly predator-depleted sites that may have never supported large predator populations because of suboptimal environmental conditions.

Designing coastal conservation to deliver ecosystem and human well-being benefits

Annis GM, Pearsall DR, Kahl KJ, Washburn EL, May CA, Taylor RFranks, Cole JB, Ewert DN, Game ET, Doran PJ. Designing coastal conservation to deliver ecosystem and human well-being benefits. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2017 ;12(2):e0172458. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0172458
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Conservation scientists increasingly recognize that incorporating human values into conservation planning increases the chances for success by garnering broader project acceptance. However, methods for defining quantitative targets for the spatial representation of human well-being priorities are less developed. In this study we employ an approach for identifying regionally important human values and establishing specific spatial targets for their representation based on stakeholder outreach. Our primary objective was to develop a spatially-explicit conservation plan that identifies the most efficient locations for conservation actions to meet ecological goals while sustaining or enhancing human well-being values within the coastal and nearshore areas of the western Lake Erie basin (WLEB). We conducted an optimization analysis using 26 features representing ecological and human well-being priorities (13 of each), and included seven cost layers. The influence that including human well-being had on project results was tested by running five scenarios and setting targets for human well-being at different levels in each scenario. The most important areas for conservation to achieve multiple goals are clustered along the coast, reflecting a concentration of existing or potentially restorable coastal wetlands, coastal landbird stopover habitat and terrestrial biodiversity, as well as important recreational activities. Inland important areas tended to cluster around trails and high quality inland landbird stopover habitat. Most concentrated areas of importance also are centered on lands that are already conserved, reflecting the lower costs and higher benefits of enlarging these conserved areas rather than conserving isolated, dispersed areas. Including human well-being features in the analysis only influenced the solution at the highest target levels.

Public Opinion on Marine Protected Areas

Anon. Public Opinion on Marine Protected Areas. Toronto: World Wildlife Fund Canada; 2016. Available from: http://awsassets.wwf.ca/downloads/wwf_environics_report_final_feb2017.pdf?_ga=1.70232976.1264700562.1478615786
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

In 2016, WWF-Canada commissioned a survey from Environics Research to find out more about Canadians’ opinions about marine protected areas. The following results are based on a survey conducted with a sample of 1,655 Canadians (aged 18 and over) from September 27 to October 7, 2016. 

Rapid and direct recoveries of predators and prey through synchronized ecosystem management

Samhouri JF, Stier AC, Hennessey SM, Novak M, Halpern BS, Levin PS. Rapid and direct recoveries of predators and prey through synchronized ecosystem management. Nature Ecology & Evolution [Internet]. 2017 ;1:0068. Available from: http://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-016-0068
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

One of the twenty-first century’s greatest environmental challenges is to recover and restore species, habitats and ecosystems. The decision about how to initiate restoration is best-informed by an understanding of the linkages between ecosystem components and, given these linkages, an appreciation of the consequences of choosing to recover one ecosystem component before another. However, it remains difficult to predict how the sequence of species’ recoveries within food webs influences the speed and trajectory of restoration, and what that means for human well-being. Here, we develop theory to consider the ecological and social implications of synchronous versus sequential (species-by-species) recovery in the context of exploited food webs. A dynamical systems model demonstrates that synchronous recovery of predators and prey is almost always more efficient than sequential recovery. Compared with sequential recovery, synchronous recovery can be twice as fast and produce transient fluctuations of much lower amplitude. A predator-first strategy is particularly slow because it counterproductively suppresses prey recovery. An analysis of real-world predator–prey recoveries shows that synchronous and sequential recoveries are similarly common, suggesting that current practices are not ideal. We highlight policy tools that can facilitate swift and steady recovery of ecosystem structure, function and associated services.

Fertilization and connectivity in the Garrucha Canyon (SE-Spain) implications for Marine Spatial Planning

Muñoz M, Reul A, Vargas-Yáñez M, Plaza F, Bautista B, García-Martínez MC, Moya F, Gómez-Moreno M-L, Fernandes JA, Rodríguez V. Fertilization and connectivity in the Garrucha Canyon (SE-Spain) implications for Marine Spatial Planning. Marine Environmental Research [Internet]. 2017 ;126:45 - 68. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141113616302458
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Marine Spatial Planning is usually based on benthic georeferenced information or GPS tracked human activities, whereas the pelagic ecosystem is often ignored because of scarce and limited surface information. However, the 3-D pelagic ecosystem plays a key role connecting all the other ecosystems by physical (currents) and biological (migration) processes. According to remote sensing the Garrucha Canyon is oligotrophic, but 3-D sampling reveals subsurface upwelling, and converts it into the richest area around the Cape of Gata. Vertical connectivity by means of zooplankton migration, measured at two sampling stations, is 40 and 220 times faster than microphytoplankton settling and vertical water velocities respectively. Thus coupled physical-biological connectivity models are necessary to estimate the ecosystem connection and the fate of carbon, but also other substances (e.g. radioactivity), that might accumulate throughout the food-web. This is especially important in the Garrucha Canyon and the Coastal Areas Management Programme Levante de Almería where natural heritage and extractive fishery are important for the local economy.

Spatial distribution of environmental DNA in a nearshore marine habitat

O’Donnell JL, Kelly RP, Shelton AOlaf, Samhouri JF, Lowell NC, Williams GD. Spatial distribution of environmental DNA in a nearshore marine habitat. PeerJ [Internet]. 2017 ;5:e3044. Available from: https://peerj.com/articles/3044/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In the face of increasing threats to biodiversity, the advancement of methods for surveying biological communities is a major priority for ecologists. Recent advances in molecular biological technologies have made it possible to detect and sequence DNA from environmental samples (environmental DNA or eDNA); however, eDNA techniques have not yet seen widespread adoption as a routine method for biological surveillance primarily due to gaps in our understanding of the dynamics of eDNA in space and time. In order to identify the effective spatial scale of this approach in a dynamic marine environment, we collected marine surface water samples from transects ranging from the intertidal zone to four kilometers from shore. Using PCR primers that target a diverse assemblage of metazoans, we amplified a region of mitochondrial 16S rDNA from the samples and sequenced the products on an Illumina platform in order to detect communities and quantify their spatial patterns using a variety of statistical tools. We find evidence for multiple, discrete eDNA communities in this habitat, and show that these communities decrease in similarity as they become further apart. Offshore communities tend to be richer but less even than those inshore, though diversity was not spatially autocorrelated. Taxon-specific relative abundance coincided with our expectations of spatial distribution in taxa lacking a microscopic, pelagic life-history stage, though most of the taxa detected do not meet these criteria. Finally, we use carefully replicated laboratory procedures to show that laboratory treatments were remarkably similar in most cases, while allowing us to detect a faulty replicate, emphasizing the importance of replication to metabarcoding studies. While there is much work to be done before eDNA techniques can be confidently deployed as a standard method for ecological monitoring, this study serves as a first analysis of diversity at the fine spatial scales relevant to marine ecologists and confirms the promise of eDNA in dynamic environments.

The Global View of Transshipment: Preliminary Findings

Anon. The Global View of Transshipment: Preliminary Findings. Global Fishing Watch; 2017. Available from: http://globalfishingwatch.org/data
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Transshipment at sea, the offloading of catch from a fishing vessel to a refrigerated cargo vessel far from port, obscures the actual source of the catch and is a significant pathway for illegally caught fish to enter the legitimate seafood market. Occurring out of sight and over the horizon, the practice enables other nefarious activity, ranging from smuggling to human trafficking. Increasing the transparency of transshipment could improve fisheries management and reduce human rights abuses.

To address this gap in transparency, SkyTruth and Global Fishing Watch analyzed over 21 billion positional Automatic Information System (AIS) messages from ocean-going vessels between 2012 and 2016, and we identified and tracked an estimated 90 percent of the world’s refrigerated cargo ships (reefers). We mapped 86,490 instances in which these reefers exhibited rendezvous behaviors at sea for long enough to receive a transshipment, events that we call “potential transshipments,” and 5,065 instances where we see a fishing vessel rendezvousing with the reefer, events we call “likely transshipments.” We considered only events that occurred at sea, ignoring transshipments at port, which are generally less of a management challenge. 

Acoustically monitoring the Hawai‘i longline fishery for interactions with false killer whales

Bayless AR, Oleson EM, Baumann-Pickering S, Simonis AE, Marchetti J, Martin S, Wiggins SM. Acoustically monitoring the Hawai‘i longline fishery for interactions with false killer whales. Fisheries Research [Internet]. 2017 ;190:122 - 131. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783617300346
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

False killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) feed primarily on several species of large pelagic fish, species that are also targeted by the Hawai‘i-permitted commercial deep-set longline fishery. False killer whales have been known to approach fishing lines in an attempt to procure bait or catch from the lines, a behavior known as depredation. This behavior can lead to the hooking or entanglement of an animal, which currently exceeds sustainable levels for pelagic false killer whales in Hawai‘i. Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) was used to record false killer whales near longline fishing gear to investigate the timing, rate, and spatial extent of false killer whale occurrence. Acoustic data were collected using small autonomous recorders modified for deployment on the mainline of longline fishing gear. A total of 90 fishing sets were acoustically monitored in 2013 and 2014 on a chartered longline vessel using up to five acoustic recorders deployed throughout the fishing gear. Of the 102 odontocete click and/or whistle bouts detected on 55 sets, 26 bouts detected on 19 different fishing sets were classified as false killer whales with high or medium confidence based on either whistle classification, click classification, or both. The timing of false killer whale acoustic presence near the gear was related to the timing of fishing activities, with 57% of the false killer whale bouts occurring while gear was being hauled, with 50% of those bouts occurring during the first third of the haul. During three fishing sets, false killer whales were detected on more than one recorder, and in all cases the whales were recorded on instruments farther from the fishing vessel as the haul proceeded. Only three of the 19 sets with acoustically-confirmed false killer whale presence showed signs of bait or catch damage by marine mammals, which may relate to the difficulty of reporting depredation. PAM has proven to be a relatively inexpensive and efficient method for monitoring the Hawai‘i longline fishery for interactions with false killer whales.

Development of a model to simulate groundwater inundation induced by sea-level rise and high tides in Honolulu, Hawaii

Habel S, Fletcher CH, Rotzoll K, El-Kadi AI. Development of a model to simulate groundwater inundation induced by sea-level rise and high tides in Honolulu, Hawaii. Water Research [Internet]. 2017 ;114:122 - 134. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135417301276
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Many of the world's largest cities face risk of sea-level rise (SLR) induced flooding owing to their limited elevations and proximities to the coastline. Within this century, global mean sea level is expected to reach magnitudes that will exceed the ground elevation of some built infrastructure. The concurrent rise of coastal groundwater will produce additional sources of inundation resulting from narrowing and loss of the vertical unsaturated subsurface space. This has implications for the dense network of buried and low-lying infrastructure that exists across urban coastal zones.

Here, we describe a modeling approach that simulates narrowing of the unsaturated space and groundwater inundation (GWI) generated by SLR-induced lifting of coastal groundwater. The methodology combines terrain modeling, groundwater monitoring, estimation of tidal influence, and numerical groundwater-flow modeling to simulate future flood scenarios considering user-specified tide stages and magnitudes of SLR.

We illustrate the value of the methodology by applying it to the heavily urbanized and low-lying Waikiki area of Honolulu, Hawaii. Results indicate that SLR of nearly 1 m generates GWI across 23% of the 13 km2 study area, threatening $5 billion of taxable real estate and 48 km of roadway. Analysis of current conditions reveals that 86% of 259 active cesspool sites in the study area are likely inundated. This suggests that cesspool effluent is currently entering coastal groundwater, which not only leads to degradation of coastal environments, but also presents a future threat to public health as GWI would introduce effluent at the ground surface.

Introducing ocean energy industries to a busy marine environment

Hammar L, Gullström M, Dahlgren TG, Asplund ME, Goncalves IBraga, Molander S. Introducing ocean energy industries to a busy marine environment. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews [Internet]. 2017 ;74:178 - 185. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032117301090
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $37.95
Type: Journal Article

The immense energy potential of the oceans is being increasingly recognized the world over, at the same time the integrity of marine ecosystems is challenged by pressure from multiple human activities. For good reasons environmental licensing procedures are precautionary and new industries must declare their detrimental impacts and provide mitigation measures. New ocean energy industries target renewable energy sources thus, on a grand scale, partly mitigating climate change. However, on-site environmental impacts are yet to be established. In this review we compare ocean energy industries with a wide range of conventional, better understood, human activities and outline environmental risks and research priorities. Results show that ocean energy systems are thought to incur many pressures, some familiar and others with yet unknown effects. Particular uncertainties regard ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) and large fast-moving turbines. Ocean energy industries should not be considered in isolation because the significance of environmental impacts depend on the full spectra of human activities in each area. Marine spatial planning provides a platform for holistic assessments and may facilitate the establishment of ocean energy industries, as long as risk-related uncertainties are reduced.

Spatial-temporal changes of coastal and marine disasters risks and impacts in Mainland China

Fang J, Liu W, Yang S, Brown S, Nicholls RJ, Hinkel J, Shi X, Shi P. Spatial-temporal changes of coastal and marine disasters risks and impacts in Mainland China. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;139:125 - 140. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117301084
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

China is amongst the countries most severely affected by coastal and marine disasters. In this study, the annual variation and geographic distribution of the direct economic losses and fatalities caused by rapid-onset coastal and marine disasters in China have been analysed. This was based on a collection of historical documents and official records. The five main hazards include storm surges, rough seas, sea ice, red tides and green tides. The results show that: (1) Storm surges caused the most economic losses (92% of the total); (2) At national scale, direct economic losses induced by coastal and marine disasters fluctuated with no clear trend; the number of fatalities per year declined, and in relative terms both economic losses and fatalities decreased dramatically throughout time; (3) Substantial heterogeneity exists across the 11 provincial-level administrative regions in terms of the spatial pattern and temporal trends of coastal and marine hazards, exposure, vulnerability and observed impacts. Guangzhou, Fujian, Zhejiang and Hainan provinces experienced the highest direct economic losses and fatalities due to repeated typhoon-induced storm surges. The decline in adverse impacts caused by hazards is due to substantial progress in coastal and marine disaster prevention and migration in China, largely thanks to institutional measures, plus adaptation and mitigation actions at both national and regional levels. Coastal China still faces growing risks due to socio-economic development, climate change, as well as subsidence and new emerging marine disasters (e.g. green tides). Further management needs to promote integrated solutions across socio-economic development, disaster risk reduction and environmental conservation in coastal regions. This should happen at national and international levels as disasters can affect neighboring countries, and their marine environments and socio-ecological systems. Lessons may be learnt from countries experiencing similar problems over the long-term.

Floating macro-litter along the Mediterranean French coast: Composition, density, distribution and overlap with cetacean range

Di-Méglio N, Campana I. Floating macro-litter along the Mediterranean French coast: Composition, density, distribution and overlap with cetacean range. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X17301418
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

This study investigated the composition, density and distribution of floating macro-litter along the Liguro-Provençal basin with respect to cetaceans presence. Survey transects were performed in summer between 2006 and 2015 from sailing vessels with simultaneous cetaceans observations. During 5171 km travelled, 1993 floating items were recorded, widespread in the whole study area. Plastics was the predominant category, with bags/packaging always representing > 45% of total items. Overall mean density (14.98 items/km2) was stable with significant increase reported only in 2010–2011; monthly analysis showed lower litter densities in July–September, suggesting possible seasonal patterns. Kernel density estimation for plastics revealed ubiquitous distribution rather than high accumulation areas, mainly due to the circulation dynamics of this area. The presence range of cetaceans (259 sightings, 6 species) corresponded by ~ 50% with plastic distribution, indicating high potential of interaction, especially in the eastern part of the area, but effective risks for marine species might be underrepresented.

Philopatry and Regional Connectivity of the Great Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna mokarran in the U.S. and Bahamas

Guttridge TL, Bergmann MPMVan, Bolte C, Howey LA, Finger JS, Kessel ST, Brooks JL, Winram W, Bond ME, Jordan LKB, et al. Philopatry and Regional Connectivity of the Great Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna mokarran in the U.S. and Bahamas. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2017 ;4. Available from: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2017.00003/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

A thorough understanding of movement patterns of a species is critical for designing effective conservation and management initiatives. However, generating such information for large marine vertebrates is challenging, as they typically move over long distances, live in concealing environments, are logistically difficult to capture and, as upper-trophic predators, are naturally low in abundance. Large-bodied, broadly distributed tropical shark typically restricted to coastal and shelf habitats, the great hammerhead shark Sphyrna mokarran epitomizes such challenges. Highly valued for its fins (in target and incidental fisheries), it suffers high bycatch mortality coupled with fecundity conservative life history, and as a result, is vulnerable to over-exploitation and population depletion. Although there are very little species-specific data available, the absence of recent catch records give cause to suspect substantial declines across its range. Here, we used biotelemetry techniques (acoustic and satellite), conventional tagging, laser-photogrammetry, and photo-identification to investigate the level of site fidelity/residency for great hammerheads to coastal areas in the Bahamas and U.S., and the extent of movements and connectivity of great hammerheads between the U.S. and Bahamas. Results revealed large-scale return migrations (3030 km), seasonal residency to local areas (some for 5 months), site fidelity (annual return to Bimini and Jupiter for many individuals) and numerous international movements. These findings enhance the understanding of movement ecology in great hammerhead sharks and have potential to contribute to improved conservation and management.

Ocean Watch Howe Sound Edition

Day A, Bodtker K. Ocean Watch Howe Sound Edition. Coastal Ocean Research Institute; 2017. Available from: http://oceanwatch.ca/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
Yes
Type: Report

Howe Sound is a remarkable blend of wilderness and accessibility. It sits directly adjacent to the growing metropolis of Vancouver, yet also contains fantastic wild places and natural recreational opportunities. With the population and development growing quickly, many are wondering how it can maintain its ecological values and way of life.

intro_map 11Nov-edited

Figure 1. The Howe Sound

This report provides information to help guide decisions as the area grows and changes. Working with scientists and other collaborators, we have produced a series of articles on key elements of Howe Sound (Figure 1).

These are grouped under seven themes, listed above in the navigation bar.  For each article subject, we produced a summary assessment rating, using four colours. While the assessment rating gives a quick snapshot, you can find out the whole story by going to the articles themselves. They are summarized on this site, and available as pdf downloads. Each article has information on why the subject is important, what is happening, and what people can do. 

Thank you for your interest in Howe Sound — it is a beautiful part of the world. We hope you find our information useful and inspiring. This is our first report and we look forward to your questions and suggestions on content and presentation. Our aim is to produce independent, credible, and well-presented information so that you are inspired to make better decisions for nature and people in Howe Sound.

Extreme oceanographic forcing and coastal response due to the 2015–2016 El Niño

Barnard PL, Hoover D, Hubbard DM, Snyder A, Ludka BC, Allan J, Kaminsky GM, Ruggiero P, Gallien TW, Gabel L, et al. Extreme oceanographic forcing and coastal response due to the 2015–2016 El Niño. Nature Communications [Internet]. 2017 ;8:14365. Available from: http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14365
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the dominant mode of interannual climate variability across the Pacific Ocean basin, with influence on the global climate. The two end members of the cycle, El Niño and La Niña, force anomalous oceanographic conditions and coastal response along the Pacific margin, exposing many heavily populated regions to increased coastal flooding and erosion hazards. However, a quantitative record of coastal impacts is spatially limited and temporally restricted to only the most recent events. Here we report on the oceanographic forcing and coastal response of the 2015–2016 El Niño, one of the strongest of the last 145 years. We show that winter wave energy equalled or exceeded measured historical maxima across the US West Coast, corresponding to anomalously large beach erosion across the region. Shorelines in many areas retreated beyond previously measured landward extremes, particularly along the sediment-starved California coast.

Virus–host interactions and their roles in coral reef health and disease

Thurber RVega, Payet JP, Thurber AR, Correa AMS. Virus–host interactions and their roles in coral reef health and disease. Nature Reviews Microbiology [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nrmicro.2016.176.html
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $32.00
Type: Journal Article

Coral reefs occur in nutrient-poor shallow waters, constitute biodiversity and productivity hotspots, and are threatened by anthropogenic disturbance. This Review provides an introduction to coral reef virology and emphasizes the links between viruses, coral mortality and reef ecosystem decline. We describe the distinctive benthic-associated and water-column- associated viromes that are unique to coral reefs, which have received less attention than viruses in open-ocean systems. We hypothesize that viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes dynamically interact with their hosts in the water column and with scleractinian (stony) corals to influence microbial community dynamics, coral bleaching and disease, and reef biogeochemical cycling. Last, we outline how marine viruses are an integral part of the reef system and suggest that the influence of viruses on reef function is an essential component of these globally important environments.

Does full protection count for the maintenance of β-diversity patterns in marine communities? Evidence from Mediterranean fish assemblages

Appolloni L, Bevilacqua S, Sbrescia L, Sandulli R, Terlizzi A, Russo GFulvio. Does full protection count for the maintenance of β-diversity patterns in marine communities? Evidence from Mediterranean fish assemblages. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/aqc.2750/full
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

1. Although it is widely recognized that protection may enhance size, abundance, and diversity of fish, its effect on spatial heterogeneity of fish assemblages and species turnover is still poorly understood.

2. Here the effect of full protection within a Mediterranean marine protected area on β‐diversity patterns of fish assemblages along a depth gradient comparing a no‐take zone with multiple unprotected areas is explored. The no‐take zone showed significantly higher synecological parameters, higher β‐diversity among depths, and lower small‐scale heterogeneity of fish assemblages relative to unprotected areas.

3. Such patterns might likely depend on the high level of fishing pressure outside the no‐take zone, as also abundance‐biomass curves seemed to indicate. Results suggested that full protection could play a role in maintaining high β‐diversity, thus reducing the fragility of marine communities and ecosystems, and spatial heterogeneity may represent a reliable predictor of how management actions could provide insurance against undesirable phase shifts.

Bleaching drives collapse in reef carbonate budgets and reef growth potential on southern Maldives reefs

Perry CT, Morgan KM. Bleaching drives collapse in reef carbonate budgets and reef growth potential on southern Maldives reefs. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2017 ;7:40581. Available from: http://www.nature.com/articles/srep40581
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Sea-surface temperature (SST) warming events, which are projected to increase in frequency and intensity with climate change, represent major threats to coral reefs. How these events impact reef carbonate budgets, and thus the capacity of reefs to sustain vertical growth under rising sea levels, remains poorly quantified. Here we quantify the magnitude of changes that followed the ENSO-induced SST warming that affected the Indian Ocean region in mid-2016. Resultant coral bleaching caused an average 75% reduction in coral cover (present mean 6.2%). Most critically we report major declines in shallow fore-reef carbonate budgets, these shifting from strongly net positive (mean 5.92 G, where G = kg CaCO3 m−2 yr−1) to strongly net negative (mean −2.96 G). These changes have driven major reductions in reef growth potential, which have declined from an average 4.2 to −0.4 mm yr−1. Thus these shallow fore-reef habitats are now in a phase of net erosion. Based on past bleaching recovery trajectories, and predicted increases in bleaching frequency, we predict a prolonged period of suppressed budget and reef growth states. This will limit reef capacity to track IPCC projections of sea-level rise, thus limiting the natural breakwater capacity of these reefs and threatening reef island stability.

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