A Comprehensive Review of Blue-Green Infrastructure Concepts
Climate change is expected to result in more intense and longer-lasting droughts and increase in the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall events. The combination of drought followed by intense rainfall increases the risk of severe flooding, with impacts on a range of natural and anthropogenic systems, including infrastructure (road washouts, damage to houses) and impacts on agriculture (soil erosion and loss of crops and livestock). Blue-Green Infrastructure (BGI) is an interconnected network of natural and designed landscape components, including water bodies and green and open spaces, which provide multiple functions such as: (i) water storage for irrigation and industry use, (ii) flood control, (iii) wetland areas for wildlife habitat or water purification, and many others. This paper provides a review of information on the impact of BGI on environments, particularly on water resources and vegetation. Efforts have been made to review the BGI development situation in different countries. Based on the research reviewed, the authors suggest the following as priorities for future research into the environmental impacts of BGI: determining the feasibility of BGI and determining the impacts of applying the BGI for major regions where there have been considerable nature-based recreation and tourism resources.