Climate Change, Ocean Acidification and Sponges: Bioeroding Sponges and the Future of Coral Reefs
Bioeroding sponges play a central role in carbonate cycling on corals reefs. They may respond differently to habitat deterioration than many other benthic invertebrates, because at some locations, their abundances increased after disturbance. We reviewed literature on these sponges in context of environmental change and provide meta-analyses at global level. A difficult taxonomy and scarce scientific expertise leave them inadequately studied, even though they are the best-known internal bioeroders. They are sheltered within the substrate they erode, appear to be comparatively resilient against environmental change and can have heat-resistant photosymbionts and ‘weedy’ traits, including multiple pathways to reproduce or disperse and fast growth and healing abilities. Especially temperature stress appears to disable calcifiers stronger than bioeroding sponges. Moreover, increases in bioeroding sponge abundances have been related to eutrophication and disturbances that led to coral mortality. Chemical sponge bioerosion is forecast to double with doubled partial pressure of carbon dioxide, but reduced substrate density may counteract this effect, as dominant sponges erode more in denser substrates. Case examples portray shifting impacts of bioeroding sponges with environmental change, with some reefs already being erosional. Most available data and the largest known species record are from the Caribbean. Data from the Coral Triangle and India are largely restricted to faunistic records. Red Sea, Japanese and cold-water reef bioeroding sponges are the least studied. We need more quality research on functions and interaction effects, about which we are still insufficiently informed. With many calcifiers increasingly failing and bioeroding sponges still doing well, at least at intermediate levels of local and global change, these sponges may continue to significantly affect coral reef carbonate budgets. This may transform them from valuable and necessary recyclers of calcium carbonate to problem organisms.
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