The sustainable worldwide offshore wind energy potential: A systematic review
The offshore wind industry is expanding rapidly around the world due to several factors enabling this source of renewable energy. Stronger wind resources in offshore areas, lack of social and geographical constraints related to onshore wind power, the evolution of technology, and increasing demand for electricity in coastal regions as a result of a massive increase in population are some of the factors favoring the use of wind energy. The assessment of the potential global capacity that considers the different economic, environmental, and social factors and the dynamics of market, policy, and technology are vital for estimating the competitiveness of offshore wind energy in the future energy profile. There are several studies and technical reports that evaluate the potential of offshore wind energy in different countries or regions. They used a different source of data, metrics, and quantitative approaches in appraising the potential offshore wind power capacity and its cost efficiency. The critical factors that have been considered are geographical, technical, economic, environmental, and social and market elements. This paper provides a systematic review for analyzing the studies that address the potential offshore wind energy around the world and published during the 2000–2016 period. This study highlights the key criteria for assessing the potential for offshore wind energy deployment and the related tools and methods.