Vertically distinct microbial communities in the Mariana and Kermadec trenches

Last modified: 
December 13, 2019 - 7:22pm
Type: Journal Article
Year of publication: 2018
Date published: 04/2018
Authors: Logan Peoples, Sierra Donaldson, Oladayo Osuntokun, Qing Xia, Alex Nelson, Jessica Blanton, Eric Allen, Matthew Church, Douglas Bartlett
Journal title: PLOS ONE
Volume: 13
Issue: 4
Pages: e0195102

Hadal trenches, oceanic locations deeper than 6,000 m, are thought to have distinct microbial communities compared to those at shallower depths due to high hydrostatic pressures, topographical funneling of organic matter, and biogeographical isolation. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that hadal trenches contain unique microbial biodiversity through analyses of the communities present in the bottom waters of the Kermadec and Mariana trenches. Estimates of microbial protein production indicate active populations under in situ hydrostatic pressures and increasing adaptation to pressure with depth. Depth, trench of collection, and size fraction are important drivers of microbial community structure. Many putative hadal bathytypes, such as members related to the MarinimicrobiaRhodobacteraceaeRhodospirilliceae, and Aquibacter, are similar to members identified in other trenches. Most of the differences between the two trench microbiomes consists of taxa belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria whose distributions extend throughout the water column. Growth and survival estimates of representative isolates of these taxa under deep-sea conditions suggest that some members may descend from shallower depths and exist as a potentially inactive fraction of the hadal zone. We conclude that the distinct pelagic communities residing in these two trenches, and perhaps by extension other trenches, reflect both cosmopolitan hadal bathytypes and ubiquitous genera found throughout the water column.

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