Implementing Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management: Lessons from Chile's experience
The Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management (EBFM) paradigm has been incorporated in the new Chilean Fisheries Act, requiring Chile to transition into EBFM. Chile is a major fishing nation and has substantial industrial and artisanal fleets that provide significant social and economic benefits to Chile and its coastal communities. With Chile facing global challenges, such as food security and climate change, transitioning to EBFM is seen as a mechanism for improved management of Chile's marine resources. Using Chile as an example to review coherence, strategies and implication of policies for transitioning toward EBFM. In Chile, the implementation of EBFM, in general, appears to be making progress and should be able to be applied for all fisheries (and aquaculture). Despite positive outcomes, there are weaknesses that can harm the successful implementation of EBFM. Changes such as management councils and scientific committees structured around ecosystems rather than single species, the engagement of broader types of stakeholders, and the use of appropriate reference points are necessary for a strong implementation of EBFM. Incorporating these modifications under the current management framework would enable Chile to improve its implementation of EBFM and prepare its fisheries to address future management challenges under scenarios of change.