Ecosystem-Based Approaches to Ocean Management in the United States: Weaving Together Multiple Strands

Last modified: 
January 7, 2019 - 3:05pm
Type: Book Chapter
Year of publication: 2018
Authors: David Fluharty
Publisher: Brill | Nijhoff
Book title: The Ecosystem Approach in Ocean Planning and Governance
Pages: 371 - 412
ISBN: 9789004389977

Principal approaches to ecosystem-based ocean management in the United States include five major strands: Legislation for EBM, Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management, Integrated Ecosystem Assessment, Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning and Marine Protected Areas. The presence of multiple strands of action is indicative of a lack of an agreed goal for what ecosystem-based management of the ocean is expected to achieve. It also leads to uncoordinated and sometimes competitive processes that are confusing to ocean users and observers. This paper identifies the principal evolving trends in ecosystem-based approaches in the federal arena in the United States in both sectoral and integrated regional approaches. How these emerging national policies work illustrates how such approaches are generally inadequate to implement EBM.

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