Human-Nature Relations in Flux: Two Decades of Research in Coastal and Ocean Management
The chapter departs from human-nature relations and interlinks changing approaches to integrated and sustainable coastal and ocean management. This paper reviews two decades of interdisciplinary research, 1996–2016. In hindsight, the review discovered an amazing change of focus, adapting to changing societal needs and scientific outlooks: from conflict resolution to governance issues, disaster management, eventually to linking social and ecological factors via typologies of coastal and marine social-ecological systems. Theoretical aspects are embedded and grounded in empirical case studies, taken from economically developed areas [high per capita gross domestic product (GDP) level] in temperate zones (Sweden and Germany) and from economically developing areas (intermediate per capita GDP level with significant incidence of poverty) in tropical zones (Indonesia). Eventually, the maturation of a field may be witnessed.