Dual wave farms for energy production and coastal protection under sea level rise
Climate change is poised to exacerbate coastal erosion. Recent research has presented a novel strategy to tackle this issue: dual wave farms, i.e., arrays of wave energy converters with the dual function of carbon-free energy generation and coastal erosion mitigation. However, the implications of sea level rise – another consequence of climate change – for the effectiveness of wave farms as coastal defence elements against shoreline erosion have not been studied so far. The objective of this work is to investigate how the coastal defence performance of a dual wave farm is affected by sea level rise through a case study (Playa Granada, southern Iberian Peninsula). To this end, a spectral wave propagation model, a longshore sediment transport formulation and a one-line model are combined to obtain the final subaerial beach areas for three sea level rise scenarios: the present situation, an optimistic and a pessimistic projection. These scenarios were modelled with and without the wave farm to assess its effects. We find that the dual wave farm reduces erosion and promotes accretion regardless of the sea level rise scenario considered. In the case of westerly storms, the dual wave farm is particularly effective: erosion is transformed into accretion. In general, and importantly, sea level rise strengthens the effectiveness of the dual wave farm as a coastal protection mechanism. This fact enhances the competitiveness of wave farms as coastal defence elements.