Blue carbon potential of coastal wetland restoration varies with inundation and rainfall
There is a growing interest in how the management of ‘blue carbon’ sequestered by coastal wetlands can influence global greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets. A promising intervention is through restoring tidal exchange to impounded coastal wetlands for reduced methane (CH4) emissions. We monitored an impounded wetland’s GHG flux (CO2 and CH4) prior to and following tidal reinstatement. We found that biogeochemical responses varied across an elevation gradient. The low elevation zone experienced a greater increase in water level and an associated greater marine transition in the sediment microbial community (16 S rRNA) than the high elevation zone. The low elevation zone’s GHG emissions had a reduced sustained global warming potential of 264 g m−2 yr−1 CO2-e over 100 years, and it increased to 351 g m−2 yr−1 with the removal of extreme rain events. However, emission benefits were achieved through a reduction in CO2 emissions, not CH4emissions. Overall, the wetland shifted from a prior CH4 sink (−0.07 to −1.74 g C m−2 yr−1) to a variable sink or source depending on the elevation site and rainfall. This highlights the need to consider a wetland’s initial GHG emissions, elevation and future rainfall trends when assessing the efficacy of tidal reinstatement for GHG emission control.