Scientific considerations for acidification monitoring in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Region
Coastal and ocean acidification has the potential to cause significant environmental and societal impacts. Monitoring carbonate chemistry parameters over spatial and temporal scales is challenging, especially with limited resources. A lack of monitoring data can lead to a limited understanding of real-world conditions. Without such data, robust experimental and model design is challenging, and the identification and understanding of episodic acidification events is nearly impossible. We present considerations for resource managers, academia, and industry professionals who are currently developing acidification monitoring programs in the Mid-Atlantic region. We highlight the following considerations for deliberation: 1) leverage existing infrastructure to include multiple carbonate chemistry parameters as well as other water quality measurements, 2) direct monitoring efforts in subsurface waters rather than limiting monitoring to surface waters, 3) identify the best available sensor technology for long-term, in-situ monitoring, 4) monitor across a salinity gradient to account for the complexity of estuarine, coastal, and ocean environments, and identify potential areas of enhanced vulnerability, 5) increase sampling frequency to capture variability, 6) consider other drivers (e.g., freshwater discharge, nutrients, physiochemical parameters) that may affect acidification, and 7) conduct or continue monitoring in specific ecological and general regions that may have enhanced vulnerability. Through the incorporation of these considerations, individual monitoring programs can more efficiently and effectively leverage resources and build partnerships for a more comprehensive data collection in the region. While these considerations focus on the Mid-Atlantic region), similar strategies can be used to leverage resources in other locations.
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