Winter storms accelerate the demise of sea ice in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic Ocean

Last modified: 
July 18, 2019 - 3:19pm
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Type: Journal Article
Year of publication: 2019
Date published: 06/2019
Authors: Robert Graham, Polona Itkin, Amelie Meyer, Arild Sundfjord, Gunnar Spreen, Lars Smedsrud, Glen Liston, Bin Cheng, Lana Cohen, Dmitry Divine, Ilker Fer, Agneta Fransson, Sebastian Gerland, Jari Haapala, Stephen Hudson, Malin Johansson, Jennifer King, Ioanna Merkouriadi, Algot Peterson, Christine Provost, Achim Randelhoff, Annette Rinke, Anja Rösel, Nathalie Sennéchael, Von Walden, Pedro Duarte, Philipp Assmy, Harald Steen, Mats Granskog
Journal title: Scientific Reports
Volume: 9
Issue: 1

A large retreat of sea-ice in the ‘stormy’ Atlantic Sector of the Arctic Ocean has become evident through a series of record minima for the winter maximum sea-ice extent since 2015. Results from the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition, a five-month-long (Jan-Jun) drifting ice station in first and second year pack-ice north of Svalbard, showcase how sea-ice in this region is frequently affected by passing winter storms. Here we synthesise the interdisciplinary N-ICE2015 dataset, including independent observations of the atmosphere, snow, sea-ice, ocean, and ecosystem. We build upon recent results and illustrate the different mechanisms through which winter storms impact the coupled Arctic sea-ice system. These short-lived and episodic synoptic-scale events transport pulses of heat and moisture into the Arctic, which temporarily reduce radiative cooling and henceforth ice growth. Cumulative snowfall from each sequential storm deepens the snow pack and insulates the sea-ice, further inhibiting ice growth throughout the remaining winter season. Strong winds fracture the ice cover, enhance ocean-ice-atmosphere heat fluxes, and make the ice more susceptible to lateral melt. In conclusion, the legacy of Arctic winter storms for sea-ice and the ice-associated ecosystem in the Atlantic Sector lasts far beyond their short lifespan.

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