Major Challenges to Conservation of Marine Resources and Sustainable Coastal Community Development in Malaysia
Marine protected areas (MPAs) in Malaysia are greatly constrained by a host of problems and challenges such as ineffective management, poor institutional capacity, limited enforcement, absence of awareness, and poor socioeconomic status (SES) which influence the conservation of marine resources. Environmental degradation is another issue, including anthropogenic activities, overexploitation of marine resources, water quality deterioration, massive waste generation, and climate changes. These are the main impediments to sustainable economic growth, social development, and conservation of natural resources. This chapter details the major hurdles to sustainable community development within MPAs in Malaysia. It would help policymakers resolve the problems associated with marine park management and take appropriate steps to preserve, conserve, and protect marine resources for sustainable community development.