New insights into the hydrogeology and groundwater flow in the Great Barrier Reef catchment, Australia, revealed through 3D modelling
The Great Barrier Reef catchment is located adjacent to the world's largest coral reef system, the Great Barrier Reef, in eastern Queensland, Australia.
This study characterized the geologic and hydrogeologic settings and evaluated the influence of regional faults on groundwater flow. 3D geological models of six regions within the catchment were constructed using drill-log data from >49,000 wells, digital elevation models and surface geological maps. The 3D models were then integrated with potentiometric surface maps and faults data to conceptualize the hydraulic relationships of aquifer units and estimate groundwater development potentials. Potentiometric surfaces and fault orientations were used to conceptualize groundwater flow directions.
New hydrological insights for the region
The 3D geological and hydrogeological characterizations revealed previously unknown faults and aquifer units in the study area. The study found that the central regions consisted of fractured and porous-unconfined aquifers, while confined aquifers, which extend to the coast and likely beyond, were also found in the northern and southern most regions. The orientations of the faults trended in NW-SE directions and could form conduits for south-easterly groundwater flow as opposed to the predominate easterly flow in the porous-unconfined and confined aquifers. The 3D models, aquifer connectivities and geometries provided crucial information to determine groundwater development potentials and offer a first step in developing local and regional groundwater flow and contaminant transport models.