Literature Library

Currently indexing 7623 titles

Recovery of critically endangered Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) in the Cayman Islands following targeted conservation actions

Waterhouse L, Heppell SA, Pattengill-Semmens CV, McCoy C, Bush P, Johnson BC, Semmens BX. Recovery of critically endangered Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) in the Cayman Islands following targeted conservation actions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2020 ;117(3):1587 - 1595. Available from: https://www.pnas.org/content/117/3/1587
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Many large-bodied marine fishes that form spawning aggregations, such as the Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus), have suffered regional overfishing due to exploitation during spawning. In response, marine resource managers in many locations have established marine protected areas or seasonal closures to recover these overfished stocks. The challenge in assessing management effectiveness lies largely in the development of accurate estimates to track stock size through time. For the past 15 y, the Cayman Islands government has taken a series of management actions aimed at recovering collapsed stocks of Nassau grouper. Importantly, the government also partnered with academic and nonprofit organizations to establish a research and monitoring program (Grouper Moon) aimed at documenting the impacts of conservation action. Here, we develop an integrated population model of 2 Cayman Nassau grouper stocks based on both diver-collected mark–resight observations and video censuses. Using both data types across multiple years, we fit parameters for a state–space model for population growth. We show that over the last 15 y the Nassau grouper population on Little Cayman has more than tripled in response to conservation efforts. Census data from Cayman Brac, while more sparse, show a similar pattern. These findings demonstrate that spatial and seasonal closures aimed at rebuilding aggregation-based fisheries can foster conservation success.

The Law of the Seabed

Banet C ed. The Law of the Seabed. Brill | Nijhoff; 2020. Available from: https://brill.com/view/title/54208
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book

The Law of the Seabed reviews the most pressing legal questions raised by the use and protection of natural resources on and underneath the world’s seabeds.

While barely accessible, the seabed plays a major role in the Earth’s ecological balance. It is both a medium and a resource, and is central to the blue economy. New uses and new knowledge about seabed ecosystems, and the risks of disputes due to competing interests, urge reflection on which regulatory approaches to pursue.

The regulation of ocean activities is essentially sector-based, and the book puts in parallel the international and national regimes for seabed mining, oil and gas, energy generation, bottom fisheries, marine genetic resources, carbon sequestration and maritime security operations, both within and beyond the national jurisdiction.

The book contains seven parts respectively addressing the definition of the seabed from a multidisciplinary perspective, the principles of jurisdiction delimitation under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the regimes for use of non-living, living and marine biodiversity resources, the role of state and non-state actors, the laying and removal of installations, the principles for sustainable and equitable use (common heritage of mankind, precaution, benefit sharing), and management tools to ensure coexistence between activities as well as the protection of the marine environment.

Physical Assessment of Marine Debris Along the Coast of Brunei Darussalam

Qaisrani ZNaeem, Shams S, Zhenren G, Asadullah , Techato K. Physical Assessment of Marine Debris Along the Coast of Brunei Darussalam. Journal of Applied and Emerging Sciences. 2019 :144 - 152.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Debris along coastlines is a global issue as it affects ecosystem, human health, tourism and economy; thus, requires more attention from town planners, policy makers and researchers. Various studies have been conducted around the world to identify and quantify the debris, its sources and mitigation strategies; however, it is a pioneer study of its kind in Brunei Darussalam. The current study involves selection of different beaches, debris collection and its physical analysis. Brunei Darussalam has 161 km long coast along South China Sea and the debris was collected from four different beaches in the month of May considering different sources related to anthropogenic, riverine and sea- based activities. The selected areas for study were 110x30 m2 and collected samples were categorized by number, weight, size and colour. By number, large amount of plastic (91.46%) was found on all four beaches followed by miscellaneous materials. As, the most abundant type of debris was plastic, hence it was further classified on the basis of size and colour. Most of the materials found on these beaches were the result from land based human activities, but the contribution of debris through the waterways is also significant.

Editorial: Connecting People to Their Oceans: Issues and Options for Effective Ocean Literacy

Borja A, Santoro F, Scowcroft G, Fletcher S, Strosser P. Editorial: Connecting People to Their Oceans: Issues and Options for Effective Ocean Literacy. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00837/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

While there is a growing understanding of theimportance of marine ecosystems for society (Selig et al., 2019), evidence shows that pressures from human activities on these ecosystems are increasing (Korpinen and Andersen, 2016; Lotze et al., 2018), putting the health of marine ecosystems at risk worldwide (Borja et al., 2016). In particular, Sustainable Blue Economy ambitions are becoming an important component of national socio-economic development strategies (e.g., this is called Blue Growth in Europe; Eikeset et al., 2018). This can result in increasing pressures on marine and coastal ecosystems if this development is not designed and implemented with care. Thus, despite current regulatory framework across the globe (illustrated inter alia by the Oceans Act in the USA or Canada and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in Europe; Borja et al., 2008), it is likely that this challenging situation will continue into the future (Golden et al., 2017).

Video Image Enhancement and Machine Learning Pipeline for Underwater Animal Detection and Classification at Cabled Observatories

-Vazquez L, -Guede L, Marini , Fanelli , Johnsen , Aguzzi . Video Image Enhancement and Machine Learning Pipeline for Underwater Animal Detection and Classification at Cabled Observatories. Sensors [Internet]. 2020 ;20(3):726. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/20/3/726
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

An understanding of marine ecosystems and their biodiversity is relevant to sustainable use of the goods and services they offer. Since marine areas host complex ecosystems, it is important to develop spatially widespread monitoring networks capable of providing large amounts of multiparametric information, encompassing both biotic and abiotic variables, and describing the ecological dynamics of the observed species. In this context, imaging devices are valuable tools that complement other biological and oceanographic monitoring devices. Nevertheless, large amounts of images or movies cannot all be manually processed, and autonomous routines for recognizing the relevant content, classification, and tagging are urgently needed. In this work, we propose a pipeline for the analysis of visual data that integrates video/image annotation tools for defining, training, and validation of datasets with video/image enhancement and machine and deep learning approaches. Such a pipeline is required to achieve good performance in the recognition and classification tasks of mobile and sessile megafauna, in order to obtain integrated information on spatial distribution and temporal dynamics. A prototype implementation of the analysis pipeline is provided in the context of deep-sea videos taken by one of the fixed cameras at the LoVe Ocean Observatory network of Lofoten Islands (Norway) at 260 m depth, in the Barents Sea, which has shown good classification results on an independent test dataset with an accuracy value of 76.18% and an area under the curve (AUC) value of 87.59%.

Marine resource congestion in China: Identifying, measuring, and assessing its impact on sustainable development of the marine economy

Cao Q, Sun C, Zhao L, Cao W, Yan X. Marine resource congestion in China: Identifying, measuring, and assessing its impact on sustainable development of the marine economy. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0227211. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227211
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Research on the sustainable development of the marine economy has conventionally revolved around the relationship between efficiency and development. However, most studies have neglected examining how excessive marine resource inputs under certain conditions may lead to resource congestion that restricts output efficiency and sustainable development. To fill this research gap, we optimized an index system to evaluate the input level of marine resources. Using the data of 11 coastal provinces and cities in China from 2000 to 2016, we calculated the congestion of marine resources and analyzed its spatiotemporal evolution and primary influencing factors. Finally, we separated the inefficiency driven by congestion from pure technical inefficiency. The results showed the following: (1) Grave, long-term marine resource congestion does exist in China, and it has evolved from fast to slow, strong to weak, and agglomeration to dispersion; (2) Congestion in the coastal areas has gradually weakened from north to south, and the center of gravity has experienced a shift from the center of China toward the north; (3) Marine resource congestion is mainly affected by the input of resource and capital, resource endowment, and industrial structure; (4) Factors leading to inefficiencies include resource congestion and long-term pure technical inefficiency. By combining congestion and efficiency, we produce values for studying inefficiency and the sustainable development of the marine economy, with the benefit of providing targeted strategies.

Human and climatic drivers affect spatial fishing patterns in a multiple-use marine protected area: The Galapagos Marine Reserve

Castrejon M, Charles A. Human and climatic drivers affect spatial fishing patterns in a multiple-use marine protected area: The Galapagos Marine Reserve. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0228094. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228094
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Assessments of the effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs) usually assume that fishing patterns change exclusively due to the implementation of an MPA. This assumption increases the risk of erroneous conclusions in assessing marine zoning, and consequently counter-productive management actions. Accordingly, it is important to understand how fishers respond to a combination of the implementation of no-take zones, and various climatic and human drivers of change. Those adaptive responses could influence the interpretation of assessment of no-take zone effectiveness, yet few studies have examined these aspects. Indeed, such analysis is often unfeasible in developing countries, due to the dominance of data-poor fisheries, which precludes full examination of the social-ecological outcomes of MPAs. In the Galapagos Marine Reserve (Ecuador), however, the availability of long-term spatially explicit fishery monitoring data (1997–2011) for the spiny lobster fishery allows such an analysis. Accordingly, we evaluated how the spatiotemporal allocation of fishing effort in this multiple-use MPA was affected by the interaction of diverse climatic and human drivers, before and after implementation of no-take zones. Geographic information system modelling techniques were used in combination with boosted regression models to identify how these drivers influenced fishers’ behavior. Our results show that the boom-and-bust exploitation of the sea cucumber fishery and the global financial crisis 2007–09, rather than no-take zone implementation, were the most important drivers affecting the distribution of fishing effort across the archipelago. Both drivers triggered substantial macro-scale changes in fishing effort dynamics, which in turn altered the micro-scale dynamics of fishing patterns. Fishers’ adaptive responses were identified, and their management implications analyzed. This leads to recommendations for more effective marine and fishery management in the Galapagos, based on improved assessment of the effectiveness of no-take zones.

Bund removal to re-establish tidal flow, remove aquatic weeds and restore coastal wetland services—North Queensland, Australia

Abbott BN, Wallace J, Nicholas DM, Karim F, Waltham NJ. Bund removal to re-establish tidal flow, remove aquatic weeds and restore coastal wetland services—North Queensland, Australia. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0217531. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0217531
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The shallow tidal and freshwater coastal wetlands adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef lagoon provide a vital nursery and feeding complex that supports the life cycles of marine and freshwater fish, important native vegetation and vital bird habitat. Urban and agricultural development threaten these wetlands, with many of the coastal wetlands becoming lost or changed due to the construction of artificial barriers (e.g. bunds, roads, culverts and floodgates). Infestation by weeds has become a major issue within many of the wetlands modified (bunded) for ponded pasture growth last century. A range of expensive chemical and mechanical control methods have been used in an attempt to restore some of these coastal wetlands, with limited success. This study describes an alternative approach to those methods, investigating the impact of tidal reinstatement after bund removal on weed infestation, associated changes in water quality, and fish biodiversity, in the Boolgooroo lagoon region of the Mungalla wetlands, East of Ingham in North Queensland. High resolution remote sensing, electrofishing and in-water logging was used to track changes over time– 1 year before and 4 years after removal of an earth bund. With tides only penetrating the wetland a few times yearly, gross changes towards a more natural system occurred within a relatively short timeframe, leading to a major reduction in infestation of olive hymenachne, water hyacinth and salvina, reappearance of native vegetation, improvements in water quality, and a tripling of fish diversity. Weed abundance and water quality does appear to oscillate however, dependent on summer rainfall, as changes in hydraulic pressure stops or allows tidal ingress (fresh/saline cycling). With an estimated 30% of coastal wetlands bunded in the Great Barrier Reef region, a passive remediation method such as reintroduction of tidal flow by removal of an earth bund or levee could provide a more cost effective and sustainable means of controlling freshwater weeds and improving coastal water quality into the future.

Lessons Learned by 9 Maritime Spatial Planning Projects in the Baltic Sea Region: A study of the EU-funded transnational public sector projects

Bjärnstedt J. Lessons Learned by 9 Maritime Spatial Planning Projects in the Baltic Sea Region: A study of the EU-funded transnational public sector projects. University of Gothenburg; 2020. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2077/63121
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Thesis

This thesis analyses the projects that are used to produce coherent transnational Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) by the EU, in accordance with the MSP directive. As the number of projects have increased, there are so many that there is a possibility that knowledge generated in the projects does not reach subsequent projects. The research was carried out by way of a qualitative content analysis, and used a framework based on planning theory, MSP theory, projectification theory, knowledge management and organisational learning. The coupling of theories allowed for identification of positive and negative consequences of using projects, and what mechanisms facilitate for knowledge management within temporary organisations such as projects. Basing the analysis on planning theory and MSP theory allowed the research to focus on what knowledge was relevant to the knowledge generating process. Together in the framework the theories made it possible to process the large amount of data in the analysis and produce comprehensible results. The findings indicate that when projects have a stable core of participating civil servants and organisations, it is easier to retain knowledge between projects. The results also point towards good knowledge retention in general between MSP projects that are designed to build on one another, but less so regarding the knowledge retention from the supporting research projects, suggesting that closer collaboration might be in order for the generated knowledge to come to good use.

Time to catch your breath - Survey on compressor fishing in Aceh province, Indonesia to inform conservation action

Steadman D, Tania C, Duffy H, FFI I, Dirgantara R, Youvan T. Time to catch your breath - Survey on compressor fishing in Aceh province, Indonesia to inform conservation action. Flora and Fauna International; 2020. Available from: https://cms.fauna-flora.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/FFI_2019_Time-to-catch-your-breath-3.pdf
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

This brief report is intended to take a holistic look at the health, safety and compliance implications of a complex illegal and destructive fishing practice (“compressor” fishing) to help Fauna & Flora International (FFI) and other stakeholders in Aceh to adaptively learn from our conservation interventions and ensure we are using evidence to address the root causes of fishing practices that undermine the health of the marine environment.

Differential recovery from mass coral bleaching on naturally extreme reef environments in NW Australia

Schoepf V, E. Jung MU, McCulloch M, White NE, Stat M, Thomas L. Differential recovery from mass coral bleaching on naturally extreme reef environments in NW Australia. [Internet]. 2020 . Available from: https://marxiv.org/s9xha/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Manuscript

Coral reefs are severely threatened by climate change and recurrent mass bleaching events, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the factors driving recovery and resilience both at the community and species level. While temperature variability has been shown to promote coral heat tolerance, it remains poorly understood how this influences coral recovery capacity. Similarly, few studies have investigated how the presence of cryptic species influences bleaching and recovery responses. Using an integrated ecological, physiological and genomic approach, we examined the recovery of both coral communities and their dominant species from the 2016 mass bleaching event in the macrotidal Kimberley region, NW Australia. We show that recovery of coral communities inhabiting adjacent but environmentally contrasting reef habitats differed dramatically following unprecedented bleaching in 2016. Both intertidal (thermally extreme) and subtidal (thermally moderate) habitats experienced extensive bleaching (72-81%), but subtidal coral communities had a greater percentage of severely bleached corals than the intertidal community (76% versus 53%). Similarly, subtidal Acropora aspera corals suffered much greater losses of chlorophyll a than intertidal conspecifics (96% versus 46%). The intertidal coral community fully recovered to its pre-bleaching configuration within six months, whereas the adjacent subtidal suffered extensive mortality (68% loss of live coral cover). Despite the presence of three cryptic genetic lineages in the dominant coral species, the physiological response of A. aspera was independent of host cryptic genetic diversity. Furthermore, both intertidal and subtidal A. aspera harbored symbionts in the genus Cladocopium (previously clade C). Our findings highlight the important role of tidally-controlled temperature variability in promoting coral recovery capacity, and we propose that shallow reef environments characterized by strong environmental gradients may generally promote coral resilience to extreme climatic events. Thermally variable reef environments may therefore provide important spatial refugia for coral reefs under rapid climate change.

Human and climatic drivers affect spatial fishing patterns in a multiple-use marine protected area: The Galapagos Marine Reserve

Castrejon M, Charles A. Human and climatic drivers affect spatial fishing patterns in a multiple-use marine protected area: The Galapagos Marine Reserve. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0228094. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228094
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Assessments of the effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs) usually assume that fishing patterns change exclusively due to the implementation of an MPA. This assumption increases the risk of erroneous conclusions in assessing marine zoning, and consequently counter-productive management actions. Accordingly, it is important to understand how fishers respond to a combination of the implementation of no-take zones, and various climatic and human drivers of change. Those adaptive responses could influence the interpretation of assessment of no-take zone effectiveness, yet few studies have examined these aspects. Indeed, such analysis is often unfeasible in developing countries, due to the dominance of data-poor fisheries, which precludes full examination of the social-ecological outcomes of MPAs. In the Galapagos Marine Reserve (Ecuador), however, the availability of long-term spatially explicit fishery monitoring data (1997–2011) for the spiny lobster fishery allows such an analysis. Accordingly, we evaluated how the spatiotemporal allocation of fishing effort in this multiple-use MPA was affected by the interaction of diverse climatic and human drivers, before and after implementation of no-take zones. Geographic information system modelling techniques were used in combination with boosted regression models to identify how these drivers influenced fishers’ behavior. Our results show that the boom-and-bust exploitation of the sea cucumber fishery and the global financial crisis 2007–09, rather than no-take zone implementation, were the most important drivers affecting the distribution of fishing effort across the archipelago. Both drivers triggered substantial macro-scale changes in fishing effort dynamics, which in turn altered the micro-scale dynamics of fishing patterns. Fishers’ adaptive responses were identified, and their management implications analyzed. This leads to recommendations for more effective marine and fishery management in the Galapagos, based on improved assessment of the effectiveness of no-take zones.

Individual and Population Benefits of Marine Reserves for Reef Sharks

Dwyer RG, Krueck NC, Udyawer V, Heupel MR, Chapman D, Pratt HL, Garla R, Simpfendorfer CA. Individual and Population Benefits of Marine Reserves for Reef Sharks. Current Biology [Internet]. 2020 . Available from: https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(19)31600-8
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

No-take marine protected areas (MPAs) are a commonly applied tool to reduce human fishing impacts on marine and coastal ecosystems. However, conservation outcomes of MPAs for mobile and long-lived predators such as sharks are highly variable. Here, we use empirical animal tracking data from 459 individual sharks and baited remote underwater video surveys undertaken in 36 countries to construct an empirically supported individual-based model that estimates the conservation effectiveness of MPAs for five species of coral reef-associated sharks (Triaenodon obesus, Carcharhinus melanopterus, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, Carcharhinus perezi, and Ginglymostoma cirratum). We demonstrate how species-specific individual movement traits can contribute to fishing mortality of sharks found within MPAs as they move outside to adjacent fishing grounds. We discovered that the world’s officially recorded coral reef-based managed areas (with a median width of 9.4 km) would need to be enforced as strict no-take MPAs and up to 5 times larger to expect protection of the majority of individuals of the five investigated reef shark species. The magnitude of this effect depended on local abundances and fishing pressure, with MPAs required to be 1.6–2.6 times larger to protect the same number of Atlantic and Caribbean species, which occur at lower abundances than similar species in the western Pacific. Furthermore, our model was used to quantify partially substantial reductions (>50%) in fishing mortality resulting from small increases in MPA size, allowing us to bridge a critical gap between traditional conservation planning and fisheries management. Overall, our results highlight the challenge of relying on abundance data alone to ensure that estimates of shark conservation impacts of MPAs follow the precautionary approach.

Modelling regional futures at decadal scale: application to the Kimberley region

Boschetti F, Lozano-Montes H, Stelfox B. Modelling regional futures at decadal scale: application to the Kimberley region. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2020 ;10(1). Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-56646-x
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

We address the question of how to provide meaningful scientific information to support environmental decision making at the regional scale and at the temporal scale of several decades in a network of marine parks in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Where environmental sustainability is affected by slow-dynamics climate change processes and one-off investments in large infrastructure which can affect a region for decades to come, both strategic and reactive planning is necessary and prediction becomes as urgent as standard adaptive management. At the interface between future studies, socio-economic modelling and environmental modelling, we define 18 scenarios of economic development and climate change impacts and five management strategies. We explore these potential futures using coupled models of terrestrial and marine ecosystem dynamics. We obtain a projection of the Kimberley marine system to the year 2050, conditional on the chosen scenarios and management strategies. Our results suggest that climate change, not economic development, is the largest factor affecting the future of marine ecosystems in the Kimberley region, with site-attached species such as reef fish at greatest risk. These same species also benefit most from more stringent management strategies, especially expansion of sanctuary zones and Marine Protected Areas.

Analysis of sources and composition of marine debris in western and southern Aceh, Indonesia

Fitria R, Diana F, Riani E, Yulianto G, Najmi N. Analysis of sources and composition of marine debris in western and southern Aceh, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;404:012059. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/404/1/012059
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine debris has become an important pollution issue in recent years. Its existence has impacted to marine environment, harmed marine life, and also effected human health and lives. Marine debris study in western and southern Aceh is necessary to compare debris sources, amounts, and locations. The research outputs can provide input to the government to adopt more comprehensive policies and provide important information to targets protection in the coastal areas. Eight sites (two sites for each regency: at shoreline area and estuary stream mouth area) were selected from four regencies located in western and southern Aceh namely the regency of Aceh Jaya, west Aceh, southwestern Aceh, south Aceh. Marine debris was grouped by seven categories namely: plastic, glass, metal, rubber, cloth/fabric, processed lumber, and other/unclassifiable. The results indicated that marine debris was dominated by plastic (86.6%). The highest of debris density (0.145 items/m2) were found in southwestern Aceh and South Aceh Regency. Shoreline and recreational activities have known as the largest source of marine debris (74.8 %), followed by medical/personal hygiene activities (10.8%) dumping activities (85 items, 9.2%), smoking or related activities (4.1%) and activities related to ocean/waterway (1.1%).

Geopolitical Implication on Contested Waters; Comparison Between Indonesia and the Philippines Strategy to Overlapping South China Sea Waters

Pramono WTyas, Darmawan A, Deffinika I, Soelistijo D. Geopolitical Implication on Contested Waters; Comparison Between Indonesia and the Philippines Strategy to Overlapping South China Sea Waters. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;412:012034. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/412/1/012034
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Both Indonesia and the Philippines are located in the same region of Southeast Asia. These countries are facing significant threat related to nation's sovereignty due to overlapping waters to the biggest claimant of PRC (People's Republic of China) by using Nine-dash line claim. After some failure agreements between region organization of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) through DOC (Declaration on the Conduct) in 2002, several strategies are undertaking in soft politics, renaming several portions of waters under political reasons. West Philippines Sea has been used by the Philippines to enhance sense of belonging and nationalism, meanwhile in Indonesia even though was not active claimant in South China Sea conflict, strategies done quietly recent in 2017 by using North Natuna Sea terms to call Indonesian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in northern part of Natuna Island which overlapped to China's claim. Descriptive method through literature study have been used in this research to answer research questions. Some findings in research were even though renaming areas are close related to the political reasons, these actions could uplift capacity in terms of national marine protection, yet Chinese marine surveillance not automatically disappear after renaming those areas respectively. Unending confrontation could hamper bilateral negotiation in the region, meanwhile environmental degradation related to coral ecosystem remain high.

Assessment of seagrass percent cover and water quality using UAV images and field measurements in Bolinao, Pangasinan

Guerrero MKMR, Vivar JAM, Ramos RV, Tamondong AM. Assessment of seagrass percent cover and water quality using UAV images and field measurements in Bolinao, Pangasinan. ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences [Internet]. 2019 ;XLII-4/W19:233 - 240. Available from: https://www.int-arch-photogramm-remote-sens-spatial-inf-sci.net/XLII-4-W19/233/2019/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The sensitivity to changes in water quality inherent to seagrass communities makes them vital for determining the overall health of the coastal ecosystem. Numerous efforts including community-based coastal resource management, conservation and rehabilitation plans are currently undertaken to protect these marine species. In this study, the relationship of water quality parameters, specifically chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and turbidity, with seagrass percent cover is assessed quantitatively. Support Vector Machine, a pixel-based image classification method, is applied to determine seagrass and non-seagrass areas from the orthomosaic which yielded a 91.0369% accuracy. In-situ measurements of chl-a and turbidity are acquired using an infinity-CLW water quality sensor. Geostatistical techniques are utilized in this study to determine accurate surfaces for chl-a and turbidity. In two hundred interpolation tests for both chl-a and turbidity, Simple Kriging (Gaussian-model type and Smooth- neighborhood type) performs best with Mean Prediction equal to −0.1371 FTU and 0.0061 μg/L, Root Mean Square Standardized error equal to −0.0688 FTU and −0.0048 μg/L, RMS error of 8.7699 FTU and 1.8006 μg/L and Average Standard Error equal to 10.8360 FTU and 1.6726 μg/L. Zones are determined using fishnet tool and Moran’s I to calculate for the seagrass percent cover. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) is used as a regression analysis to quantify the relationship of seagrass percent cover and water quality parameters. The regression analysis result indicates that turbidity has an inverse relationship while chlorophyll-a has a direct relationship with seagrass percent cover.

Marine mammals interactions with tuna fishing activities in Indonesian seas

Soede LP, Natasasmita D, Mahendra IG, Rizki W. Marine mammals interactions with tuna fishing activities in Indonesian seas. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2019 ;399:012128. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/399/1/012128
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

For decades, marine scientists have known that fisheries throughout the world result in mortality for cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises). Incidental catch (also known as by-catch) in fisheries is considered the biggest threat to the survival of cetaceans globally. Migratory species such as cetaceans are exposed to various threats because they are nomadic. From a conservation and management perspective, the level of protection given to cetaceans differs according to their geographical location. This study was conducted to determine the extent of by-catchin the study area and identify measures taken by fishers to minimize by-catch. During a 20-day period, 222 fishers were interviewed in six locations - East Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, Ternate, Morotai, Seram, and Biak - to identify the interaction between marine mammals and tuna fishing activities, particularly related with the usage of different fishing gear and fishing practices. Twenty cetacean species from by-catchwere identified by respondents including three species of baleen whales and 17 species of toothed whales (including dolphins). Results from this survey indicated that interactions between marine mammals and tuna fisheries in Indonesian seas are primarily due to cetacean predation on tuna (e.g., pilot whales). To manage and minimize cetacean by-catchin the Indonesian seas, one of the recommendations from the authors of this study is the development of a Marine Mammal Mitigation Plan.

The establishment of fisheries refugia as a new approach to sustainable management of fisheries in Malaysian waters

Siow R, Nurridan AH, Hadil R, Richard R. The establishment of fisheries refugia as a new approach to sustainable management of fisheries in Malaysian waters. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;414:012023. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012023
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The marine fisheries resources worldwide are facing depletion but traditional management methods may not be adequate to overcome this problem. A new fishery management approach which focuses on protecting the critical stages in the life cycle of the selected marine species is presented in this paper. The fisheries refugia concept focuses on temporal and a spatially defined marine or coastal area in which specific management measures are implemented to sustain the targeted species. This concept was initiated by SEAFDEC-UNEP-GEF in the South East Asia region and are participated by six member countries namely Malaysia, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines. In Malaysia, two sites were selected for this project which is the lobster refugia (Panulirus spp. and Thenus orientalis) in Tanjung Leman, Johor and the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) refugia at Kuala Baram, Miri, Sarawak. This paper discusses the activities carried out to establish these two refugia. These activities include resource surveys of lobsters and tiger prawns at different life stages (larvae, juvenile and adult) and socio-economic profiling of fishers communities at both sites. Several stakeholder consultation sessions were also held with fishers and local agencies to promote the refugia concept and gather feedbacks on the implementation of the new management approach. Two information centers were set up at Tanjung Leman and Kuala Baram, Miri with the objectives of disseminating information regarding the fisheries refugia project and its benefits to the stakeholders. Likewise, in collaboration with the local television station RTM, two fisheries refugia documentaries were produced and broadcast nationwide. The targeted outcome of this project is to have these two sites gazetted as fisheries refugia so that the wild resources of lobsters and tiger prawns are sustainably managed through spatial and seasonal closure during the critical stages of their life cycle.

Analysis of sustainability ecosystem mangrove management in Pangkah Wetan and Pangkah Kulon Villages Area, Ujungpangkah District, Gresik Regency, East Java Province

Santoso N, Sutopo , Nugraha RP. Analysis of sustainability ecosystem mangrove management in Pangkah Wetan and Pangkah Kulon Villages Area, Ujungpangkah District, Gresik Regency, East Java Province. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2019 ;399:012007. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/399/1/012007
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Mangroves provide several important functions such as gatherings, nurseries, living areas, and eating habitats. The best management plan designed for the conservation of mangrove wetlands must be considered as well as an ecological and social facility. The purpose of this study was to analyze the sustainability of mangrove ecosystem management from the ecological, economic, social, institutional and technological dimensions using the MDS (Multi Dimension Scaling) method through the RAP-MANGROVE (Rapid Assessment for Mangrove) approach in Pangkah Wetan and Pangkah Kulon Villages, Ujungpangkah District, Gresik Regency, East Java Province. The results of the study show that the sustainability index of the mangrove ecosystem in the Pangkah Wetan Village for ecological, institutional, and technological dimensions are less sustainable, while for economic and social dimensions are sufficiently sustainable; while in the Pangkah Kulon Village for ecological, social, institutional, and technology dimensions are sufficiently sustainable, while for economic dimension is sustainable. Based on the results of leverage analysis, it shows attributes that are very sensitive to the sustainability status of mangrove ecosystems, for the ecological dimension are fauna diversity in mangrove ecosystems, and coastline changes. The sensitive attributes in the economic dimension are a type of direct use mangrove ecosystems for community, and contributions mangrove ecosystem to increasing labor; while in social dimension are mangrove ecosystems damaged by community and community access to utilize mangrove ecosystems. The sensitive attributes in the institutional dimension are involvement of community institutions regarding mangrove ecosystem management and the existence of sanctions for violating regulations in the mangrove ecosystem; while in technological dimension are processing techniques for mangrove products, and the techniques for capturing biota in mangrove ecosystems. The results of the Monte Carlo analysis show that the overall dimensions in this study are adequate and valid (indicated by the difference between MDS and Monte Carlo <5%), while the Goodness of Fit analysis shows an S-stress value of <0.25 for each dimension, so the RAP-MANGROVE model in this analysis it is a good model and can be used to analyze the accuracy of the sustainability of mangrove ecosystem management.

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