Literature Library

Currently indexing 7962 titles

Evaluating the efficacy of salmon bycatch measures using fishery-dependent data

Stram DL, Ianelli JN. Evaluating the efficacy of salmon bycatch measures using fishery-dependent data. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2014 . Available from: http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/10/06/icesjms.fsu168.abstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) fishery in the Bering Sea is one of the largest fisheries in the world. The North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC) provides management advice for this fishery, including the development of measures to minimize salmon bycatch to the extent practicable, one of the stated objectives of the US Magnuson–Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act National Standard Guidelines. Salmon have a unique cultural and nutritional importance in the State of Alaska and are the subject of fully allocated mixed commercial, recreational, and subsistence fisheries. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stocks in Alaska have been declining for the last decade, and all sources of mortality are being considered to help in rebuilding stocks. Given the extensive scientific National Marine Fisheries Service observer data collection programme, the NPFMC has developed bycatch management measures that place limits by fishery sector on the allowable catch of Chinook salmon. Part of this programme includes industry-proposed incentive programmes designed to encourage lower bycatch. Evaluating the efficacy of the new measures poses a number of challenges, particularly in light of changing ocean conditions (perhaps affecting the degree of overlap between pollock and salmon). In this study, data on pre- and post-programme implementation were evaluated to determine if the programme is meeting stated goals and objectives or if modifications are needed. These evaluations included consideration of fleet-level bycatch numbers and rates, seasonality of bycatch by sector, and individual vessel bycatch rates. Results suggest that revised management regulations appear to have resulted in reduced bycatch of salmon overall. Also, lower bycatch rates seem to reflect changing behaviour in response to new management measures. However, the extent to which the programme is effective at the vessel level remains difficult to ascertain without explicit vessel-specific benchmarks developed for evaluating programme efficacy.

Making the Best of a Pest: The Potential for Using Invasive Zebra Mussel (Dreissena Polymorpha) Biomass as a Supplement to Commercial Chicken Feed

McLaughlan C, Rose P, Aldridge DC. Making the Best of a Pest: The Potential for Using Invasive Zebra Mussel (Dreissena Polymorpha) Biomass as a Supplement to Commercial Chicken Feed. Environmental Management [Internet]. 2014 :1-8. Available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00267-014-0335-6
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Invasive non-native species frequently occur in very high densities. When such invaders present an economic or ecological nuisance, this biomass is typically removed and landfill is the most common destination, which is undesirable from both an economic and ecological perspective. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, has invaded large parts of Europe and North America, and is routinely removed from raw water systems where it creates a biofouling nuisance. We investigated the suitability of dried, whole zebra mussels as a supplement to poultry feed, thus providing a more attractive end-use than disposal to landfill. Measurable outcomes were nutrient and energy composition analyses of the feeds and production parameters of the birds over a 14 day period. Zebra mussels were a palatable feed supplement for chickens. The mussel meal contained high levels of calcium (344.9 g kg−1), essential for egg shell formation, which was absorbed and retained easily by the birds. Compared with standard feed, a mussel-supplemented diet caused no significant effects on production parameters such as egg weight and feed conversion ratio during the study period. However, protein and energy levels in the zebra mussel feed were much lower than expected from the literature. In order for zebra mussels to be a viable long-term feed supplement for poultry, flesh would need to be separated from the shells in an economically viable way. If zebra mussels were to be used with the shells remaining, it seems that the resultant mussel meal would be more suitable as a calcium supplement.

Assessing Social – Ecological Trade-Offs to Advance Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management

Voss R, Quaas MF, Schmidt JO, Tahvonen O, Lindegren M, Möllmann C. Assessing Social – Ecological Trade-Offs to Advance Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2014 ;9(9):e107811. Available from: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0107811
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Modern resource management faces trade-offs in the provision of various ecosystem goods and services to humanity. For fisheries management to develop into an ecosystem-based approach, the goal is not only to maximize economic profits, but to consider equally important conservation and social equity goals. We introduce such a triple-bottom line approach to the management of multi-species fisheries using the Baltic Sea as a case study. We apply a coupled ecological-economic optimization model to address the actual fisheries management challenge of trading-off the recovery of collapsed cod stocks versus the health of ecologically important forage fish populations. Management strategies based on profit maximization would rebuild the cod stock to high levels but may cause the risk of stock collapse for forage species with low market value, such as Baltic sprat (Fig. 1A). Economically efficient conservation efforts to protect sprat would be borne almost exclusively by the forage fishery as sprat fishing effort and profits would strongly be reduced. Unless compensation is paid, this would challenge equity between fishing sectors (Fig. 1B). Optimizing equity while respecting sprat biomass precautionary levels would reduce potential profits of the overall Baltic fishery, but may offer an acceptable balance between overall profits, species conservation and social equity (Fig. 1C). Our case study shows a practical example of how an ecosystem-based fisheries management will be able to offer society options to solve common conflicts between different resource uses. Adding equity considerations to the traditional trade-off between economy and ecology will greatly enhance credibility and hence compliance to management decisions, a further footstep towards healthy fish stocks and sustainable fisheries in the world ocean.

Regional Scale Prioritisation for Key Ecosystem Services, Renewable Energy Production and Urban Development

Casalegno S, Bennie JJ, Inger R, Gaston KJ. Regional Scale Prioritisation for Key Ecosystem Services, Renewable Energy Production and Urban Development. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2014 ;9(9):e107822. Available from: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0107822
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Although the importance of addressing ecosystem service benefits in regional land use planning and decision-making is evident, substantial practical challenges remain. In particular, methods to identify priority areas for the provision of key ecosystem services and other environmental services (benefits from the environment not directly linked to the function of ecosystems) need to be developed. Priority areas are locations which provide disproportionally high benefits from one or more service. Here we map a set of ecosystem and environmental services and delineate priority areas according to different scenarios. Each scenario is produced by a set of weightings allocated to different services and corresponds to different landscape management strategies which decision makers could undertake. Using the county of Cornwall, U.K., as a case study, we processed gridded maps of key ecosystem services and environmental services, including renewable energy production and urban development. We explored their spatial distribution patterns and their spatial covariance and spatial stationarity within the region. Finally we applied a complementarity-based priority ranking algorithm (zonation) using different weighting schemes. Our conclusions are that (i) there are two main patterns of service distribution in this region, clustered services (including agriculture, carbon stocks, urban development and plant production) and dispersed services (including cultural services, energy production and floods mitigation); (ii) more than half of the services are spatially correlated and there is high non-stationarity in the spatial covariance between services; and (iii) it is important to consider both ecosystem services and other environmental services in identifying priority areas. Different weighting schemes provoke drastic changes in the delineation of priority areas and therefore decision making processes need to carefully consider the relative values attributed to different services.

Reducing Uncertainty in Fisheries Management: The Time for Fishers' Ecological Knowledge

Carr L. Reducing Uncertainty in Fisheries Management: The Time for Fishers' Ecological Knowledge. Texas A&M University; 2012 p. 171. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2012-05-11034
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Thesis

This dissertation work presents a novel method for addressing system uncertainty to improve management of a small-scale fishery in St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands. Using fishers' ecological knowledge (FEK), this research examines existing perspectives and biases through the Q-Method to identify regulatory inefficiencies in the management framework and strengthen the rationale for including fishers into the management process, develops a coupled behavior-economics model to predict the likelihood of fishing the preferred grounds under a range of physical and regulatory conditions, establishes a baseline assessment of a spawning aggregation of mutton snapper following sixteen years of protection through a no-take marine protected area, and conducts a discrete choice method test to examine likely public support for FEK-based proposed regulatory alternatives. This work contributes to an under-studied and much-needed area of fisheries management, that of incorporating socioeconomic motivations within an ecosystem-based framework. As fisheries management efforts begin to embrace ecosystem-based approaches, the need for understanding and incorporating the knowledge and behavior of fishers into management has never been greater. Ecological goals of fishery sustainability and continued habitat function cannot be achieved without first understanding how fishers view and respond to any regulatory environment and then developing a framework that achieves the greatest support for those regulations. The time has come for incorporating FEK into ecosystem-based fisheries management.

Breathing Life into a Dormant Statute: Using the Case of the Pink Dolphins to Forge a Path Forward for Environmental Legal Protections in Hong Kong

Leitner L. Breathing Life into a Dormant Statute: Using the Case of the Pink Dolphins to Forge a Path Forward for Environmental Legal Protections in Hong Kong. UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy [Internet]. 2014 ;32(2):382 - 421. Available from: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/38p412ck
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Hong Kong’s pink dolphins are majestic, intelligent, and beautiful. Unfortunately, Hong Kong’s coastal waters are no longer suitable for pink dolphin populations. Vessel traffic, water pollution, land reclamation projects, and localized constructionblasting activity all contribute to the declining stability of their habitat. These destructive impacts on the marine environment derive from Hong Kong’s generally inadequate political and regulatory protections, increased tourist use of polluting river boats to view the dolphins, ambivalent local perceptions of the problem, and a growing human population, which together make environmental protection increasingly more difficult. Despite this unequivocally bleak future, legal tools exist that can help improve and preserve their habitat. Although litigation under Hong Kong’s environmental statutes is rare, bringing suit under existing laws can create meaningful change for the pink dolphin. The Wild Animals Protection Ordinance contains provisions that may lead to a prohibition of local vessels navigating through dolphin marine habitat.

In order to carry out this litigation strategy and others like it, parties need more exposure and a better understanding of the legal actions available to them. This comment demonstrates how parties can successfully litigate under the Wild Animals Protection Ordinance for the protection of pink dolphins despite Hong Kong’s current political climate. Part II describes the Hong Kong pink dolphin and major threats to dolphin populations. Part III analyzes Hong Kong’s history of delayed proactivity, regulation, litigation, and enforcement of environmental and animal welfare matters. Part IV develops a potential case under the Wild Animals Protection Ordinance for better protection of Hong Kong’s pink dolphins. Part V summarizes other legal avenues available for protection of pink dolphins and other marine species. Finally, Part VI concludes by encouraging government agencies and private parties to bring novice environmental cases under existing legislation and to press for statutory amendments where necessary to better protect Hong Kong’s natural resources, habitat, and species.

Fishery management priorities vary with self-recruitment in sedentary marine populations

Yau AJ, Lenihan HS, Kendall BE. Fishery management priorities vary with self-recruitment in sedentary marine populations. Ecological Applications [Internet]. 2014 ;24(6):1490 - 1504. Available from: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/13-1201.1
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Fisheries science often uses population models that assume no external recruitment, but nearshore marine populations harvested on small scales of <200 km often exhibit an unknown mix of self-recruitment and recruitment from external sources. Since empirical determination of self-recruitment vs. external recruitment is difficult, we used a modeling approach to examine the sensitivity of fishery management priorities to recruitment assumptions (self [closed], external [open]) in a local population of harvested giant clams (Tridacna maxima) on Mo'orea, French Polynesia. From 2006 to 2010, we measured growth, fecundity, recruitment, and survival (resulting from natural and fishing mortality). We used these data to parameterize both a closed (complete self-recruitment) and an open (no self-recruitment) integral projection model (IPM), and then calculated elasticities of demographic rates (growth, survival, recruitment) to future population abundance in 20 years. The models' lowest projected abundance was 93.4% (95% CI, [86.5%, 101.8%]) of present abundance, if the local population is entirely open and the present level of fishing mortality persists. The population will exhibit self-sustaining dynamics (1 ≤ λ ≤ 1.07) as for a closed population if the ratio of self-recruits per gram of dry gonad is >0.775 (equivalent to 52.85% self-recruitment under present conditions). Elasticity analysis of demographic parameters indicated that future abundance can most effectively be influenced by increasing survival of mid-sized clams (∼80–120 mm) if the population is self-sustaining, and by increasing survival of juvenile clams (∼40–70 mm) if the population is non-self-sustaining (as for an open population). Our results illustrate that management priorities can vary depending on the amount of self-recruitment in a local population.

Hydrodynamic provinces and oceanic connectivity from a transport network help designing marine reserves

Rossi V, Ser-Giacomi E, López C, Hernández-García E. Hydrodynamic provinces and oceanic connectivity from a transport network help designing marine reserves. Geophysical Research Letters [Internet]. 2014 ;41:2883–2891. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014GL059540/abstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Oceanic dispersal and connectivity have been identified as crucial factors for structuring marine populations and designing marine protected areas (MPAs). Focusing on larval dispersal by ocean currents, we propose an approach coupling Lagrangian transport and new tools from Network Theory to characterize marine connectivity in the Mediterranean basin. Larvae of different pelagic durations and seasons are modeled as passive tracers advected in a simulated oceanic surface flow from which a network of connected areas is constructed. Hydrodynamical provinces extracted from this network are delimited by frontiers which match multiscale oceanographic features. By examining the repeated occurrence of such boundaries, we identify the spatial scales and geographic structures that would control larval dispersal across the entire seascape. Based on these hydrodynamical units, we study novel connectivity metrics for existing reserves. Our results are discussed in the context of ocean biogeography and MPAs design, having ecological and managerial implications.

Development and application of mass-balanced ecological network models for kelp forest ecosystems

Beas-Luna R. Development and application of mass-balanced ecological network models for kelp forest ecosystems. University of California, Santa Cruz; 2014. Available from: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/5ws5r0rj
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Thesis

California kelp forests are highly productive and species rich ecosystems. However, ecosystem-wide consequences of fishing higher tropic levels (fishes) and the effect of climate on primary producers such as the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, are not well understood. I develop and apply mass-balanced ecological network models, Ecopath with Ecosim, to explore separately how fishing and the dynamics of giant kelp influence ecosystem functions (e.g., species interactions, biomass dynamics), structure (e.g., the distribution of biomass density among species or species groups) and their dynamics. Faced with the difficulty of synthesizing information required to construct these models, I develop and apply an online database (http://kelpforest.ucsc.edu/) to facilitate the accessibility of such information. It is the first online database designed specifically to inform development of ecological network models. To explore ecosystem-wide effects of fishing in giant kelp forests, I examine (i) the extent to which changes in species interactions and biomass of nodes caused by fishing extend across the ecological network, how these changes vary with (ii) levels of fishing mortality, (iii) fishing of six different species of fishes, and (iv) when all six species are fished simultaneously. Results suggest that fished species differ markedly in the extent to which species interactions and biomass densities are altered across the ecosystem and these responses vary with different levels of fishing mortality. I also used the models to predict ecosystem-wide responses to different dynamics of giant kelp biomass. I test the hypotheses that different scenarios of dynamics of giant kelp biomass will influence (i) total network biomass, (ii) distribution of biomass density across nodes, (iii) temporal variation in biomass density of nodes, and (iv) how this variation differs among trophic levels. Results suggest that both the mean and the variability of giant kelp biomass alter the direction and magnitude of change in total network biomass. Variation is greater for lower trophic levels. Although all inferences of these models are based solely on trophic interactions, they illustrate the value of ecosystem models to generate hypotheses and predictions of ecosystem responses to one or more changes in kelp forests.

Designing Marine Protected Areas for the South American Sea Lion (Otaria byronia) in the Argentine Patagonia

Padula CGabriela. Designing Marine Protected Areas for the South American Sea Lion (Otaria byronia) in the Argentine Patagonia. University of California, Santa Cruz; 2014. Available from: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/99g424m2
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Thesis

This work looks into the conservation of South American sea lions (SSL), Otaria byronia by advancing a process of Marine Protected Area (MPA) design targeted for reproductive females during the first weeks of lactation. Focusing on protection of a single species may result in the establishment of a more comprehensive and ecologically functional system for management. SSL is distributed in the Atlantic and the Pacific coasts of South America. Along the coast of the Argentine Patagonian coast, 73 colonies were described, 42 % of which are reproductive. Breeding females give birth during the austral summer (January) and lactation lasts ca. one year. Critical to the annual cycle are the few weeks after birth, when mothers spend 2-3 days nursing and a similar or longer time at sea foraging, while pups remain alone on shore. Satellite tracking and dive recording instruments indicate that females are either coastal or pelagic in their feeding habits, but the latter travel relatively short distances from colony (mean 152 km). SSL are bottom foragers that dive to maximum depths of approximately 80 m. Optimizing travel and foraging time is critical for these animals, as pups left alone fast and are threatened by both starvation and being accidentally crushed by fighting adult males. Foraging areas overlap with fishing grounds, sea lions are caught in fishing gear and competition for food cannot be ignored. Yet, although 20 of the 31 existing breeding colonies are within coastal protected areas, none of the foraging areas have been considered for protection to minimize the consequences of interactions with fisheries. This work draws from very limited data to advance a process of design of Marine Protected Areas that is eminently practical, thus affordable to government wildlife administrators. I selected the most important colonies, based on location and abundance, integrated satellite locations at sea, analyzed potential associations with physical variables, and proposed criteria to decide important marine areas based on distribution at sea. Finally, I estimated the cost for fisheries to comply with the proposed conservation intervention scenarios. Foraging distribution did not follow a pattern consistent with physical oceanographic variables (sea surface temperature, productivity, bathymetry and seafloor composition) to guide conservation intervention. Bathymetry was the best proxy to help in the design of protected areas. Most of the conservation scenarios based on distribution at sea of lactating females did not strongly overlap with fisheries to justify conservation intervention. The colonies that did, however, involved the largest breeding colonies of Argentine Patagonia and Uruguay. In a context of closing the fisheries for the area of overlap and compensate for the loses during one month, I estimate a conservation cost of 2-3 million dollars, as the impact is on the most profitable of all Argentine Patagonian fisheries, targeting Argentine red shrimp, Pleoticus muelleri. I conclude that management that includes MPAs for this species requires a priori spatial planning considerations. Once a fishery is operational, the costs for conservation will not be affordable for the administrators. I identified some areas where an a priori approach would be practical, effective and feasible.

Can we interpret the evolution of coastal land use conflicts? Using Artificial Neural Networks to model the effects of alternative development policies

Montanari A, Londei A, Staniscia B. Can we interpret the evolution of coastal land use conflicts? Using Artificial Neural Networks to model the effects of alternative development policies. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2014 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569114003020
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Environmental conflicts in coastal areas are determined by the interaction of global and local phenomena. Identifying the factors characterising the evolution of conflicts in relation to spatial dynamics is complex. Analysing related data and interpreting the results necessitate the use of methods that take this complexity into account. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been used to accomplish this task. Although ANN have been widely implemented in physics, natural science and engineering, their application in spatial and social science is still in an early stage.

We present the results of a study concerning land use conflict in the area of Civitavecchia, the main harbour of the Rome metropolitan area. Local environmental issues are air pollution from a large thermal power plant, the movement of ferries, cruise ships, and increased individual commuting. We simulate alternative policy scenarios for the conflict under study in a wider context involving 27 cases. Results indicate that only an environment-led policy is capable of reducing the intensity of the conflict. The other two proposed development tracks focussing on economic efficiency and social equity would slightly aggravate the conflict.

A state of the art review on High Water Mark (HWM) determination

Liu X, Xia J(C), Wright G, Arnold L. A state of the art review on High Water Mark (HWM) determination. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2014 ;102, Part A:178 - 190. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569114003081
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The High Water Mark (HWM) is an important cadastral boundary that separates land and water. It is also used as a baseline to facilitate coastal hazard management from which land and infrastructure development is offset to ensure the protection of property from storm surge and sea level rise. The determination of the HWM has a long history. Its definition, the mean and even the corresponding determination methods have changed through time. In addition, the location of the HWM is difficult to define accurately due to the ambulatory nature of water and coastal morphology variations.

To better understand the HWM determination, this paper reviews the development of the definition of HWM, including ordinary high water mark (OHWM), mean high water mark (MHWM), mean high water spring (MHWS) and mean higher high water (MHHW), and the existing HWM indicators, such as vegetation line and beach morphological features. Two common methods of HWM determination, field survey and remote sensing, are discussed in this paper. This is followed by the investigation of the possible factors that influence the variation of the HWM position. Furthermore, an overview of the ambulatory nature of both water and coastal morphology, which contributes to the difficulties in HWM determination, is provided. Finally, the limitations of previous determination methods and future direction in HWM determination studies are also discussed. This study concludes that it is necessary to develop a robust analytical system to identify, evaluate and integrate various factors into the process of determining the HWM.

Sensitivity assessment as a tool for spatial and temporal gear-based fisheries management

Depestele J, Courtens W, Degraer S, Haelters J, Hostens K, Leopold M, Pinn E, Merckx B, Polet H, Rabaut M, et al. Sensitivity assessment as a tool for spatial and temporal gear-based fisheries management. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2014 ;102, Part A:149 - 160. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569114003056
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an important aspect of the current European, UK and Scottish environmental agenda. The European Commission's recently published draft directive to create a common framework for MSP and integrated coastal management in EU waters and coastal areas is an indication that the sustainable management of marine and coastal waters is a pressing issue. The development of the Shetland Islands' Marine Spatial Plan (SMSP) was initiated by the Scottish Government in 2006 and is an example of a progressive regional marine spatial plan. The SMSP has successfully provided a policy framework and baseline spatial data to guide the placement of marine developments. Through policy, it provides suggestions, proposes directions and highlights opportunity for development. A model which maps cumulative pressures around the Shetland Islands, based on an ecosystem-based risk assessment and extensive knowledge of existing marine activities and uses, is the next step in identifying areas for action and marine policy formulation. This model may be used in comparable marine plan regions with access to comprehensive mapped activity data and local expertise to develop their own methodologies in addressing cumulative impacts. This research also aligns with the Marine Strategy Framework Directive which requires an analysis of the predominant pressures and impacts, including human activity, on the environmental status of marine waters which inter alia covers the main cumulative and synergetic effects.

Investigating options on how to address cumulative impacts in marine spatial planning

Kelly C, Gray L, Shucksmith RJ, Tweddle JF. Investigating options on how to address cumulative impacts in marine spatial planning. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2014 ;102, Part A:139 - 148. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569114003007
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an important aspect of the current European, UK and Scottish environmental agenda. The European Commission's recently published draft directive to create a common framework for MSP and integrated coastal management in EU waters and coastal areas is an indication that the sustainable management of marine and coastal waters is a pressing issue. The development of the Shetland Islands' Marine Spatial Plan (SMSP) was initiated by the Scottish Government in 2006 and is an example of a progressive regional marine spatial plan. The SMSP has successfully provided a policy framework and baseline spatial data to guide the placement of marine developments. Through policy, it provides suggestions, proposes directions and highlights opportunity for development. A model which maps cumulative pressures around the Shetland Islands, based on an ecosystem-based risk assessment and extensive knowledge of existing marine activities and uses, is the next step in identifying areas for action and marine policy formulation. This model may be used in comparable marine plan regions with access to comprehensive mapped activity data and local expertise to develop their own methodologies in addressing cumulative impacts. This research also aligns with the Marine Strategy Framework Directive which requires an analysis of the predominant pressures and impacts, including human activity, on the environmental status of marine waters which inter alia covers the main cumulative and synergetic effects.

Participatory indicators of sustainability for the salmon industry: The case of Chile

O'Ryan R, Pereira M. Participatory indicators of sustainability for the salmon industry: The case of Chile. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2015 ;51:322 - 330. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X14002437
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In this paper a methodological approach is proposed and applied to undertake a participatory process to obtain sustainable development indicators for the salmon sector in Chile including a common vision of sustainability for this industry. The selected indicators are a mix of bottom-up and top-down approaches, which capture the specific needs and perceptions of the different stakeholders related to salmon farming while allowing a high degree of international comparability. A detailed step by step description of the methodology allows understanding how to obtain acceptable social, economic and environmental indicators, a result that can be replicated in other natural resource based productive sectors that are common in developing contexts.

The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of wave energy using GIS based analysis: The case study of Portugal

Castro-Santos L, Garcia GPrado, Estanqueiro A, Justino PAPS. The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of wave energy using GIS based analysis: The case study of Portugal. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems [Internet]. 2015 ;65:21 - 25. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142061514005730
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The main objective of this paper is to establish an economic modelling of wave energy through a Geographical Information System (GIS). Furthermore, this method has been tested for the particular case of the Portuguese coast. It determines the best sea areas to install wave energy converters in this region, using spatial analysis of the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE). Several economic parameters, as capital or O&M costs, have been considered. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been performed by varying the discount rate in three different scenarios. Several types of physical restrictions have been taken into account: bathymetry, submarine electrical cables, seabed geology, environmental conditions, protected areas in terms of heritage, navigation areas, seismic fault lines, etc. Spatial operations have been carried out to complete the procedure, using Model Builder of GIS software. Results indicate the most suitable areas in economic terms in Portugal to install wave energy devices.

Interrelationships Between Corals and Fisheries

Bortone SA ed. Interrelationships Between Corals and Fisheries. CRC Press; 2014 p. 321. Available from: http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781466588301
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book

Interrelationships Between Corals and Fisheries is derived from a workshop held by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council in Tampa, Florida in May 2013, where world authorities came together to discuss the current problems in managing tropical fisheries and offered suggestions for future directions for both researchers and environmental resource managers. This book addresses current and emerging threats as well as challenges and opportunities for managing corals and associated fisheries. It provides an information baseline toward a better understanding of how corals and the consequences of coral condition influence fish populations, especially as they relate to management of those populations.

The book contains content from presentations modified as a result of interactions and discussions with colleagues and peer reviews by global experts in corals and fisheries. Many chapters include additional materials not presented in the workshop. There are also papers that were not presented at the workshop but contribute to the central theme of the book. Topics covered include:

  • Global decline in coral reefs and impacts on fishery yields
  • Distribution and diversity in the Gulf of Mexico
  • Implementation of Coral Habitat Areas of Particular Concern (CHAPCs)
  • Deepwater coral/sponge habitats
  • Coral populations on offshore platforms
  • Mangrove connectivity for sustaining coral reef fisheries
  • Restoring deepwater coral ecosystems and fisheries after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill
  • Predictive mapping of coral reef fish

Covering a range of subject matter, most of the chapters offer suggestions for future research on the interrelationships between corals and fisheries. In addition, the final chapter presents a summary on these interrelationships and discusses managing them for the future.

Politics, environment, and fisheries: empirical evidence from Pacific salmon fisheries

Benshoof C, Baek J. Politics, environment, and fisheries: empirical evidence from Pacific salmon fisheries. Natural Resource Modeling [Internet]. 2014 ;27:300–310. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nrm.12035/abstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Pacific salmon have always been a lucrative commodity in Alaska history. The primary contribution of this paper is to assess the effects of statewide policy changes such as the 1959 Alaska Statehood and the 1974 Limited Entry Act on the harvest of Pacific salmon in Alaska, controlling for changes in oceanic environmental conditions such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. An autoregressive distributed lag approach is employed to annual time-series data for 1899–1996. We find that, while the 1974 Limited Entry Act has a significant effect on Alaska salmon harvests, the 1959 Alaska Statehood had little impact. In addition, the oceanic environment has an important determinant of long-run Alaska salmon harvests.

Global mapping and estimation of ecosystem services values and gross domestic product: A spatially explicit integration of national ‘green GDP’ accounting

Li G, Fang C. Global mapping and estimation of ecosystem services values and gross domestic product: A spatially explicit integration of national ‘green GDP’ accounting. Ecological Indicators [Internet]. 2014 ;46:293 - 314. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X14002222
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The economic value of ecosystem services (non-market) and the market value (represented by a proxy of gross domestic product (GDP)) represent the synthetic green GDP of the earth and of different nations. Mapping and estimating national green GDPs is a challenging task. In this study, we estimated the global market and non-market monetary values using two images, GlobCover 2009 and nighttime satellite imagery, as well as a comprehensive dataset. We also developed an integrated method supported by geographic information system (GIS) techniques, focused on spatial heterogeneity and real value, to create synthetic green GDP maps at global and national scales. Our results show that in 2009, for the entire biosphere, the ecosystem services value (ESV) could be estimated at US$ 149.61 trillion. Approximately 75.15% of the ESV is contributed by marine systems. The world GDP in 2009 was about US$ 71.75 trillion (for 225 countries or regions), resulting in a ratio of total ESV to GDP of approximately 2.09–1. Nighttime satellite imagery represents a more spatially explicit indicator of market value than does GDP. We also found that the distribution of the synthetic national green GDPs follows Zipf's Law, which holds that internal coherence exists among countries. A crude but simple indicator of the %ESV indicates that the relationship between the GDP and ESV is not always in a fixed pattern. The reliability of this result was demonstrated by comparing it with previous research and other relevant indices. We found a very high degree of confidence associated with this product. The method presented here is generally applicable at the global and continental scales and is applicable at the national scale for mapping the ESV and GDP. We hope that the results of this study will inform both policy-makers and the public about national green GDPs and encourage them to incorporate these values into policy decisions.

Biodiversity data requirements for systematic conservation planning in the Mediterranean Sea

Levin N, Coll M, Fraschetti S, Gal G, Giakoumi S, Göke C, Heymans JJacomina, Katsanevakis S, Mazor T, Öztür B, et al. Biodiversity data requirements for systematic conservation planning in the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series [Internet]. 2014 ;508:261 - 281. Available from: http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v508/p261-281/
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Mediterranean Sea’s biodiversity and ecosystems face many threats due to anthropogenic pressures. Some of these include human population growth, coastal urbanization, accelerated human activities, and climate change. To enhance the formation of a science-based system of marine protected areas in the Mediterranean Sea, data on the spatial distribution of ecological features (abiotic variables, species, communities, habitats, and ecosystems) is required to inform conservation scientists and planners. However, the spatial data required is often lacking. In this review, we aimed to address the status of our knowledge for 3 major types of spatial information: bathymetry, classification of marine habitats, and species distributions. To exemplify the data gaps and approaches to bridge them, we examined case studies that systematically prioritize conservation in the Mediterranean Sea. We found that at present the data required for conservation planning is generally more readily available and of better quality for the European countries located in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Additionally, the Mediterranean Sea is lagging behind other marine regions where rigorous criteria for conservation planning has been applied in the past 20 yr. Therefore, we call upon scientists, governments, and international governmental and non-governmental organizations to harmonize current approaches in marine mapping and to develop a framework that is applicable throughout the Mediterranean region. Such coordination between stakeholders is urgently needed before more countries undertake further extensive habitat mapping, so that future conservation planning can use integrated spatial datasets.

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