Literature Library

Currently indexing 8183 titles

Social Dimensions of Climate Change Adaptation in Coastal Regions: Findings from Transdisciplinary Research

Martinez G, Fröhle P, Meier H-J eds. Social Dimensions of Climate Change Adaptation in Coastal Regions: Findings from Transdisciplinary Research. Germany: oekom verlag; 2014 p. 251. Available from: http://www.ecologic.eu/11602
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book

A changing climate is not only a phenomenon addressing the natural world. Social aspects are also a cause of and are affected by climate change, for which reason social dynamics must be considered in climate change adaptation. Being key factors in creating and solving the challenges of climate change, end users, decision makers and local residents need to be addressed and appreciated by those seeking acceptance for adaptation measures and taking action.

In their book "Social Dimensions of Climate Change Adaptation in Coastal Regions", Grit Martinez (Ecologic Institute), Peter Fröhle and Hans-Joachim Meier address such often overlooked but key societal aspects which influence stakeholders to or not to engage in adapting to a changing climate. Hence the sociocultural and environmental dimensions of adaptation to climate change in coastal regions and beyond take centre stage in this edited volume which authors come from a wide range of disciplines embracing humanities, social and natural sciences, engineering and practitioners working in coastal regions. Bound by the German Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) five year initiative KLIMZUG (“Regions adapt to climate change”), the contributions are unanimous that humans in their capacity as end-users, decision makers and local residents are key factors in creating and solving the challenges of climate change and hence are the ones who need to be addressed and appreciated when seeking acceptance and taking action.

Report on the Implementation of the National Ocean Policy

Anon. Report on the Implementation of the National Ocean Policy. Washington, D.C.: The White House; 2015 p. 95. Available from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2015/03/27/highlighting-our-national-ocean-policy
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Since President Obama created America’s first National Ocean Policy in 2010, Federal agencies have made tremendous progress to meet its objectives – working every day with communities across the Nation and stakeholders on the ground to improve the health of our oceans, support our economy, bolster safety and security, and better understand how our activities impact the ocean.

Today, we are releasing the first Report on the Implementation of the National Ocean Policy, which highlights the progress we’ve made since we released an action plan last year. From supporting the ocean economy to ensuring the security of our ports and waterways, and from improving coastal and ocean resilience to providing local communities with tools to plan for a better future, we’ve made tremendous strides in undertaking our role as responsible stewards of this Nation’s great oceans.

Among the activities described are a host of steps to promote sustainable energy development and aquaculture practices—including ensuring that permitting processes for these activities are efficient and streamlined as possible; advancing research and monitoring activities to help protect people and communities from harmful algal blooms;  developing data-driven tools to map the extent of sea-ice and to assist emergency responders and environmental resources managers in dealing with incidents in the Arctic region that may harm the environment; and issuing step-by-step guidance to help coastal communities asses vulnerabilities and develop plans to cope with the impacts of climate change, extreme weather, and ocean acidification.

Our oceans, coasts, and Great Lakes provide us with rich cultural, recreational, and commercial opportunities.  Collectively, these treasured waters support tens of millions of jobs and contribute trillions of dollars a year to the national economy. The actions underway across Federal agencies and in collaboration with states, regions, and communities will ensure that our oceans resources remain safe and healthy, and that our ocean economy continues to thrive for the benefit of all Americans.

Evaluation of ecosystem-based marine management strategies based on risk assessment

Piet GJ, Jongbloed RH, Knights AM, Tamis JE, Paijmans AJ, van der Sluis MT, de Vries P, Robinson LA. Evaluation of ecosystem-based marine management strategies based on risk assessment. Biological Conservation [Internet]. 2015 ;186:158 - 166. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320715001159
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This study presents a comprehensive and generic framework that provides a typology for the identification and selection of consistently defined ecosystem-based management measures and allows a coherent evaluation of these measures based on their performance to achieve policy objectives. The performance is expressed in terms of their reduction of risk of an adverse impact on the marine ecosystem. This typology consists of two interlinked aspects of a measure, i.e. the “Focus” and the “Type”. The “Focus” is determined by the part of the impact chain (Driver–Pressure–State) the measure is supposed to mitigate or counteract. The “Type” represents the physical measure itself in terms of how it affects the impact chain directly; we distinguish Spatio-temporal distribution controls, Input and Output controls, Remediation and Restoration measures. The performance of these measures in terms of their reduction in risk of adverse impacts was assessed based on an explicit consideration of three time horizons: past, present and future. Application of the framework in an integrated management strategy evaluation of a suite of measures, shows that depending on the time horizon, different measures perform best. “Past” points to measures targeting persistent pressures (e.g. marine litter) from past activities. “Present” favors measures targeting a driver (e.g. fisheries) that has a high likelihood of causing adverse impacts. “Future” involves impacts that both have a high likelihood of an adverse impact, as well as a long time to return to pre-impacted condition after the implementation of appropriate management, e.g. those caused by permanent infrastructure or persistent pressures such as marine litter or specific types of pollution.

Developing a Framework for Measuring Community Resilience: Summary of a Workshop

Anon. Developing a Framework for Measuring Community Resilience: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2015. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/20672/developing-a-framework-for-measuring-community-resilience-summary-of-a
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

The 2012 National Research Council report Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative highlighted the challenges of increasing national resilience in the United States. One finding of the report was that "without numerical means of assessing resilience, it would be impossible to identify the priority needs for improvement, to monitor changes, to show that resilience had improved, or to compare the benefits of increasing resilience with the associated costs." Although measuring resilience is a challenge, metrics and indicators to evaluate progress, and the data necessary to establish the metric, are critical for helping communities to clarify and formalize what the concept of resilience means for them, and to support efforts to develop and prioritize resilience investments. One of the recommendations from the 2012 report stated that government entities at federal, state, and local levels and professional organizations should partner to help develop a framework for communities to adapt to their circumstances and begin to track their progress toward increasing resilience.

To build upon this recommendation and begin to help communities formulate such a framework, the Resilient America Roundtable of the National Academies convened the workshop Measures of Community Resilience: From Lessons Learned to Lessons Applied on September 5, 2014 in Washington, D.C. The workshop's overarching objective was to begin to develop a framework of measures and indicators that could support community efforts to increase their resilience. The framework will be further developed through feedback and testing in pilot and other partner communities that are working with the Resilient America Roundtable. This report is a summary of the one-day workshop, which consisted of a keynote address and two panel sessions in the morning and afternoon breakout sessions that began the discussion on how to develop a framework of resilience measures.

Patterns and Emerging Trends in Global Ocean Health

Halpern BS, Longo C, Lowndes JSStewart, Best BD, Frazier M, Katona SK, Kleisner KM, Rosenberg AA, Scarborough C, Selig ER. Patterns and Emerging Trends in Global Ocean Health. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2015 ;10(3):e0117863. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0117863
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

International and regional policies aimed at managing ocean ecosystem health need quantitative and comprehensive indices to synthesize information from a variety of sources, consistently measure progress, and communicate with key constituencies and the public. Here we present the second annual global assessment of the Ocean Health Index, reporting current scores and annual changes since 2012, recalculated using updated methods and data based on the best available science, for 221 coastal countries and territories. The Index measures performance of ten societal goals for healthy oceans on a quantitative scale of increasing health from 0 to 100, and combines these scores into a single Index score, for each country and globally. The global Index score improved one point (from 67 to 68), while many country-level Index and goal scores had larger changes. Per-country Index scores ranged from 41–95 and, on average, improved by 0.06 points (range -8 to +12). Globally, average scores increased for individual goals by as much as 6.5 points (coastal economies) and decreased by as much as 1.2 points (natural products). Annual updates of the Index, even when not all input data have been updated, provide valuable information to scientists, policy makers, and resource managers because patterns and trends can emerge from the data that have been updated. Changes of even a few points indicate potential successes (when scores increase) that merit recognition, or concerns (when scores decrease) that may require mitigative action, with changes of more than 10–20 points representing large shifts that deserve greater attention. Goal scores showed remarkably little covariance across regions, indicating low redundancy in the Index, such that each goal delivers information about a different facet of ocean health. Together these scores provide a snapshot of global ocean health and suggest where countries have made progress and where a need for further improvement exists.

Combining Genetic and Demographic Data for the Conservation of a Mediterranean Marine Habitat-Forming Species

Arizmendi-Mejía R, Linares C, Garrabou J, Antunes A, Ballesteros E, Cebrian E, Díaz D, Ledoux J-B. Combining Genetic and Demographic Data for the Conservation of a Mediterranean Marine Habitat-Forming Species. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2015 ;10(3):e0119585. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0119585
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The integration of ecological and evolutionary data is highly valuable for conservation planning. However, it has been rarely used in the marine realm, where the adequate design of marine protected areas (MPAs) is urgently needed. Here, we examined the interacting processes underlying the patterns of genetic structure and demographic strucuture of a highly vulnerable Mediterranean habitat-forming species (i.e. Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826)), with particular emphasis on the processes of contemporary dispersal, genetic drift, and colonization of a new population. Isolation by distance and genetic discontinuities were found, and three genetic clusters were detected; each submitted to variations in the relative impact of drift and gene flow. No founder effect was found in the new population. The interplay of ecology and evolution revealed that drift is strongly impacting the smallest, most isolated populations, where partial mortality of individuals was highest. Moreover, the eco-evolutionary analyses entailed important conservation implications for P. clavata. Our study supports the inclusion of habitat-forming organisms in the design of MPAs and highlights the need to account for genetic drift in the development of MPAs. Moreover, it reinforces the importance of integrating genetic and demographic data in marine conservation.

The Potential for Spatial Distribution Indices to Signal Thresholds in Marine Fish Biomass

Reuchlin-Hugenholtz E, Shackell NL, Hutchings JA. The Potential for Spatial Distribution Indices to Signal Thresholds in Marine Fish Biomass. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2015 ;10(3):e0120500. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0120500
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The frequently observed positive relationship between fish population abundance and spatial distribution suggests that changes in distribution can be indicative of trends in abundance. If contractions in spatial distribution precede declines in spawning stock biomass (SSB), spatial distribution reference points could complement the SSB reference points that are commonly used in marine conservation biology and fisheries management. When relevant spatial distribution information is integrated into fisheries management and recovery plans, risks and uncertainties associated with a plan based solely on the SSB criterion would be reduced. To assess the added value of spatial distribution data, we examine the relationship between SSB and four metrics of spatial distribution intended to reflect changes in population range, concentration, and density for 10 demersal populations (9 species) inhabiting the Scotian Shelf, Northwest Atlantic. Our primary purpose is to assess their potential to serve as indices of SSB, using fisheries independent survey data. We find that metrics of density offer the best correlate of spawner biomass. A decline in the frequency of encountering high density areas is associated with, and in a few cases preceded by, rapid declines in SSB in 6 of 10 populations. Density-based indices have considerable potential to serve both as an indicator of SSB and as spatially based reference points in fisheries management.

Ecology and Education in Marine Protected Areas: Insights from Brazil and South America

Berchez F, Mansilla A, Ghilardi-Lopes NP, Schwindt E, Leite K, Rozzi R. Ecology and Education in Marine Protected Areas: Insights from Brazil and South America. In: Earth Stewardship. Vol. 2. Earth Stewardship. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. pp. 351 - 366. Available from: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-12133-8_23
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book Chapter

South American coastal habitats include a wide range of benthic ecosystems, many of which are unique and constitute hotspots of biodiversity. Marine protected areas (MPAs), instituted mostly during the second half of the twentieth Century, are considered a key management tool to conserve regional biodiversity, prevent overexploitation, and generate economic benefits. Educational actions to promote changes in basic values, principles, and attitudes – although considered also as a main objective – frequently have a poor conceptual basis. In conjunction with the evaluation of their effectiveness by long-term, site-based ecological and socio-economic research, in Brazil MPAs are aiming to implement a holistic approach. This will allow the development and testing of environmental practices that integrate ecology, economy, ethics, and conflict resolution in the different uses of marine space. However, ecological long-term studies, socio-economic long-term evaluation, and the integration of education and ethics are still incipient. With the recent creation of some independent networks in different South American countries related to the assessment of biological communities, marine biologists of this continent are now focusing more on: (1) sharing methodologies and data to allow comparative and integrated continental analyses, and (2) integrating social components, including not only economic but also ethical values and participatory approaches. Toward this aim, the Chilean Long Term Socio- Ecological Research network (LTSER-Chile) has developed a Field Environmental Philosophy program that could be adapted to MPAs educational programs, and also contribute to the integration of ecology and ethics in theory and praxis for an Earth Stewardship initiative.

Understanding the Distribution of Marine Megafauna in the English Channel Region: Identifying Key Habitats for Conservation within the Busiest Seaway on Earth

McClellan CM, Brereton T, Dell'Amico F, Johns DG, Cucknell A-C, Patrick SC, Penrose R, Ridoux V, Solandt J-L, Stephan E, et al. Understanding the Distribution of Marine Megafauna in the English Channel Region: Identifying Key Habitats for Conservation within the Busiest Seaway on Earth. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2014 ;9(2):e89720. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0089720
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The temperate waters of the North-Eastern Atlantic have a long history of maritime resource richness and, as a result, the European Union is endeavouring to maintain regional productivity and biodiversity. At the intersection of these aims lies potential conflict, signalling the need for integrated, cross-border management approaches. This paper focuses on the marine megafauna of the region. This guild of consumers was formerly abundant, but is now depleted and protected under various national and international legislative structures. We present a meta-analysis of available megafauna datasets using presence-only distribution models to characterise suitable habitat and identify spatially-important regions within the English Channel and southern bight of the North Sea. The integration of studies from dedicated and opportunistic observer programmes in the United Kingdom and France provide a valuable perspective on the spatial and seasonal distribution of various taxonomic groups, including large pelagic fishes and sharks, marine mammals, seabirds and marine turtles. The Western English Channel emerged as a hotspot of biodiversity for megafauna, while species richness was low in the Eastern English Channel. Spatial conservation planning is complicated by the highly mobile nature of marine megafauna, however they are important components of the marine environment and understanding their distribution is a first crucial step toward their inclusion into marine ecosystem management.

Modelling the impacts of marine protected areas for mobile exploited fish populations and their fisheries: what we recently learnt and where we should be going

Grüss A. Modelling the impacts of marine protected areas for mobile exploited fish populations and their fisheries: what we recently learnt and where we should be going. Aquatic Living Resources [Internet]. 2014 ;27(3-4):107 - 133. Available from: http://www.alr-journal.org/10.1051/alr/2014013
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being considered and used for the management of fisheries targeting mobile fish populations. Here, the recent modelling literature on MPA effects for mobile fish populations and their fisheries is reviewed. Modelling studies conducted since 2011 have filled a considerable number of knowledge gaps on the impacts of MPAs for species exhibiting home-range behaviour, nomadic movements or behavioural polymorphism, and on the effects of “targeted MPAs”, which aim to protect relatively small areas where migratory fishes spend an inordinate fraction of time or are highly vulnerable to fishing (e.g., nursery or spawning zones). Also, in recent years, two studies investigated the consequences of MPAs targeting highly migratory (tuna-like) fish populations for the first time in the history of MPA modelling. Recent modelling studies found that MPAs aimed at protecting mobile species may have positive conservation effects under a relatively wide range of situations, but may generate long-term fisheries benefits only under a very limited set of conditions. In particular, MPAs were not found to be beneficial for the fisheries targeting highly migratory populations. Strategies producing both conservation and fisheries benefits were identified, which depend on fish movement patterns and numerous aspects of fish life history and fisheries dynamics. However, in view of the diversity of fish movement patterns in MPA systems and current dynamics in resource management, it is clear that additional modelling work is needed to fully understand how protected areas affect mobile fish populations and their fisheries and to be able to implement pertinent MPAs. In particular, future modelling studies should systematically assess the effects of MPAs in relation to other management tools to find strategies that are most effective in meeting management objectives, and explore the impacts of “dynamic” MPAs that follow highly migratory fish populations in space and time.

Evaluating the relative conservation value of fully and partially protected marine areas

Sciberras M, Jenkins SR, Mant R, Kaiser MJ, Hawkins SJ, Pullin AS. Evaluating the relative conservation value of fully and partially protected marine areas. Fish and Fisheries [Internet]. 2015 ;16(1):58 - 77. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/faf.12044/abstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs), particularly of no-take areas, is often viewed as a conflict between conservation and fishing. Partially protected areas (PPAs) that restrict some extractive uses are often regarded as a balance between biodiversity conservation and socio-economic viability. Few attempts have been made to generalize the ecological effects of PPAs. We synthesized the results of empirical studies that compared PPAs to (i) no-take reserves (NTRs) and (ii) to open access (Open) areas, to assess the potential benefits of different levels of protection for fish populations. Response to protection was examined in relation to MPA parameters and the exploitation status of fish. Our syntheses suggest that while PPAs significantly enhance density and biomass of fish relative to Open areas, NTRs yielded significantly higher biomass of fish within their boundaries relative to PPAs. The positive response to protection was primarily driven by target species. There was a large degree of variability in the magnitude of response to protection, although the size of the PPA explained some of this variability. The protection regime within the PPA provided useful insights into the effectiveness of partial MPAs. We conclude that MPAs with partial protection confer advantages, such as enhanced density and biomass of fish, compared to areas with no restrictions, although the strongest responses occurred for areas with total exclusion. Thus, MPAs with a combination of protection levels are a valuable spatial management tool particularly in areas where exclusion of all activities is not a socio-economically and politically viable option.

Environmental education and ecotourism concepts in Marine Protected Area of Armação de Búzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: reflections for the adoption of coastal ecotourism

Pedrini Ade Gusmão, Brotto DShimada, Ghilardi-Lopes NPirani, Lopes MCoronel, Ferreira LPegrucci. Environmental education and ecotourism concepts in Marine Protected Area of Armação de Búzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: reflections for the adoption of coastal ecotourism. Revista Brasileira de Ecoturismo [Internet]. 2015 ;8(1):59 - 73. Available from: http://www.sbecotur.org.br/rbecotur/seer/index.php/ecoturismo/article/view/838/780
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies and Global Responsibility (EESS) is aimed at transforming society and its negative impacts on the environment by way of financial and political emancipation, whence ecotourism becomes one of the best options towards environmental sustainability. This study aimed at evaluating social actors' conceptions on Environmental Education and ecotourism, in order to base the development of future marine-ecotourism activities in the Marine Environmental Protection Area of Armação de Búzios (MEPAAB). Sampling involved 73 respondents interested in the implementation of marine ecotourism in the area. Their concepts, as regards ecotourism and EESS, were analyzed according to individual profiles. The sample was mainly composed of Argentine and Brazilian tourists from the cities of Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro, when visiting MEPAAB. Since most of the concepts were limited to environmental conservation and public awareness, these were considered entirely or not entirely adequate. The results could not be significantly associated with the age of respondents or any other factor (Kruskal-Wallis, p>0.05). The concept of ecotourism was the better known. Even so, significant differences were observed only among the different classes by income. There were clear indications of the urgent application of EESS in the coastal environment, as a plausible management tool for the littoral municipalities of Rio de Janeiro State.

Fewer but Not Smaller Schools in Declining Fish and Krill Populations

Brierley AS, Cox MJ. Fewer but Not Smaller Schools in Declining Fish and Krill Populations. Current Biology [Internet]. 2015 ;25(1):75 - 79. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982214013712
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Many pelagic species (species that live in the water column), including herring and krill, aggregate to form schools, shoals, or swarms (hereafter simply “schools,” although the words are not synonyms). Schools provide benefits to individual members, including locomotory economy [1] and protection from predators that prey on individuals [2], but paradoxically make schooling species energetically viable and commercially attractive targets for predators of groups [3] and for fishers. Large schools are easier to find and yield greater prey/catch than small schools, and there is a requirement from fields as diverse as theoretical ecology and fisheries management to understand whether and how aggregation sizes change with changing population size. We collated data from vertical echosounder surveys of taxonomically diverse pelagic stocks from geographically diverse ecosystems [4, 5 and 6]. The data contain common significant positive linear stock-biomass to school-number relationships. They show that the numbers of schools in the stocks change with changing stock biomass and suggest that the distributions of school sizes do not change with stock biomass. New data that we collected using a multibeam sonar [7], which can image entire schools, contained the same stock-biomass to school-number relationship and confirm that the distribution of school sizes is not related to changing stock size: put simply, as stocks decline, individuals are distributed among fewer schools, not smaller schools. Since school characteristics affect catchability (the ease or difficulty with which fishers can capture target species) [8] and availability of prey to predators [3], our findings have commercial and ecological implications, particularly within the aspirational framework of ecosystem-based management of marine systems [9 and 10].

Environmental and socioeconomic assessment of a poorly known coastal section in the southern Mexican Caribbean

Figueroa-Zavala B, Correa-Sandoval J, Ruiz-Zárate M-Á, Weissenberger H, González-Solís D. Environmental and socioeconomic assessment of a poorly known coastal section in the southern Mexican Caribbean. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2015 ;110:25 - 37. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569115000575
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Uvero-Punta Piedras section, a low-developed coastal strip located in the southern area of Quintana Roo, Mexico, is experiencing habitat degradation driven by unplanned population sprawl, unregulated tourism expansion and overfishing. The main objective of this study is to provide an environmental (coastal vegetation and coral reef condition) and socioeconomic (human population condition) baseline data of a poorly documented and weakly managed zone by the use of a set of rapid assessment methodologies, looking to assist the regional efforts to manage these coastal resources. To achieve this goal we used a series of surveying methods including remote sensing, geographic information systems and in situ land/underwater surveys, to allow a broad characterization of the resources' condition in the study zone. Results showed that reef habitat was dominated by macro-algae (61.2 ± 7.6%), followed by soft coral (gorgonians, 12.4 ± 4.1%), hard coral (8.2 ± 5.1%) and sponges (2.5 ± 1.3%). Zooanthids and tunicates represented less than 1% of the total; coral and macro algae estimates suggest a decline from records of 15 years ago. Highest fish densities were (144 ± 124 individuals/100 m2), while lowest were (83 ± 25 individuals/100 m2). The total average fish density recorded could also be reflecting a decrease trend in the reef community structure. The main economic activities in the area are fishing and land clearing. From December 2003, 22% (corresponding to 44 ha) of the total original vegetation cover in the studied area was deforested. By February 2007, the deforested area increased 4.4 ha more. Should this tendency continue, by 2025 it would only maintain 24% of its total coastal vegetation cover representing a huge habitat loss. The future of economic activities in these areas lie directly on the establishment of appropriate management strategies for the protection and conservation of the renowned biodiversity that this area comprises.

Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia)

Iveša L, Djakovac T, Devescovi M. Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Marine Environmental Research [Internet]. 2015 ;107:1 - 7. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141113615000409
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The northern Adriatic Sea represents the northernmost and thus the coldest biogeographic sector of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2004, the invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea was recorded for the first time in the northern Adriatic at a site of the west Istrian Coast. Until 2010, additional C. cylindracea mats have only formed up to 7 km northward from the first colonisation site. Subsequently, the alga was also recorded at sites widespread along the entire coast. Both the first 2004 colonisation event and the 2011–2014 colonisation of distant sites occurred during periods of winter seawater temperatures higher than 9 °C. In general, algal spreading was markedly slow. Approximately 10 years after the first record, C. cylindracea has affected less than 1% of the entire west Istrian coastline. The colonisation predominantly occurred in ports and urbanised bays (seaside resorts) suggesting that anthropogenic activities might enhance algal diffusion.

Integrating socio-cultural perspectives into ecosystem service valuation: A review of concepts and methods

Scholte SSK, van Teeffelen AJA, Verburg PH. Integrating socio-cultural perspectives into ecosystem service valuation: A review of concepts and methods. Ecological Economics [Internet]. 2015 ;114:67 - 78. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800915000919
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Ecosystem service research has long been dominated by a monetary interpretation of value, neglecting other social perspectives on the importance of ecosystems for human well-being. Emphasis has been put on individual utility and rational choice, which does not adequately capture the full spectrum of social values of ecosystem services. A socio-cultural approach to value ecosystem services is increasingly advocated and is gaining more attention in the ecosystem service research agenda. The current documentation of socio-cultural perspectives on ecosystem services is, however, characterized by a conflation of the concepts of “cultural ecosystem services” and “socio-cultural values” of ecosystem services. This paper reviews (i) the concept of socio-cultural values within the ecosystem service framework, (ii) the social and ecological factors that determine socio-cultural values, and (iii) the methods by which socio-cultural values can be assessed. The clarifications of the concept of socio-cultural valuation and the structured listing of the available methods facilitate a better integration of socio-cultural values into ecosystem service assessments and help researchers to choose methods from the available portfolio.

Monetary valuation of the social cost of CO2 emissions: A critical survey

van den Bergh JCJM, Botzen WJW. Monetary valuation of the social cost of CO2 emissions: A critical survey. Ecological Economics [Internet]. 2015 ;114:33 - 46. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800915001007
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

An expanding branch of research has estimated the potential costs of climate change, which are often expressed as the “Social Cost of Carbon” (SCC) or the costs of an additional ton of CO2 emissions. Estimates of the SCC can be used by policy makers to evaluate climate change policies and greenhouse gas emission reduction projects by means of cost–benefit analyses (CBAs). Such analyses are complicated by the wide range of SCC values that have been reported in the literature, and the large uncertainties involved in estimating the potential economic impacts and related costs of climate change. This study presents a critical review of the reported SCC estimates by examining some neglected consequences of climate change, uncertain and extreme scenarios of climate change, the discounting of future climate change effects, the treatment of individual risk aversion, and assumptions about social welfare. In view of the many uncertainties and omissions in conventional cost–benefit analyses of climate impacts and the SCC, alternative approaches to decision-making should be considered for climate policy.

Australia's Oceans Policy: Past, present and future

Vince J, Smith ADM, Sainsbury KJ, Cresswell IDavid, Smith DC, Haward M. Australia's Oceans Policy: Past, present and future. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2015 ;57:1 - 8. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X15000494
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Australia has a large and diverse marine jurisdiction. A federal division of responsibilities matched with complex intergovernmental arrangements shapes management of this jurisdiction. This paper first outlines Australia׳s ocean governance arrangements and then reviews attempts to establish a national Australian Oceans Policy in the late 1990s. Notwithstanding attempts to implement an integrated policy framework across jurisdictions and sectors this ambitious policy framework has not met its original aspirations. However some new approaches have been introduced into a range of ocean sectors. The paper explores twenty plus years of oceans policy development and implementation and identifies key future challenges in implementing national oceans policy.

Video capture of crustacean fisheries data as an alternative to on-board observers

Hold N, Murray LG, Pantin JR, Haig JA, Kaiser MJ. Video capture of crustacean fisheries data as an alternative to on-board observers. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2015 . Available from: http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/doi/10.1093/icesjms/fsv030
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

For EU member states to meet the requirements of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the reformed Common Fisheries Policy, it will be necessary to improve data collection related to many fisheries that are at present subject to relatively little monitoring or scientific research. This study evaluated the use of on-board camera systems to collect data from Cancer pagurus and Homarus gammarus fisheries. We evaluated the reliability of the hardware and its ability to collect images of sufficient accuracy and precision compared with using on-board observers. Fishers and on-board observers passed animals removed from traps across a defined area. The relationship between the in situ and predicted measurements of carapace length of lobsters or carapace width (CW) of crabs was investigated. The mean difference between the predicted and real crab measurements was −0.853 mm with a standard error of 0.378 mm. Suggesting that the model tends to underestimate the real CW slightly. The mean difference between predicted and real data for lobsters was 0.085 mm with a standard error of 0.208 mm. Sex allocation for crabs based on video images was 100% accurate. All male lobsters were correctly assigned. For lobsters >86 mm in length, the correct female sex allocation was 100% accurate. For smaller lobsters, the accuracy of sex allocation decreased to a low of 51% in lobsters <70 mm. Camera systems were found to be a suitable method for collecting data on the size and sex of crabs and lobsters. The error attributable to using video data rather than manual measurement was less than 3 mm, which is sufficient to detect growth increments in these species. The requirements to collect basic species data are increasing and the ability to do so without on-board observers will reduce the cost implications of these requirements. Future computer automation of image extraction and measurements will increase the application of video systems for data collection.

Geographic Information System in a Multi-Criteria Tool for Mariculture Site Selection

Micael J, Costa AC, Aguiar P, Medeiros A, Calado H. Geographic Information System in a Multi-Criteria Tool for Mariculture Site Selection. Coastal Management [Internet]. 2015 ;43(1):52 - 66. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08920753.2014.985178
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The continuous growth in fish consumption and related activities is stressing the fishing industry worldwide. To counteract this, mariculture might represent an opportunity for consumers, industry and marine resource sustainability, as long as careful site selection is taken into consideration. The current study was developed to assess potential sites for the implementation of marine fish-cage industries on the Azores Archipelago (North Atlantic), through the application of a multi-criteria approach based on geographic information. Descriptors that may have either direct or indirect influences on the development of mariculture activity in the Açores were discriminated into factors and constraints and grouped into environmental, socioeconomic, and administrative categories. Factors were weighted and data integrated using geographic information system (GIS) methods. Suitability maps were generated and a total area of 17.7 km2 was identified as suitable for mariculture in São Miguel Island, segmented into different option levels. This multiple criteria approach provides the information necessary for stakeholders to realize the effects of each descriptor in possible implementation sites for mariculture. This will be a useful tool to improve environmental planning, management and decision-making for mariculture activities.

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