Microorganisms drive the biogeochemical cycles that link abiotic and biotic processes in the aqueous environment and are intricately associated with plastic debris. The presence of microplastics in water and sediment introduces new concerns as small particle size allows for increased pathways of microplastics in the food web and element cycles. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on microbe‐plastic interactions and summarize the potential impact of biogeochemical processes on plastic distribution, cycling, transport, and sedimentation. We explore how microbe‐plastic interactions influence the exposure of consumers to microplastics and plastic degradation products. Key methods used to elucidate biofilm development, microbial biodegradation, and microplastic detection in the aqueous environment are discussed. Finally, we comment on potential future questions and research directions needed to further define the role of microorganisms in the environmental fate of microplastics.
Marine microplastics pollution has been a new challenge to marine environmental protection. The research results have shown that microplastics exist everywhere in the ocean. However, understanding of the transport of microplastics in the ocean, including coastal zones, is not clear. This paper provides a holistic overview of the modelling of microplastic transportation. The transport processes are complex, including surface drifting, vertical mixing, beaching, and settling. Besides the dynamic conditions of oceans, the transportation of microplastics is influenced by their physical characteristics, such as size, shape, and density. For buoyant particles, a Lagrange track model is used to simulate the surface drift process, considering current, windage effect, and Stokes drift. It is difficult to observe the vertical mixing process of microplastics because of their small size (<5 mm), therefore the parameters of the vertical mixing process in the model are still less known. Large accumulation of microplastics in sediments may be a result of settlement and entrainment. Also, biofilm formation can increase their density and thus, deposition. Considering sedimentation of microplastics is somewhat different from sediment deposition, some primary parameters (e.g., diffusivity, Stokes-drift, settling rate, biofouling rate) are required in future studies to better understand the transport of marine microplastics.
Planktivorous pelagic fish are susceptible to accumulating microplastics (MP), which have the same size range as their prey and accumulate in their feeding and spawning grounds. We analyzed stomach contents of pelagic fish (European sardine, horse mackerel, anchovy, chub mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, and bogue) from Atlanto‐Iberian waters to investigate the relationship between MP ingestion, their diet composition and select a potential bioindicator. We found significant differences between diet of the studied fish species in terms of prey type and size. MP ingestion was significantly related to diet composition. Species with diets that include smaller prey (European sardine, chub mackerel, and bogue) had lower MP concentration in the stomachs than fish depending on larger mesozooplanktonic prey. Horse mackerel had the highest proportion of larger prey (> 1000 μm) and the highest MP abundance in the stomachs, and thus are a suitable bioindicator for MP monitoring in the pelagic Iberian ecosystem.
Aquaculture is one of the world’s fastest growing food production sectors and presents an opportunity for rural community development that can support coastal livelihoods. An ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA) has been recommended to facilitate socially and environmentally sustainable development, yet there remains a need to better involve people in planning and operational aspects. Community-based management may help to implement principles of the EAA; however, context-specific research is needed to understand its potential application and suitability. This research explores opportunities for community-based marine aquaculture (CBMA) for nonfinfish in the context of Nova Scotia, Canada, through a series of stakeholder interviews. Results suggest that all stakeholder groups interviewed were positive about the potential for CBMA to support sustainable aquaculture growth in the province; however, key questions around operationalizing CBMA remain. The aquaculture industry is on a continual path for growth worldwide and, therefore, it becomes increasingly important to proactively examine strategies such as CBMA that can help to facilitate EAA in a way that genuinely puts people at the centre of aquaculture development and governance.
Does humanity's future lie in the ocean? As demand for resources continues to grow and land-based sources decline, expectations for the ocean as an engine of human development are increasing. Claiming marine resources and space is not new to humanity, but the extent, intensity, and diversity of today's aspirations are unprecedented. We describe this as the blue acceleration—a race among diverse and often competing interests for ocean food, material, and space. Exploring what this new reality means for the global ocean and how to steer it in a sustainable and equitable way represents an urgent challenge.
With oceans under increasing pressure from human activities, sustainable development and conservation efforts are working to set meaningful targets for healthy oceans. Determining whether those targets are achieved requires indicators that measure status and progress. Here, I reflect upon lessons learned from a decade of developing and calculating the Ocean Health Index.
Oceans, seas, lakes and other waterbodies are increasingly suffering from too much plastic waste. Numerous sources are contributing to this plastic waste problem. Additionally, conventional fishing nets, made out of nylon, are causing environmental damage by disintegrating into microplastics. The breakdown process stops there, as these microscopic particles are non-biodegradable. Microplastics remain in waters for years causing harm to marine organisms that ingest them. Linen fishing nets are a valid alternative and more ecological production of nets. This study aims to compare the costs of these new linen nets with conventional nets. These costs can be related to the environmental benefits of these alternative nets. The research objective is to study the question under which conditions it would be optimal to choose linen nets over conventional (nylon) fishing nets. The conditions examined are economic and policy, environmental and technological. This research question is put into the wider context of microplastics. A rotation model, typically used in forest economics, is applied to analyze the optimal lengths of periods to renew both a linen and a nylon fishing net. A comparison of the costs is conducted and a subsidy-based policy instrument is determined for the fishers using linen nets.
A subsidy-based policy could be applied to make fishing enterprises in Finland use ecological fishing gear. The results suggest that the costs of such a policy would be reasonable, estimated between €1.1 and €4.5 million in this study. Importantly, an increase in the use of ecological nets would lead to a decrease in the total microplastic load in waterbodies.
The purpose of this research was to determine capture fisheries status in a sustainability perspective based on ecology, economy, social, technology and ethic dimensions. A data analysis method which used was Multidimensional Scaling with RAPFISH technique. All dimensions in this study were based on FAO's attribute and was modified based on fisheries condition in research location. Score multidimensional analysis is 45,69. These results indicate that the multidimensional sustainability status of capture fisheries on Bangka Island is in a less sustainable status. The result showed that ecology was the dimension which has the lowest score in order to support captured fisheries sustainability in Bangka Island. The result also formulated sensitive attribute in every condition and gave management recommendations for the sustainability of captured fisheries based on that attribute. This study showed the importance of dimension integration and stakeholder's teamwork multisectoral in order to manage the sustainability of captured fisheries.
In recent years, special attention has been paid to the issues of rational nature management and ecological state of the natural environment of the Arctic zone, given the important economic, social and environmental role of this region. The active industrial development of the Arctic zone unambiguously leads to a change in the living conditions of marine biological resources. The Arctic plays an important role in Russian fisheries. The paper considers the conceptual provisions of rational nature management in the conditions of industrial development of the Russian Arctic and identifies the problems and conditions for sustainable development of the Russian fisheries.
Indonesia is an archipelago country, catching fish is one of the sectors that is highly evolved in Indonesia. One of the waters in Indonesia which has great fishery potential is Pasuruan Regency in East Java. Lift net is a fishing tool that is still widely used by small-scale fishermen in Indonesia, formed rectangular which was operable in coastal waters at night by using light fishing. The purposes of this article are to investigate how to operate a lift net and to explore deeper about the management of lift net operation in Lekok Waters, Pasuruan Regency. Data collection was done by using observation, interview, active participation and documentation. This research discuss about boat and the equipment, catcher tool components, location, length time of trip, procedures of fishing, types of fish, tools maintenance and business management. Based on the analysis of Revenue Cost Ratio (R/C Ratio) proved R/C ratio is > 1, then the effort of catching fish by using lift net in Lekok Pasuruan is profitable. The value of BEP in units of the unit catchment is 1,278 kg, and the values BEP in-unit rupiah is Rp.9,064,516.
The paper reviews critical findings regarding the influence of fish marketing on local livelihoods and resources in a near shore African marine fishery. Literature search was conducted using search engines google scholar, scopus, and web of science using the key words: Fish, fish trade, global market, livelihood, marine/coastal, with the objectives of exploring the relationship between fish markets, livelihoods (at the household level) as well as the resource itself. In addition, country reports from research organizations (both published and unpublished) as well as FAO reports were consulted. The search was undertaken in November 2019. Results from literature search were analyzed thematically based on livelihood indicators including fish marketing channels, determinants of income, occupations and fish price transmission. Linkages vary with respect to fish type, species and usage type, highlighting the need for disaggregated analyses to respond to specific objectives and market factors. The review points out that not all fish types are exported/linked to the tourism industry and that even for those linked to the global market, the benefits do not trick down. A strong interaction between fish and local staple is evident, an indication that small scale fisheries are likely to have local benefits than benefits attributed to global market linkages.
The present article is based on the review of the current patent, scientific and technical sources. It indicates the main challenges of fishing industry in the North-West Russia with the Murmansk Region taken as an example. The basic fishing techniques, being employed by the local fishing companies, are considered. The article defines the main challenges of the Northern commercial fishing area resources exploration and sustainable use. It substantiates the necessity to increase the share of fishing tools with better selectivity. It is concluded that the raw-materials supply crisis is likely to set in the fish processing industry. The article analyses the existing methods of processing applied to the underutilized fishing grounds. It reveals a correlation between the intensiveness of research applied to specific fishing grounds and the consumer demand availability and scope. It is concluded that predominantly research is made with regard to the use of underutilized species for production of dietary supplements and components which alter some food properties. The article substantiates the necessity to use the non-conventional hydrobiont species for food production, based on the consumer demand data. A study of the main standards has been performed with regard to regulation of the hydrobiont catching issues. The article reviews the underutilized species of the Northern commercial fishing area which are most prospective from the production and processing point of view. It concludes with the prospects of the proposed option for the fishing industry development and its probable impact on the development of coastal infrastructure and of the whole region.
Storm surge and sea level rise (SLR) are affecting coastal communities, properties, and ecosystems. While coastal ecosystems, such as wetlands and marshes, have the capacity to reduce the impacts of storm surge and coastal flooding, the increasing rate of SLR can induce the transformation and migration of these natural habitats. In this study, we combined coastal storm surge modeling and economic analysis to evaluate the role of natural habitats in coastal flood protection. We focused on a selected cross-section of three coastal counties in New Jersey adjacent to the Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve (JCNERR) that is protected by wetlands and marshes. The coupled coastal hydrodynamic and wave models, ADCIRC+SWAN, were applied to simulate flooding from historical and synthetic storms in the Mid-Atlantic US for current and future SLR scenarios. The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was used to project the potential migration and habitat transformation in coastal marshes due to SLR in the year 2050. Furthermore, a counterfactual land cover approach, in which marshes are converted to open water in the model, was implemented for each storm scenario in the present and the future to estimate the amount of flooding that is avoided due to the presence of natural habitats and the subsequent reduction in residential property damage. The results indicate that this salt marshes can reduce up to 14% of both the flood depth and property damage during relatively low intensity storm events, demonstrating the efficacy of natural flood protection for recurrent storm events. Monetarily, this translates to the avoidance of up to $13.1 and $32.1 million in residential property damage in the selected coastal counties during the ‘50-year storm’ simulation and hurricane Sandy under current sea level conditions, and in the year ‘2050 SLR scenario’, respectively. This research suggests that protecting and preserving natural habitats can contribute to enhance coastal resilience.
High anthropogenic activity on the west coast of Karimun Besar Island contributes certain amount of wastes, especially plastics. Plastics will be degraded due to natural mechanism to smaller parts and known as microplastics. Small size and wide spread distribution has caused microplastics can be found widely in the waters and coastal areas. This study aims to determine type and abundance of microplastic in sediment on the west coast of Karimun Besar Island. Sampling of sediment for microplastic was determined based on hydrodynamic conditions by placing quadrat in the highest tidal boundary area. Sediment samples were collected in February 2019 using 4 inch PVC pipe from two different depth, i.e 0-10 and 10-20 cm. Separation of microplastic particles from sediments was carried out in Marine Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science University of Riau through several stages, namely (a) drying, (b) separation of densities and (c) sorting visually. The results of the study found only 3 types of microplastic, i.e. fragments, films and fibers. Microplastic abundance in sediments was found between 1976.67-2203.33 particles/kg of sediment with fibers being the dominant type. Fiber has the highest abundance in both depths followed by films and fragments. ANOVA and t-test analysis, showed that the quantity of microplastic between stations and between two different depths were not significantly different (p > 0,05).
Deeper economic integration within the Caribbean has been a regional policy priority since the establishment of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the decision to create the Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME). Implementation of integration initiatives has, however, been slow, despite the stated commitment of political leaders. The “implementation deficit” has led to skepticism about completing the CSME and controversy regarding its benefits. This paper analyzes how Caribbean integration has evolved, discusses the obstacles to progress, and explores the potential benefits from greater integration. It argues that further economic integration through liberalization of trade and labor mobility can generate significant macroeconomic benefits, but slow progress in completing the institutional arrangements has hindered implementation of the essential components of the CSME and progress in economic integration. Advancing institutional integration through harmonization and rationalization of key institutions and processes can reduce the fixed costs of institutions, providing the needed scale and boost to regional integration. Greater cooperation in several functional policy areas where the region is facing common challenges can also provide low-hanging fruit, creating momentum toward full integration as the Community continues to address the obstacles to full economic integration.
The Report Card 2020 summarises the latest evidence from 26 topics regarding the physical, ecological, and social and economic impacts of climate change on UK coasts and seas. New topics for this year include oxygen, cultural heritage, and transport and infrastructure.
More than 150 scientists from over 50 leading research organisations have contributed to this year’s Report Card, producing 26 peer-reviewed scientific reports which give detailed information regarding the evidence bases on UK marine climate change impacts.
Using a common experimental framework, this paper addresses both the question of the short-term and the long-lasting effects of temporary monetary and non-monetary incentive mechanisms on increasing individual contributions to the public good. The results show that both punishments and rewards significantly increase contributions compared to the baseline, but that monetary sanctions lead to the highest contributions, whereas non-monetary sanctions lead to the lowest contributions. The four types of incentives display long-lasting effects, i.e., contributions do not go back to baseline levels directly after the withdrawal of the incentives. However, rewards appear to have much stronger persistent effects than sanctions, revealing some sort of delayed reciprocity.
Arctic tourism has rapidly increased in the past two decades. We used social media data to examine localized tourism booms and quantify the spatial expansion of the Arctic tourism footprint. We extracted geotagged locations from over 800,000 photos on Flickr and mapped these across space and time. We critically examine the use of social media as a data source in data-poor regions, and find that while social media data is not suitable as an early warning system of tourism growth in less visited parts of the world, it can be used to map changes at large spatial scales. Our results show that the footprint of summer tourism quadrupled and winter tourism increased by over 600% between 2006 and 2016, although large areas of the Arctic remain untouched by tourism. This rapid increase in the tourism footprint raises concerns about the impacts and sustainability of tourism on Arctic ecosystems and communities. This boom is set to continue, as new parts of the Arctic are being opened to tourism by melting sea ice, new airports and continued promotion of the Arctic as a ‘last chance to see’ destination. Arctic societies face complex decisions about whether this ongoing growth is socially and environmentally sustainable.
Identifying strategies to maintain seafood supply is central to global food supply. China is the world’s largest producer of seafood and has used a variety of production methods in the ocean including domestic capture fisheries, aquaculture (both freshwater and marine), stock enhancement, artificial reef building, and distant water fisheries. Here we survey the outcomes of China’s marine seafood production strategies, with particular attention paid to the associated costs, benefits, and risks. Benefits identified include high production, low management costs, and high employment, but significant costs and risks were also identified. For example, a majority of fish in China’s catches are one year-old, ecosystem and catch composition has changed relative to the past, wild and farmed stocks can interact both negatively and positively, distant water fisheries are a potential source of conflict, and disease has caused crashes in mariculture farms. Reforming China’s wild capture fisheries management toward strategies used by developed nations would continue to shift the burden of production to aquaculture and could have negative social impacts due to differences in fishing fleet size and behavior, ecosystem structure, and markets. Consequently, China may need to develop novel management methods in reform efforts, rather than rely on examples from other large seafood producing countries. Improved accounting of production from fisheries and aquaculture, harmonization and centralization of historical data sets and systematic scientific surveys would improve the knowledge base for planning and evaluating future reform.
Marine debris is a solid material that is either accidentally or accidentally disposed of in a river that empties into the sea or is left directly in the sea. The research on marine debris is carried out in the estuary and mangrove forest areas of Kendari Bay which is assumed to be accommodated garbage sites that enter the coastal area. The purpose of this study is to identify the types of composition and potential sources of marine waste contributors found in several river estuaries and mangrove forest areas, to know the density of marine debris and to mapping the distribution of marine debris from several river estuaries and mangrove forest in Kendari Bay. This research was conducted by survey method and using 5x5 quadratic plots in a random sampling. The data obtained were analyzed statistically and map overlays. The results showed that the composition of marine debris types in mangrove ecosystems and estuaries in Kendari bay generally consisted of plastic (plastic bottles, plastic bags, ropes, pipettes, plastic cups), metals (beverage cans), rubber, glass (glass bottles) and others (cloth, paper and others) with the dominant amount of plastic waste. The highest total density of waste types in the four locations in the mangrove ecosystem and river estuary in Kendari Bay is at station 1 (Lahundape Mangrove Tracking Area). The density of plastic waste dominates the four locations in the mangrove ecosystem with the highest value of 3,024 items/m2 in the mangrove ecosystem around the estuary of Mandonga and Lahundape. The high distribution of marine debris in the mangrove ecosystem is found at station 1 and station 2 because it is directly related to the river flow which contributes greatly to marine debris input in Kendari Bay.