Literature Library

Currently indexing 8373 titles

Comparing Dynamic and Static Time-Area Closures for Bycatch Mitigation: A Management Strategy Evaluation of a Swordfish Fishery

Smith JA, Tommasi D, Welch H, Hazen EL, Sweeney J, Brodie S, Muhling B, Stohs SM, Jacox MG. Comparing Dynamic and Static Time-Area Closures for Bycatch Mitigation: A Management Strategy Evaluation of a Swordfish Fishery. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2021 ;8. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.630607/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1585058_45_Marine_20210325_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Time-area closures are a valuable tool for mitigating fisheries bycatch. There is increasing recognition that dynamic closures, which have boundaries that vary across space and time, can be more effective than static closures at protecting mobile species in dynamic environments. We created a management strategy evaluation to compare static and dynamic closures in a simulated fishery based on the California drift gillnet swordfish fishery, with closures aimed at reducing bycatch of leatherback turtles. We tested eight operating models that varied swordfish and leatherback distributions, and within each evaluated the performance of three static and five dynamic closure strategies. We repeated this under 20 and 50% simulated observer coverage to alter the data available for closure creation. We found that static closures can be effective for reducing bycatch of species with more geographically associated distributions, but to avoid redistributing bycatch the static areas closed should be based on potential (not just observed) bycatch. Only dynamic closures were effective at reducing bycatch for more dynamic leatherback distributions, and they generally reduced bycatch risk more than they reduced target catch. Dynamic closures were less likely to redistribute fishing into rarely fished areas, by leaving open pockets of lower risk habitat, but these closures were often fragmented which would create practical challenges for fishers and managers and require a mobile fleet. Given our simulation’s catch rates, 20% observer coverage was sufficient to create useful closures and increasing coverage to 50% added only minor improvement in closure performance. Even strict static or dynamic closures reduced leatherback bycatch by only 30–50% per season, because the simulated leatherback distributions were broad and open areas contained considerable bycatch risk. Perfect knowledge of the leatherback distribution provided an additional 5–15% bycatch reduction over a dynamic closure with realistic predictive accuracy. This moderate level of bycatch reduction highlights the limitations of redistributing fishing effort to reduce bycatch of broadly distributed and rarely encountered species, and indicates that, for these species, spatial management may work best when used with other bycatch mitigation approaches. We recommend future research explores methods for considering model uncertainty in the spatial and temporal resolution of dynamic closures.

An Operational Numerical System for Oil Stranding Risk Assessment in a High-Density Vessel Traffic Area

Quattrocchi G, Simeone S, Pes A, Sorgente R, Ribotti A, Cucco A. An Operational Numerical System for Oil Stranding Risk Assessment in a High-Density Vessel Traffic Area. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2021 ;8. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.585396/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1585058_45_Marine_20210325_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In the Mediterranean Sea unique environmental characteristics and sensitive assets coexist with intense maritime traffic that is represented by frequent daily passages of vessels along the main waterways. In order to assess the risk of oil stranding in case of at-sea emergencies and provide key products for environmental agencies or policymakers preparedness, a geographically relocatable, operational numerical system is implemented and tested. The system relies on the application of oceanographic and particle tracking models and is able to provide, on a high-resolution and unstructured computational grid, a 3-days forecast of those variables known as the main drivers of oil slicks at sea. The risk of potential oil stranding is computed through a combination of anthropogenic hazard and shoreline vulnerability. The sources of hazard vary on time and space in relation to local maritime vessel traffic. The shoreline vulnerability is based on the current knowledge of slope, main grain size, geology of rocks, and occurrence of manmade structures at coast. The operational system is enriched by a web graphical user interface and includes automatic and on-demand working modes. Its functionality is demonstrated in the Strait of Bonifacio (western Mediterranean Sea), area with a high potential risk of oil stranding due to an intense maritime traffic. Risk assessment is hence computed for a test year, the 2018. Critical values of risk are found in correspondence of long stretches of littoral while many of them are currently characterized by a low anthropogenic pressure. The results emphasize the geomorphological features of the shorelines as reducing or amplifying factors to any potential impact of oil stranding at coast.

Environmental Awareness Gained During a Citizen Science Project in Touristic Resorts Is Maintained After 3 Years Since Participation

Meschini M, Prati F, Simoncini GA, Airi V, Caroselli E, Prada F, Marchini C, Toffolo MMachado, Branchini S, Brambilla V, et al. Environmental Awareness Gained During a Citizen Science Project in Touristic Resorts Is Maintained After 3 Years Since Participation. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2021 ;8. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.584644/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1585058_45_Marine_20210325_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Tourism is one of the largest economic sectors in the world. It has a positive effect on the economy of many countries, but it can also lead to negative impacts on local ecosystems. Informal environmental education through Citizen Science (CS) projects can be effective in increasing citizen environmental knowledge and awareness in the short-term. A change of awareness could bring to a behavioral change in the long-term, making tourism more sustainable. However, the long-term effects of participating in CS projects are still unknown. This is the first follow-up study concerning the effects of participating in a CS project on cognitive and psychological aspects at the basis of pro-environmental behavior. An environmental education program was developed, between 2012 and 2013, in a resort in Marsa Alam, Egypt. The study directly evaluated, through paper questionnaires, the short-term (after 1 week or 10 days) retention of knowledge and awareness of volunteers that had participated in the activities proposed by the program. After three years, participants were re-contacted via email to fill in the same questionnaire as in the short-term study, plus a new section with psychological variables. 40.5% of the re-contacted participants completed the follow-up questionnaires with a final sample size of fifty-five people for this study. Notwithstanding the limited sample size, positive trends in volunteer awareness, personal satisfaction regarding the CS project, and motivation to engage in pro-environmental behavior in the long-term were observed.

An Inverted Management Strategy for the Fishery of Endangered Marine Species

Pinheiro HT, Nunes JACC, Coni EOC, Almeida ECG, Sampaio CLS, Ferreira CEL, Meirelles PM, Hostim-Silva M, Pereira PHC, Giglio VJ, et al. An Inverted Management Strategy for the Fishery of Endangered Marine Species. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2021 ;8. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.604108/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1585058_45_Marine_20210325_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Overfishing is notorious for triggering population collapses and disrupting marine biological functioning worldwide. To counter such a threat, policy-makers have created and implemented multiple management strategies, but most were incapable to prevent the decline of several key species. Here, we discuss a new management strategy in force since June 2019 in Brazil that aims to deter the overfishing of parrotfish species of the genera Scarus and Sparisoma. This innovative strategy, here referred to as inverted management, allows the capture of endangered parrotfish species inside management areas, such as partially protected marine areas—MPAs, but bans it elsewhere. This initiative is supposed to be built in a partnership among the government, scientists, managers, and fishers. If implemented correctly, endangered species would recover in the much larger area outside MPAs, and fishers would benefit from the conservation-value of the scarce and valued product. However, to succeed, the strategy depends on the adoption of a series of challenging management rules that are not currently being enforced along an extensive coastline. So far, few MPAs have incorporated rules for endangered species in their management plan, and those that have done so have no plans or the means to enforce them. Therefore, fishing of endangered species is currently ongoing without any management or monitoring in the entire Brazilian coast. Concerned with the challenges to develop plans to recover populations of endangered species faced by Brazilian managers, we suggest wide communication and a ban on the fisheries until management plans are implemented. Additionally, we suggest that the effectiveness of the inverted management strategy for parrotfishes should be assessed before it’s applied to other endangered species.

 

Marine Litter Windrows: A Strategic Target to Understand and Manage the Ocean Plastic Pollution

Cózar A, Aliani S, Basurko OC, Arias M, Isobe A, Topouzelis K, Rubio A, Morales-Caselles C. Marine Litter Windrows: A Strategic Target to Understand and Manage the Ocean Plastic Pollution. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2021 ;8. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.571796/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1585058_45_Marine_20210325_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Windrow is a long-established term for the aggregations of seafoam, seaweeds, plankton and natural debris that appear on the ocean surface. Here, we define a “litter windrow” as any aggregation of floating litter at the submesoscale domain (<10 km horizontally), regardless of the force inducing the surface convergence, be it wind or other forces such as tides or density-driven currents. The marine litter windrows observed to date usually form stripes from tens up to thousands of meters long, with litter densities often exceeding 10 small items (<2 cm) per m2 or 1 large item (>2 cm) per 10 m2. Litter windrows are generally overlooked in research due to their dispersion, small size and ephemeral nature. However, applied research on windrows offers unique possibilities to advance on the knowledge and management of marine litter pollution. Litter windrows are hot spots of interaction with marine life. In addition, since the formation of dense litter windrows requires especially high loads of floating litter in the environment, their detection from space-borne sensors, aerial surveys or other platforms might be used to flag areas and periods of severe pollution. Monitoring and assessing of management plans, identification of pollution sources, or impact prevention are identified as some of the most promising fields of application for the marine litter windrows. In the present Perspective, we develop a conceptual framework and point out the main obstacles, opportunities and methodological approaches to address the study of litter windrows.

Coastlines, Coastal Cities, and Climate Change: A Perspective on Urgent Research Needs in the United States

Sandifer PA, Scott GI. Coastlines, Coastal Cities, and Climate Change: A Perspective on Urgent Research Needs in the United States. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2021 ;8. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.631986/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1585058_45_Marine_20210325_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This paper builds upon Friedman et al. (2020) and other reviews and statements but provides an explicit focus on research needed to improve the resilience and survivability of coastal communities as they face existential threats from climate change. It does not attempt a prescriptive analysis of potential research emphases, but instead recommends some key research areas that we believe will help provide a solid foundation for community adaptation. Our perspective is based on our experiences over a combined nearly 95 years of work in research, management, and policy, much of it related to coastal environments and their communities, rather than expert deliberation within a large group or a systematic review. We present a list of 25 research priorities binned into 12 categories and targeted to leaders of coastal communities, interested researchers, funders, students, and the public. These priorities are intended to help start more discussion of research needs with and within communities, and help focus attention of researchers on actions that have potential to identify critical decision points and make positive differences for communities. We conclude that priority research should be undertaken with urgency and a much greater level of trans- and interdisciplinarity and community-participatory approaches than yet seen.

A Multi-Sensor and Modeling Approach for Mapping Light Under Sea Ice During the Ice-Growth Season

Stroeve J, Vancoppenolle M, Veyssiere G, Lebrun M, Castellani G, Babin M, Karcher M, Landy J, Liston GE, Wilkinson J. A Multi-Sensor and Modeling Approach for Mapping Light Under Sea Ice During the Ice-Growth Season. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2021 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.592337/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1585058_45_Marine_20210325_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Arctic sea ice is shifting from a year-round to a seasonal sea ice cover. This substantial transformation, via a reduction in Arctic sea ice extent and a thinning of its thickness, influences the amount of light entering the upper ocean. This in turn impacts under-ice algal growth and associated ecosystem dynamics. Field campaigns have provided valuable insights as to how snow and ice properties impact light penetration at fixed locations in the Arctic, but to understand the spatial variability in the under-ice light field there is a need to scale up to the pan-Arctic level. Combining information from satellites with state-of-the-art parameterizations is one means to achieve this. This study combines satellite and modeled data products to map under-ice light on a monthly time-scale from 2011 through 2018. Key limitations pertain to the availability of satellite-derived sea ice thickness, which for radar altimetry, is only available during the sea ice growth season. We clearly show that year-to-year variability in snow depth, along with the fraction of thin ice, plays a key role in how much light enters the Arctic Ocean. This is particularly significant in April, which in some regions, coincides with the beginning of the under-ice algal bloom, whereas we find that ice thickness is the main driver of under-ice light availability at the end of the melt season in October. The extension to the melt season due to a warmer Arctic means that snow accumulation has reduced, which is leading to positive trends in light transmission through snow. This, combined with a thinner ice cover, should lead to increased under-ice PAR also in the summer months.

Innovative Aquaculture for the Poor to Adjust to Environmental Change in Coastal Bangladesh? Barriers and Options for Progress

Selim SAhmed, Glaser M, Tacke FIlse, Rahman M, Ahmed N. Innovative Aquaculture for the Poor to Adjust to Environmental Change in Coastal Bangladesh? Barriers and Options for Progress. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2021 ;8. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.635281/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1585058_45_Marine_20210325_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

More so than wealthier, less nature-dependent social groups, the poor in tropical coastal regions suffer from adverse environmental change and need new income options. With high levels of saltwater intrusion into coastal lands, innovative brackish water aquaculture (BWA) including integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) are crucial adaptation options to the expanding marine waters. This article examines how poor Bangladeshi coastal residents view BWA, and what is needed to make BWA a viable and sustainable livelihood for the coastal poor. In sites that are affected by major salinity intrusion, we used a semi-structured questionnaire to interview 120 households. We examine three questions: (1) What kind of aquaculture is currently being undertaken in brackish/saline/coastal waters? (2) Do poor coastal residents see BWA (and, by implication the hitherto fairly unknown IMTA) as a viable and sustainable livelihood? (3) What is needed to make BWA a feasible and promising livelihood in Bangladesh? Our results show both information and perception biases obstruct in particular coastal poor women and men from engaging with innovative BWA. Their knowledge on ecosystem-based aquaculture was scarce and their views of aquaculture were related mainly to previous experiences with shrimp monoculture and its polarizing socio-economic effects. We propose some strategic fields of action to develop innovative BWA that also benefits coastal Bangladesh’s poorest people.

High photosynthetic plasticity may reinforce invasiveness of upside-down zooxanthellate jellyfish in Mediterranean coastal waters

Mammone M, Ferrier-Pagés C, Lavorano S, Rizzo L, Piraino S, Rossi S. High photosynthetic plasticity may reinforce invasiveness of upside-down zooxanthellate jellyfish in Mediterranean coastal waters Campbell DA. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2021 ;16(3):e0248814. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248814
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Ecological profiling of non-native species is essential to predict their dispersal and invasiveness potential across different areas of the world. Cassiopea is a monophyletic taxonomic group of scyphozoan mixotrophic jellyfish including Candromeda, a recent colonizer of sheltered, shallow-water habitats of the Mediterranean Sea, such as harbors and other light-limited, eutrophic coastal habitats. To assess the ecophysiological plasticity of Cassiopea jellyfish and their potential to spread across the Mare Nostrum by secondary introductions, we investigated rapid photosynthetic responses of jellyfish to irradiance transitions—from reduced to increased irradiance conditions (as paradigm of transition from harbors to coastal, meso/oligotrophic habitats). Laboratory incubation experiments were carried out to compare oxygen fluxes and photobiological variables in Cassiopea sp. immature specimens pre-acclimated to low irradiance (PAR = 200 μmol photons m2 s1) and specimens rapidly exposed to higher irradiance levels (PAR = 500 μmol photons m2 s1). Comparable photosynthetic potential and high photosynthetic rates were measured at both irradiance values, as also shown by the rapid light curves. No significant differences were observed in terms of symbiont abundance between control and treated specimens. However, jellyfish kept at the low irradiance showed a higher content in chlorophyll a and c (0.76±0.51SD vs 0.46±0.13SD mg g-1 AFDW) and a higher Ci (amount of chlorophyll per cell) compared to jellyfish exposed to higher irradiance levels. The ratio between gross photosynthesis and respiration (P:R) was >1, indicating a significant input from the autotrophic metabolism. Cassiopea sp. specimens showed high photosynthetic performances, at both low and high irradiance, demonstrating high potential to adapt to sudden changes in light exposure. Such photosynthetic plasticity, combined with Cassiopea eurythermal tolerance and mixotrophic behavior, jointly suggest the upside-down jellyfish as a potentially successful invader in the scenario of a warming Mediterranean Sea.

Think of the Early Career Researchers! Saving the Oceans Through Collaborations

Cosentino M, Souviron-Priego L. Think of the Early Career Researchers! Saving the Oceans Through Collaborations. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2021 ;8. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.574620/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1585058_45_Marine_20210325_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Oceans are complex systems and problems preventing a sustainable future require complex solutions. This can be achieved through innovative blends of natural and social sciences, with input from stakeholders. There is growing expectation that early career researchers (ECR), especially conservationists, should be more than natural scientists. ECR are expected to have skills in several domains, not all important to the quality of their work. Scientific skills range from knowledge of complex statistics to programming, and experience in different scientific fields. It is not only impossible to master all such tasks in a lifetime, much less as an ECR, but most importantly, attempting to do so means an ECR cannot master any single skill. This is especially true for minorities, non-native English speakers, and those who must juggle doing science with little or no funding, while having other jobs and family commitments. ECR are also expected to participate in activities that, while important for conservation, do not necessarily improve their scientific skills. These are social skills and range from policy engagement to science communication. This can contribute to developing mental health issues as it hinders having a healthy work-life balance. This expectation of engaging in extracurricular activities can overwhelm people with social anxiety and other difficulties with social interactions (e.g., people in the autism spectrum). Through collaborations, we can effectively draw on the more specialized skills of various people. Building an inclusive scientific community for ECR, therefore, calls for seeing diversity of skills, thoughts, and personality traits as its strength.

Using species connectivity to achieve coordinated large-scale marine conservation efforts in the Red Sea

Gajdzik L, Green AL, Cochran JEM, Hardenstine RS, Tanabe LK, Berumen ML. Using species connectivity to achieve coordinated large-scale marine conservation efforts in the Red Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2021 ;166:112244. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X21002782?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In the face of increasing anthropogenic threats, coastal nations need to reach common ground for effective marine conservation. Understanding species' connectivity can reveal how nations share resources, demonstrating the need for cooperative protection efforts. Unfortunately, connectivity information is rarely integrated into the design of marine protected areas (MPAs). This is exemplified in the Red Sea where biodiversity is only nominally protected by a non-cohesive network of small-sized MPAs, most of which are barely implemented. Here, we showcase the potential of using connectivity patterns of flagship species to consolidate conservation efforts in the Red Sea. We argue that a large-scale MPA (LSMPA) would more effectively preserve Red Sea species' multinational migration routes. A connectivity-informed LSMPA approach provides thus one avenue to unite coastal nations toward acting for the common good of conservation and reverse the global decline in marine biodiversity.

The Copernicus Sentinel-6 mission: Enhanced continuity of satellite sea level measurements from space

Donlon CJ, Cullen R, Giulicchi L, Vuilleumier P, C. Francis R, Kuschnerus M, Simpson W, Bouridah A, Caleno M, Bertoni R, et al. The Copernicus Sentinel-6 mission: Enhanced continuity of satellite sea level measurements from space. Remote Sensing of Environment [Internet]. 2021 ;258:112395. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425721001139?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Given the considerable range of applications within the European Union Copernicus system, sustained satellite altimetry missions are required to address operational, science and societal needs. This article describes the Copernicus Sentinel-6 mission that is designed to provide precision sea level, sea surface heightsignificant wave height, inland water heights and other products tailored to operational services in the ocean, climate, atmospheric and land Copernicus Services. Sentinel-6 provides enhanced continuity to the very stable time series of mean sea level measurements and ocean sea state started in 1992 by the TOPEX/Poseidon mission and follow-on Jason-1, Jason-2 and Jason-3 satellite missions. The mission is implemented through a unique international partnership with contributions from NASA, NOAA, ESA, EUMETSAT, and the European Union (EU). It includes two satellites that will fly sequentially (separated in time by 5 years). The first satellite, named Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich, launched from Vandenburg Air Force Base, USA on 21st November 2020. The satellite and payload elements are explained including required performance and their operation. The main payload is the Poseidon-4 dual frequency (C/Ku-band) nadir-pointing radar altimeter that uses an innovative interleaved mode. This enables radar data processing on two parallel chains the first provides synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing in Ku-band to improve the received altimeter echoes through better along-track sampling and reduced measurement noise; the second provides a Low Resolution Mode that is fully backward-compatible with the historical reference altimetry measurements, allowing a complete inter-calibration between the state-of-the-art data and the historical record. A three-channel Advanced Microwave Radiometer for Climate (AMRsingle bondC) provides measurements of atmospheric water vapour to mitigate degradation of the radar altimeter measurements. The main data products are explained and preliminary in-orbit Poseidon-4 altimeter data performance data are presented that demonstrate the altimeter to be performing within expectations.

Managing multiple pressures for cetaceans’ conservation with an Ecosystem-Based Marine Spatial Planning approach

Carlucci R, Manea E, Ricci P, Cipriano G, Fanizza C, Maglietta R, Gissi E. Managing multiple pressures for cetaceans’ conservation with an Ecosystem-Based Marine Spatial Planning approach. Journal of Environmental Management [Internet]. 2021 ;287:112240. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479721003029?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Despite the recognized important ecological role that cetaceans play in the marine environment, their protection is still scarcely enforced in the Mediterranean Sea even though this area is strongly threatened by local human pressures and climate change. The piecemeal of knowledge related to cetaceans' ecology and distribution in the basin undermines the capacity of addressing cetaceans' protection and identifying effective conservation strategies. In this study, an Ecosystem-Based Marine Spatial Planning (EB-MSP) approach is applied to assess human pressures on cetaceans and guide the designation of a conservation area in the Gulf of Taranto, Northern Ionian Sea (Central-eastern Mediterranean Sea). The Gulf of Taranto hosts different cetacean species that accomplish important phases of their life in the area. Despite this fact, the gulf does not fall within any area-based management tools (ABMTs) for cetacean conservation. We pin down the Gulf of Taranto being eligible for the designation of diverse ABMTs for conservation, both legally and non-legally binding. Through a risk-based approach, this study explores the cause-effect relationships that link any human activities and pressures exerted in the study area to potential effects on cetaceans, by identifying major drivers of potential impacts. These were found to be underwater noise, marine litter, ship collision, and competition and disturbance on preys. We draw some recommendations based on different sources of available knowledge produced so far in the area (i.e., empirical evidence, scientific and grey literature, and expert judgement) to boost cetaceans’ conservation. Finally, we stress the need of sectoral coordination for the management of human activities by applying an EB-MSP approach and valuing the establishment of an ABMT in the Gulf of Taranto.

Marine ecosystem indicators are sensitive to ecosystem boundaries and spatial scale

Heim KC, Thorne LH, Warren JD, Link JS, Nye JA. Marine ecosystem indicators are sensitive to ecosystem boundaries and spatial scale. Ecological Indicators [Internet]. 2021 ;125:107522. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X21001874?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Time series indicators are widely used in ecosystem-based management. A suite of indicators is typically calculated for a static region or multiple subregions and presented in an ecosystem assessment (EA). These are used to guide management decisions or determine environmental status. Yet, few studies have examined how the spatial scale of an EA influences indicator behavior. We explore this question using the Northwest Atlantic continental shelf ecosystem (USA). We systematically divided the ecosystem at six spatial scales (31 unique units), covering spatial extents from 250,000 km2 to 20,000 km2. The same 22 indicators were calculated for each unit, assessed for trends, and evaluated as 31 independent EAs. We found that the detected signals of indicator trends depended on the spatial scale at which the ecosystem was defined. A single EA for the whole region differed by 23% (in terms of the 22 indicator trend tests) relative to ones for spatially nested 120,000 km2 subunits, and by up to 36% for EAs at smaller scales. Indicator trend disagreement occurred because (most common) a localized trend was perceived as widespread, (common) a local trend was obscured by aggregating data over a large region, or (least common) a local trend switched direction when examined at a broader scale. Yet, there was variation among indicators in their scale sensitivity related to trophic level. Indicators of temperature, chlorophyll-a, and zooplankton were spatially coherent: trends portrayed were similar regardless of scale. Mid-trophic level indicators (fish and invertebrates) showed more spatial variation in trends. We also compared trend magnitude and indicator values to spatial extent and found relationships consistent with scaling theory. Indicators at broad scales produced subdued trends and values relative to indicators developed at smaller spatial scales, which often portrayed ‘hotspots’ of local abundance or strong trend. Our results imply that subsequent uses of indicators (e.g., determining environmental status, risk assessments, management decisions) are also sensitive to ecosystem delineation and scale. We suggest that indicators and EAs should be done at multiple spatial scales and complimented with spatially explicit analysis to reflect the hierarchical structure of ecosystems. One scale is not best, but rather we gain a new level of understanding at each scale examined that can contribute to management decisions in a multiscale governance framework characterized by goals and objectives with relevance at different scales.

Wind energy's bycatch: Offshore wind deployment impacts on hydropower operation and migratory fish

Pfeiffer O, Nock D, Baker E. Wind energy's bycatch: Offshore wind deployment impacts on hydropower operation and migratory fish. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews [Internet]. 2021 ;143:110885. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032121001799?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Hydropower plays a key role in maintaining grid reliability, but there is uncertainty regarding the ecological implications of using hydropower to balance variability from high penetration of intermittent renewable resources, such as solar and wind. Hydropower can offer advantages at the macro-ecological level (e.g., reduced greenhouse gas emissions), however it may have significant environmental impact on a local level (e.g., increased risk to fish species during migration and breeding periods). Using the New England region as a case study, we use an electricity model to estimate how hydropower operation changes as offshore wind capacity increases at a system level. We then tie alterations in hydropower energy production to local impacts on riverine ecosystems and the lifecycle of migratory fish. We find that increasing offshore wind capacity from 1600 to 10,000 MW more than doubles the average hourly hydropower ramping need and the associated river flowrate during April. This increased flowrate aligns with the migration timing of the lone endangered fish species on the Connecticut River, the shortnose sturgeon. Alternatively, the majority of months in which hydropower operation is most strongly impacted by the addition of offshore wind capacity do not coincide with key fish lifecycle events. Other sustainability benefits, including reduced air pollution and water consumption, can be achieved through deployments of offshore wind. Our results suggest that in order to balance global (i.e., CO2 mitigation) and local (i.e., fish migration) environmental issues, a portfolio of solutions is needed to address grid integration of renewables.

Advancing Sustainable Development and Protected Area Management with Social Media-Based Tourism Data

Arkema KK, Fisher DM, Wyatt K, Wood SA, Payne HJ. Advancing Sustainable Development and Protected Area Management with Social Media-Based Tourism Data. Sustainability [Internet]. 2021 ;13(5):2427. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/5/2427
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Sustainable tourism involves increasingly attracting visitors while preserving the natural capital of a destination for future generations. To foster tourism while protecting sensitive environments, coastal managers, tourism operators, and other decision-makers benefit from information about where tourists go and which aspects of the natural and built environment draw them to particular locations. Yet this information is often lacking at management-relevant scales and in remote places. We tested and applied methods using social media as data on tourism in The Bahamas. We found that visitation, as measured by numbers of geolocated photographs, is well correlated with counts of visitors from entrance surveys for islands and parks. Using this relationship, we predicted nearly 4 K visitor-days to the network of Bahamian marine protected areas annually, with visitation varying more than 20-fold between the most and least visited parks. Next, to understand spatial patterns of tourism for sustainable development, we combined social media-based data with entrance surveys for Andros, the largest island in The Bahamas. We estimated that tourists spend 125 K visitor-nights and more than US$45 M in the most highly visited district, five times that of the least visited district. We also found that tourists prefer accessible, natural landscapes—such as reefs near lodges—that can be reached by air, roads, and ferries. The results of our study are being used to inform development and conservation decisions, such as where to invest in infrastructure for visitor access and accommodation, siting new marine protected areas, and management of established protected areas. Our work provides an important example of how to leverage social media as a source of data to inform strategies that encourage tourism, while conserving the environments that draw visitors to a destination in the first place.

Detecting the impacts on UK sublittoral rock communities of resuspended sediments from fishing activity

Hinchen H, Gallyot J, Carter A, Ferguson M, Webb K, Nelson M, Jenkins C. Detecting the impacts on UK sublittoral rock communities of resuspended sediments from fishing activity. Ecological Indicators [Internet]. 2021 ;125:107545. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X21002107?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Sublittoral rocky reef habitats host important ecological communities in UK waters, but their ecological condition is difficult to monitor. Monitoring methods based on seabed imagery data are prone to inconsistencies in both the identification and enumeration of species, which is a major hurdle in detecting meaningful ecological change. To overcome this problem, our study used a single monitoring dataset, collected using one standard method at the Pisces Reef Marine Protected Area (MPA) in 2016. We identified which method of data extraction from seabed imagery is best able to detect change along a gradient of anthropogenic resuspended sediments, which represents a pressure on the epifaunal community. We modelled the spatial distribution of the pressure, caused by nearby fishing activity, using an approach based on individual Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) ping data, rather than spatially homogenised data aggregated to a grid cell. We found that up to 22% of the biological variability across the three reef areas within the MPA is explained by the measured and derived environmental variables. The response of the epibenthic community at Pisces Reef MPA to the resuspended sediments pressure gradient is masked by commonly used univariate metrics such as species diversity and abundance of individuals. Conversely, a Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis (TITAN) identifies community-level change caused by a low level of modelled resuspended sediments pressure. We found that a 0.05 decimal degree grid cell of seabed within 1 km of the MPA boundary, swept by demersal fishing gear as little as five times per year on average, can elicit such a community response. The data extraction metric best able to detect this change in the sublittoral rock community is the frequency of occurrence of taxa in images with an average field of view of 0.7 m2, using a 25-cell grid. More traditional metrics extracted from seabed imagery, such as raw counts and percentage cover estimates, are less sensitive to detecting such community change. The TITAN also identified taxon-level responses to the pressure gradient that could be considered for future monitoring programmes. The solitary coral genus Caryophyllia and cup-like sponges show a sharp and strong negative response to pressure exposure, and could represent a starting point for a future monitoring programme of UK sublittoral rock habitats. The implications for future monitoring are discussed, including survey design, environmental and biological data collection and improved pressure modelling.

Effects of sea ice and wind speed on phytoplankton spring bloom in central and southern Baltic Sea

Pärn O, Lessin G, Stips A. Effects of sea ice and wind speed on phytoplankton spring bloom in central and southern Baltic Sea Anil AChandrashe. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2021 ;16(3):e0242637. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242637
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In this study, the effects of sea ice and wind speed on the timing and composition of phytoplankton spring bloom in the central and southern Baltic Sea are investigated by a hydrodynamic–biogeochemical model and observational data. The modelling experiment compared the results of a reference run in the presence of sea ice with those of a run in the absence of sea ice, which confirmed that ecological conditions differed significantly for both the scenarios. It has been found that diatoms dominate the phytoplankton biomass in the absence of sea ice, whereas dinoflagellates dominate the biomass in the presence of thin sea ice. The study concludes that under moderate ice conditions (representing the last few decades), dinoflagellates dominate the spring bloom phytoplankton biomass in the Baltic Sea, whereas diatoms will be dominant in the future as a result of climate change i.e. in the absence of sea ice.

Climate Change Impacts on Atlantic Oceanic Island Tuna Fisheries

Townhill BL, Couce E, Bell J, Reeves S, Yates O. Climate Change Impacts on Atlantic Oceanic Island Tuna Fisheries. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2021 ;8. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.634280/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1571277_45_Marine_20210309_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Climate change is already affecting the distributions of marine fish, and future change is expected to have a particularly large impact on small islands that are reliant on the sea for much of their income. This study aims to develop an understanding of how climate change may affect the distribution of commercially important tuna in the waters around the United Kingdom’s Overseas Territories in the South Atlantic. The future suitable habitat of southern bluefin, albacore, bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tunas were modelled under two future climate change scenarios. Of all the tunas, the waters of Tristan da Cunha are the most suitable for southern bluefin, and overall, the environmental conditions will remain so in the future. Tristan da Cunha is not projected to become more suitable for any of the other tuna species in the future. For the other tuna species, Ascension Island and Saint Helena will become more suitable in the future, particularly so for skipjack tuna around Ascension Island, as the temperature and salinity conditions change in these areas. Large marine protected areas have been designated around the territories, with those in Ascension and Tristan da Cunha closed to tuna fishing. Although these areas are small relative to the whole Atlantic, these model projections could be useful in understanding whether this protection will benefit tuna populations into the future, particularly where there is high site fidelity.

Red Sea fish market assessments indicate high species diversity and potential overexploitation

Shellem CT, Ellis JI, Coker DJ, Berumen ML. Red Sea fish market assessments indicate high species diversity and potential overexploitation. Fisheries Research [Internet]. 2021 ;239:105922. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783621000503?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In many parts of the world, particularly remote and underdeveloped regions, reports of fisheries catch, effort, and landing data are limited. In order to implement effective fishing regulations to protect natural stocks, understanding fishing pressure, key target species, catch composition, and value of each species is vital. In regions where published data is limited, and the sampling of numerous small boats and landing sites is not feasible, fish market surveys represent an opportunity to obtain key fisheries data. This study therefore aims to obtain species-specific prices and market composition for fish landed in the central Red Sea by surveying local fish markets. We conducted 11 surveys at two major Red Sea fish markets to ascertain key fisheries metrics using market data as a proxy for catch data. Results indicate that a high proportion of the market composition is generated by 46 species from six family-level groups, Serranidae, Labridae, scarine labrids, Carangidae, Lethrinidae, and Lutjanidae, contributing to 87 % of the total market biomass. Species-specific values ranged from 4.50 USD/kg to 26.44 USD/kg, with market surveys highlighting the economic value of three local serranid species: Plectropomus pessuliferus marisrubri, Plectropomus areolatus and Variola louti, all valued at more than 25 USD/kg, and a labrid: Cheilinus undulatus, valued at 26.44 USD/kg. The Serranidae family represents 47 % of the total biomass and 55 % of the potential revenue in the market, while also indicating potentially overfished reefs due to the high occurrence of smaller species and undersized individuals of higher priced serranid species. Many of the high-valued serranids were below the size at sexual maturity. Target species exhibited small body size and decreasing abundance, potentially indicating a “shrinking baseline” scenario occurring in the Saudi Arabian artisanal coral reef fishery. These results indicate that introducing effective fisheries legislation and management is necessary for the longevity and sustainability of the reef-based fishery in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Implementing catch quotas, size limits, and seasonal restrictions are potential mechanisms that could be used to facilitate positive change within this vulnerable fishery.

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