Adaptive Management

Distinguishing globally-driven changes from regional- and local-scale impacts: The case for long-term and broad-scale studies of recovery from pollution

Hawkins SJ, Evans AJ, Mieszkowska N, Adams LC, Bray S, Burrows MT, Firth LB, Genner MJ, Leung KMY, Moore PJ, et al. Distinguishing globally-driven changes from regional- and local-scale impacts: The case for long-term and broad-scale studies of recovery from pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X17300978
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Marine ecosystems are subject to anthropogenic change at global, regional and local scales. Global drivers interact with regional- and local-scale impacts of both a chronic and acute nature. Natural fluctuations and those driven by climate change need to be understood to diagnose local- and regional-scale impacts, and to inform assessments of recovery. Three case studies are used to illustrate the need for long-term studies: (i) separation of the influence of fishing pressure from climate change on bottom fish in the English Channel; (ii) recovery of rocky shore assemblages from the Torrey Canyon oil spill in the southwest of England; (iii) interaction of climate change and chronic Tributyltin pollution affecting recovery of rocky shore populations following the Torrey Canyon oil spill. We emphasize that “baselines” or “reference states” are better viewed as envelopes that are dependent on the time window of observation. Recommendations are made for adaptive management in a rapidly changing world.

Recreational fishing in a time of rapid ocean change

van Putten IE, Jennings S, Hobday AJ, Bustamante RH, Dutra LXC, Frusher S, Fulton EA, Haward M, Plagányi É, Thomas L, et al. Recreational fishing in a time of rapid ocean change. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2017 ;76:169 - 177. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0308597X16306212http://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S0308597X16306212?httpAccept=text/plainhttp://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S0308597X16306212?httpAccept=text/xmlhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/s
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Fishing is an important recreational activity for many Australians, with one in every four people participating every year. There are however many different pressures exerted on Australian fish stocks, including climate-related changes that drive changes in local fish abundances. It is inevitable that recreational fishers will need to adapt to these changes. When resource abundance alters substantially, user adaptation to the new situation is required and policies and incentives may need to be developed to encourage behaviour change. It is important to correctly anticipate fisher's response to these policies and incentives as much as possible. Improved understanding of recreational fisher's likely adaptation decisions and the nature and timing of these decisions can help avoid unintended consequences of management decisions. Based on a survey of recreational fishers in the south-east Australian climate hotspot, we identify 4 relevant dimensions to recreational fisher's behavioural adaptation. There are differences in adaptation timing (early, late, and non-adaptors). Non-adaptors are characterised by greater cultural attachment to fishing and stronger perceptions of the factors that influence abundance change. The fisher's preferred adaptation responses and the timing of the behavioural response differs between decreasing versus increasing fish abundance. Insight into perspectives and expectations on how recreational fishers might adapt to changes is useful to develop a set of behavioural incentives that appeal to different groups but remain efficient and effective in their implementation. Such knowledge can create new pathways to achieve meaningful and targeted adaptation responses for different types of recreational fishers.

Physiology can contribute to better understanding, management, and conservation of coral reef fishes

Illing B, Rummer JL. Physiology can contribute to better understanding, management, and conservation of coral reef fishes. Conservation Physiology [Internet]. 2017 ;5(1). Available from: https://academic.oup.com/conphys/article/doi/10.1093/conphys/cox005/3045109/Physiology-can-contribute-to-better-understanding
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Coral reef fishes, like many other marine organisms, are affected by anthropogenic stressors such as fishing and pollution and, owing to climate change, are experiencing increasing water temperatures and ocean acidification. Against the backdrop of these various stressors, a mechanistic understanding of processes governing individual organismal performance is the first step for identifying drivers of coral reef fish population dynamics. In fact, physiological measurements can help to reveal potential cause-and-effect relationships and enable physiologists to advise conservation management by upscaling results from cellular and individual organismal levels to population levels. Here, we highlight studies that include physiological measurements of coral reef fishes and those that give advice for their conservation. A literature search using combined physiological, conservation and coral reef fish key words resulted in ~1900 studies, of which only 99 matched predefined requirements. We observed that, over the last 20 years, the combination of physiological and conservation aspects in studies on coral reef fishes has received increased attention. Most of the selected studies made their physiological observations at the whole organism level and used their findings to give conservation advice on population dynamics, habitat use or the potential effects of climate change. The precision of the recommendations differed greatly and, not surprisingly, was least concrete when studies examined the effects of projected climate change scenarios. Although more and more physiological studies on coral reef fishes include conservation aspects, there is still a lack of concrete advice for conservation managers, with only very few published examples of physiological findings leading to improved management practices. We conclude with a call to action to foster better knowledge exchange between natural scientists and conservation managers to translate physiological findings more effectively in order to obtain evidence-based and adaptive management strategies for the conservation of coral reef fishes.

Processes for the sustainable stewardship of marine environments

Scharin H, Ericsdotter S, Elliott M, R. Turner K, Niiranen S, Blenckner T, Hyytiäinen K, Ahlvik L, Ahtiainen H, Artell J, et al. Processes for the sustainable stewardship of marine environments. Ecological Economics [Internet]. 2016 ;128:55 - 67. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092180091530450X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Sustainable stewardship of the marine environment necessitates a holistic approach encompassing all the relevant drivers, activities and pressures causing problems for the natural state of the system and their impact on human societies today and in the future. This article provides a framework as well as a decision support process and tool that could guide such an approach. In this process, identifying costs and benefits of mitigation is a first step in deciding on measures and enabling instruments, which has to be accompanied by analyses regarding distributional effects (i.e. who gains or loses) related to different targets and policy instruments. As there are risks of future irreversible regime shifts and even system collapses, the assessments have to be broadened to include scenarios on possible future developments as well as ethical considerations. In particular, a deeper sustainable management strategy may be needed to respond to possible future increases in the rate of environmental change, amongst growing evidence of external pressures, interactions and non-linear dynamics. This adaptive management strategy should focus on building the resilience required to cope with and adapt to change.

Towards adaptive management of the natural capital: Disentangling trade-offs among marine activities and seagrass meadows

Ventín LBas, Troncoso Jde Souza, Villasante S. Towards adaptive management of the natural capital: Disentangling trade-offs among marine activities and seagrass meadows. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2015 ;101(1):29 - 38. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X15301818
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
Yes
Type: Journal Article

This paper investigates the ecological, social and institutional dimensions of the synergies and trade-offs between seagrasses and human activities operating in the Natura 2000 protected site of San Simón Bay (Galicia, NW Spain). By means of a multidisciplinary approach that brings together the development of a biological inventory combined with participatory mapping processes we get key spatial and contextual understanding regarding how, where and why marine users interact with seagrasses and how seagrasses are considered in policy making. The results highlight the fisheries' reliance on seagrass meadows and the controversial links with shellfisheries. The study also reveals unresolved conflicts among those management plans that promote the protection of natural values and those responsible for the exploitation of marine resources. We conclude that the adoption of pre-planning bottom-up participatory processes is crucial for the design of realistic strategies where both seagrasses and human activities were considered as a couple system.

Collaborative adaptive management for bigfin squid applied to tourism-related activities in coastal waters of Northeast Taiwan

Chen T-C, Ku K-C, Chen C-S. Collaborative adaptive management for bigfin squid applied to tourism-related activities in coastal waters of Northeast Taiwan. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2016 ;119:208 - 216. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569115300454
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The bigfin squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana, a commercially important fishery resource and also an object of sightseeing for diving, are under risk situation arising from current management procedure in Taiwan. Significant decline in abundance of bigfin squid and destruction of suitable substrates for spawning of neritic squids in coastal waters of Northeast Taiwan has been noted by local fishermen in recent years. Local divers arbitrarily deployed bamboo clusters as a squid aggregation device, for mating and spawning, in order to restore the abundance of squid. The deployment of the devices was not approved by the government, in particular the fishery authorities. Following conflict and compromises, the bamboo clusters were placed in restricted regions with permission from the local government. However, the interim management measure faced a serious challenge. The fishing activity of fishermen and recreational anglers, who were not consulted for the interim measure, targeted the aggregated squids putting them at risk. To prevent hazards, a theoretical management model was proposed to involve and direct essential stakeholders in conservation and sustainable utilization of the resource. A fishbone diagram and spiral model was created to analyze and illustrate the potential problems. Collaborative management tools were applied to coordinate the participants' duties and responsibilities and build the interrelationships between them. Finally, a modified management model based on adaptive management strategies was developed to cope with the changing situations. This modified management model process might further serve as an example for conservation and management measures of other fisheries resources.

Key issues and drivers affecting coastal and marine resource decisions: Participatory management strategy evaluation to support adaptive management

Dutra LXC, Thebaud O, Boschetti F, Smith ADM, Dichmont CM. Key issues and drivers affecting coastal and marine resource decisions: Participatory management strategy evaluation to support adaptive management. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2015 ;116:382 - 395. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569115300107
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article
  • Improving resource information alone has limited effect on decision-making processes.
  • A formal participatory MSE allows for more transparency in the management process.
  • It supports strategy design, communication and shared understanding about management issues.
  • Participatory methods can help modify individual attitudes and group interactions.

Towards adaptive co-management of small-scale fisheries in Uruguay and Brazil: lessons from using Ostrom’s design principles

Trimble M, Berkes F. Towards adaptive co-management of small-scale fisheries in Uruguay and Brazil: lessons from using Ostrom’s design principles. Maritime Studies [Internet]. 2015 ;14(1). Available from: http://www.maritimestudiesjournal.com/content/14/1/14
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The literature on commons has established the validity and significance of Elinor Ostrom’s design principles for collective action. Can these principles be used to guide policies and initiatives towards adaptive co-management? We analyze this idea by using two case studies, Piriápolis (Uruguay) and Paraty (Brazil). Both cases are small-scale fisheries, and both have been experiencing a social-ecological crisis in a context of prevailing top-down government management. However, there are signs that government policies are moving towards participatory governance. The objective of this article is to identify opportunities and barriers to adaptive co-management of small-scale fisheries in Uruguay and Brazil using Ostrom’s design principles for guidance. Both case studies partially meet seven of the eleven design principles (as amended by Cox and colleagues), but do not fulfill four. The analysis of the fisheries using Ostrom’s principles sheds light on the opportunities and barriers to adaptive co-management in three categories: resource system, resource users, and governance system. Barriers include long-standing conflicts between small-scale fishers and government agencies, and between small and large-scale fisheries sectors. Nevertheless, recent initiatives involving participatory approaches to research and management show potential to improve compliance with several principles. Two weaknesses of using Ostrom’s principles for the analysis of the cases were a lack of attention to social learning and the exclusion of external drivers.

Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital

Schultz L, Folke C, Österblom H, Olsson P. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2015 ;112(24):7369 - 7374. Available from: http://www.pnas.org/lookup/doi/10.1073/pnas.1406493112
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social–ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives.

The 10-tenets of adaptive management and sustainability: An holistic framework for understanding and managing the socio-ecological system

Barnard S, Elliott M. The 10-tenets of adaptive management and sustainability: An holistic framework for understanding and managing the socio-ecological system. Environmental Science & Policy [Internet]. 2015 ;51:181 - 191. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901115000817
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The three basic principles of sustainable development, relating to ecology, economy and society, have long been embedded within national and international strategies. In recent years we have augmented these principles by a further seven considerations giving rise to the so-called 10-tenets of sustainable management. Whilst theoretically appealing, discussion of the tenets to date has been largely generic and qualitative and, until the present paper, there has been no formal and quantitative application of these tenets to an actual example. To promote the concept of successful and sustainable environmental management there is the need to develop a robust and practical framework to accommodate value judgements relating to each of the tenets. Although, as originally presented, the tenets relate specifically to management measures, they may also be applied directly to a specific development or activity. This paper examines the application of the tenets in both of these contexts, and considers their incorporation into an assessment tool to help visualise and quantify issues of sustainability.

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