Adaptive Management

Coastal Ecosystems of the Tropics - Adaptive Management

Ayyam V, Palanivel S, Chandrakasan S, Ayyam V, Palanivel S, Chandrakasan S. Coastal Ecosystems of the Tropics - Adaptive Management. Singapore: Springer Singapore; 2019 pp. 3 - 20. Available from: https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-981-13-8926-9
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $109.00
Type: Book

Tropical coastal environment represents one of the most dynamic and vital interfaces on Earth, at the boundary between land and sea. It encompasses some of the most diverse and productive habitats. These habitats include natural ecosystems, managed ecosystems besides major urban centres. The existence of these ecosystems is dependent on the land-sea interconnection and dynamic flow of energy and matter. At the same time, the coastal region has long been under stress from over-exploitation and mismanagement. The increasing pace of human population and developmental activities in the tropical coastal region has altered the functionality of coastal ecosystems and endangered several flora and fauna that threaten the livelihood of people who depend on them. In addition, the looming spectre of sea level rise associated with the effect of global warming presents a new and potentially far more dangerous threat to this region. This necessitates suitable coastal zone management plan to conserve and derive sustainable benefit from the coastal ecosystems. With this background an overview of tropical coastal countries, its demographic features, natural resources, coastal ecosystems, and its services to the human society are discussed in this chapter. Brief account on effect of human activities and climate change on coastal region sourced from different literatures provides useful information to the researchers, students, and policymakers.

A planning strategy for the adaptation of coastal areas to climate change: The Spanish case

Losada IJ, Toimil A, Muñoz A, Garcia-Fletcher AP, Diaz-Simal P. A planning strategy for the adaptation of coastal areas to climate change: The Spanish case. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. In Press :104983. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569119302959
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In a context of growing concern about climate change and its potential consequences for coastal systems, adaptation is becoming more important than ever before. This paper presents a national planning framework for adaptation to climate change, which is pioneer in the field as it is multi-sectoral and focuses specifically on coastal areas, pursuing the safety of their communities in an uncertain future. The strategy is statutory as it emanates from the new Spanish Coastal Law, which in addition to many other implications includes the compulsory development of a Spanish Strategy for Coastal Adaptation to Climate Change (SSCACC) and its submission to Strategic Environmental Assessment. This paper covers the fundamental aspects of both the SSCACC and the accompanying Strategic Environmental Study, providing recommendations on the assessment of coastal risks triggered by climate change and extreme events, adaptation and risk reduction planning and implementation, and monitoring. Additionally, this work gives insight into the wide-ranging consultation process carried out prior to the SSCACC's approval and the stakeholders involved, and how the SSCACC handles climate change uncertainty and struggles for overcoming barriers.

Climate Change Vulnerability of American Lobster Fishing Communities in Atlantic Canada

Greenan BJW, Shackell NL, Ferguson K, Greyson P, Cogswell A, Brickman D, Wang Z, Cook A, Brennan CE, Saba VS. Climate Change Vulnerability of American Lobster Fishing Communities in Atlantic Canada. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00579/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1102147_45_Marine_20190919_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Climate change impacts on fisheries will undoubtedly have socio-economic impacts on coastal communities and the seafood market. However, it is a challenge to integrate climate change information in a form that can be used efficiently by adaptation planners, policy makers, and fishery managers. In this study, we frame a climate change impact assessment using a geographical perspective based on the management units of the dominant fishery, in this case, American lobster in Nova Scotia, Canada. The information considered here includes economic dependence on the fishery, population size, diversity of the fishery revenue, status of harbor infrastructure, total replacement cost of each harbor, increased relative sea level and flooding, and the vulnerability of offshore lobster to ocean warming and changes in zooplankton composition and anticipatory changes in fishery productivity across management borders. Using two ocean models to provide multi-decadal scale projections of bottom temperature, changes in offshore lobster distribution are projected to have a neutral, or positive impact on the region as a whole. However, when lobster vulnerability is combined with climate change related vulnerabilities of coastal fishing communities, it is evident that adaptation planning is needed for long-term sustainability. This impact assessment provides both a framework and information for further in-depth analyses by climate change adaptation planners and fishery managers.

An evaluation of nest predator impacts and the efficacy of plastic meshing on marine turtle nests on the western Cape York Peninsula, Australia

Nordberg EJ, Macdonald S, Zimny G, Hoskins A, Zimny A, Somaweera R, Ferguson J, Perry J. An evaluation of nest predator impacts and the efficacy of plastic meshing on marine turtle nests on the western Cape York Peninsula, Australia. Biological Conservation [Internet]. 2019 ;238:108201. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320719305981
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Nest predation is considered to be one of the most significant biotic threats to marine turtle populations globally. The introduction of feral predators to nesting beaches has dramatically increased nest predation, reaching near total egg loss in some regions. We monitored a 48 km stretch of beach along western Cape York Peninsula, Australia, from June – November 2018. We recorded a total of 360 nests comprising 117 flatback and 243 olive ridley nests. We installed plastic meshing (90 cm × 100 cm) on 110 olive ridley nests (45.2% of total olive ridley clutches laid) within the study area. We classified all nest predation attempts into three categories: complete, partial, or failed predation events. In total, 109 (30.2%) of all marine turtle nests were depredated by a variety of predators, including feral pigs, dingoes, goannas, and humans. The addition of plastic meshing reduced the likelihood of dingoes gaining access to eggs, but not goannas or feral pigs. Further, we found no difference in the proportion of hatchling emergence between meshed and un-meshed nests. Additionally, while hatchling emergence was reduced in nests that had been partially depredated, these nests still produced live hatchlings and contributed to recruitment. The success of particular predator control methods is often predator, and/or regionally, specific. Our findings highlight a thorough understanding of predator guilds and their relative impacts is required to deploy targeted and predator-specific strategies to maximize conservation results. We present a strong case for data-driven adaptive management that has implications for designing optimal predator management plans.

Considerations for maximizing the adaptive potential of restored coral populations in the western Atlantic

Baums IB, Baker AC, Davies SW, Grottoli AG, Kenkel CD, Kitchen SA, Kuffner IB, LaJeunesse TC, Matz MV, Miller MW, et al. Considerations for maximizing the adaptive potential of restored coral populations in the western Atlantic. Ecological Applications [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/eap.1978?casa_token=jpiZfIIXy-4AAAAA:pXxNJhLdK6n_ZxOekdqYCN5HISrp9q_y0nWPAdeMQb997kogW0XyoIdPYEw4xHgN2T0VCGnSp64ic60
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $42.00
Type: Journal Article

Active coral restoration typically involves two interventions: crossing gametes to facilitate sexual larval propagation; and fragmenting, growing, and outplanting adult colonies to enhance asexual propagation. From an evolutionary perspective, the goal of these efforts is to establish self‐sustaining, sexually reproducing coral populations that have sufficient genetic and phenotypic variation to adapt to changing environments. Here, we provide concrete guidelines to help restoration practitioners meet this goal for most Caribbean species of interest. To enable the persistence of coral populations exposed to severe selection pressure from many stressors, a mixed provenance strategy is suggested: genetically unique colonies (genets) should be sourced both locally as well as from more distant, environmentally distinct sites. Sourcing 3‐4 genets per reef along environmental gradients should be sufficient to capture a majority of intraspecies genetic diversity. It is best for practitioners to propagate genets with one or more phenotypic traits that are predicted to be valuable in the future, such as low partial mortality, high would healing rate, high skeletal growth rate, bleaching resilience, infectious disease resilience, and high sexual reproductive output. Some effort should also be reserved for underperforming genets because colonies that grow poorly in nurseries sometimes thrive once returned to the reef and may harbor genetic variants with as yet unrecognized value. Outplants should be clustered in groups of 4‐6 genets to enable successful fertilization upon maturation. Current evidence indicates that translocating genets among distant reefs is unlikely to be problematic from a population genetic perspective but will likely provide substantial adaptive benefits. Similarly, inbreeding depression is not a concern given that current practices only raise first‐generation offspring. Thus, proceeding with the proposed management strategies even in the absence of a detailed population genetic analysis of the focal species at sites targeted for restoration is the best course of action. These basic guidelines should help maximize the adaptive potential of reef‐building corals facing a rapidly changing environment.

Setting ecological expectations for adaptive management of marine protected areas

Nickols KJ, J. White W, Malone D, Carr MH, Starr RM, Baskett ML, Hastings A, Botsford LW. Setting ecological expectations for adaptive management of marine protected areas. Journal of Applied Ecology [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1365-2664.13463
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article
  1. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are being implemented worldwide, yet there are few cases where managers make specific predictions of the response of previously harvested populations to MPA implementation.
  2. Such predictions are needed to evaluate whether MPAs are working as expected, and if not, why. This evaluation is necessary to perform adaptive management, identifying whether and when adjustments to management might be necessary to achieve MPA goals.
  3. Using monitoring data and population models, we quantified expected responses of targeted species to MPA implementation and compared them to monitoring data.
  4. The model required two factors to explain observed responses in MPAs: (a) pre‐MPA harvest rates, which can vary at local spatial scales, and (b) recruitment variability before and after MPA establishment. Low recruitment years before MPA establishment in our study system drove deviations from expected equilibrium population size distributions and introduced an additional time lag to response detectability.
  5. Synthesis and applications. We combined monitoring data and population models to show how (a) harvest rates prior to Marine Protected Area (MPA) implementation, (b) variability in recruitment, and (c) initial population size structure determine whether a response to MPA establishment is detectable. Pre‐MPA harvest rates across MPAs plays a large role in MPA response detectability, demonstrating the importance of measuring this poorly known parameter. While an intuitive expectation is for response detectability to depend on recruitment variability and stochasticity in population trajectories after MPA establishment, we address the overlooked role of recruitment variability before MPA establishment, which alters the size structure at the time of MPA establishment. These factors provide MPA practitioners with reasons whether or not MPAs may lead to responses of targeted species. Our overall approach provides a framework for a critical step of adaptive management.

Setting ecological expectations for adaptive management of marine protected areas

Nickols KJ, J. White W, Malone D, Carr MH, Starr RM, Baskett ML, Hastings A, Botsford LW. Setting ecological expectations for adaptive management of marine protected areas. Journal of Applied Ecology [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1365-2664.13463
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article
  1. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are being implemented worldwide, yet there are few cases where managers make specific predictions of the response of previously harvested populations to MPA implementation.
  2. Such predictions are needed to evaluate whether MPAs are working as expected, and if not, why. This evaluation is necessary to perform adaptive management, identifying whether and when adjustments to management might be necessary to achieve MPA goals.
  3. Using monitoring data and population models, we quantified expected responses of targeted species to MPA implementation and compared them to monitoring data.
  4. The model required two factors to explain observed responses in MPAs: (a) pre‐MPA harvest rates, which can vary at local spatial scales, and (b) recruitment variability before and after MPA establishment. Low recruitment years before MPA establishment in our study system drove deviations from expected equilibrium population size distributions and introduced an additional time lag to response detectability.
  5. Synthesis and applications. We combined monitoring data and population models to show how (a) harvest rates prior to Marine Protected Area (MPA) implementation, (b) variability in recruitment, and (c) initial population size structure determine whether a response to MPA establishment is detectable. Pre‐MPA harvest rates across MPAs plays a large role in MPA response detectability, demonstrating the importance of measuring this poorly known parameter. While an intuitive expectation is for response detectability to depend on recruitment variability and stochasticity in population trajectories after MPA establishment, we address the overlooked role of recruitment variability before MPA establishment, which alters the size structure at the time of MPA establishment. These factors provide MPA practitioners with reasons whether or not MPAs may lead to responses of targeted species. Our overall approach provides a framework for a critical step of adaptive management.

Adaptations of Coastal Cities to Global Warming, Sea Level Rise, Climate Change and Endemic Hazards - Structures That Protect Coastal Populations, Assets, and GDPs: Sea Dikes, Breakwaters, Seawalls

Siegel FR, Siegel FR. Adaptations of Coastal Cities to Global Warming, Sea Level Rise, Climate Change and Endemic Hazards - Structures That Protect Coastal Populations, Assets, and GDPs: Sea Dikes, Breakwaters, Seawalls. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2019 pp. 11 - 25. Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-22669-5_3
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $29.95
Type: Book

In 2018, about one billion people of the Earth’s 7.6 billion lived in marine coastal zones. The people, their property, and the infrastructure that supports them, and a city or national per capita GDP are at risk at multiple levels. These include coastal erosion, high and spring tides that cause lowland flooding, weather-related events (storm surges, flooding, wind, crop loss, unprotected anchorage, stabilization of navigation channels, and rarely, killer tsunamis). These coastal zones now, and more so in the future, are likely to be at high risk because of global warming-driven sea level rise. Human activity inshore can increase the level of risk from the above cited sources, such as flooding by abetting subsidence because of overuse of coastal aquifers for a water supply. Dikes, breakwaters, sea walls, and related structures are designed to thwart for some time (50 years?) damaging, destructive forces that assault coastal regions worldwide. They are costly to build and maintain but in short and long terms present economic benefits that preserve much, much more in capital investment.

Climate change adaptation planning in practice: insights from the Caribbean

Thomas A, Shooya O, Rokitzki M, Bertrand M, Lissner T. Climate change adaptation planning in practice: insights from the Caribbean. Regional Environmental Change [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10113-019-01540-5
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Climate change adaptation planning has rapidly expanded to assist with reducing vulnerability to current and projected impacts of climate change. In Caribbean small island developing states (SIDS), planned adaptation is viewed as essential to address their high vulnerability to climate change, and planning has begun in earnest across the region. However, there has been limited analysis of adaptation planning documents in the region to assess their quality and content. This study assesses adaptation planning documents from Caribbean SIDS, focusing on inclusion of key stages of adaptation planning that were identified from international and regionally specific adaptation guidance instruments. Eighty-nine Caribbean adaptation planning documents—including policies, strategies, programs, and projects—were assessed, revealing that they differ considerably from guidance instruments. Key areas for improvement include the need for (i) more direct linkages between identification of adaptation options and assessments of climate hazards, impacts, vulnerability, and risk; (ii) identification and appraisal of a range of adaptation options; and (iii) increased inclusion and usage of quantitative information about hazards and impacts. Addressing these deficiencies may help to improve the status of adaptation planning in the region and ultimately aid in reducing the high vulnerability of these island nations to the impacts of climate change.

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