This article reviews the state of coral reefs in French Pacific territories in the context of global change (especially threats linked to climate change). We first outline the specific local characteristics, vulnerabilities, and threats faced by the coral reefs of New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna. We also emphasize local and other human communities’ economic and cultural reliance on coral reefs. Secondly, we discuss the natural and anthropogenic threats facing coral reefs in French Pacific territories, and current ecological responses such as mitigation and adaptation strategies. We conclude by proposing socio-economic solutions for the Pacific region across varying scales, with a special focus on enforcement measures and socio-political issues.
Important intertidal coastal habitats – particularly mangroves, saltmarshes and beaches – are particularly threatened by the impacts of climate change-driven sea-level rise. Coastal development and coastal armoring present physical barriers for the natural inland migration of coastal habitats, and changes in hydrological connectivity reduce sediment inputs and the potential for vertical accretion. We identify mechanisms and enabling conditions to accommodate migration of these habitats in Australia and the United States. A range of financial, policy, planning and on-the-ground management tools in both countries that already exist, often for a different purpose, can be implemented or modified to also enable inland habitat migration. Awareness of approaches/solutions can assist land managers and policy makers to accommodate migration of habitats as a necessary component of coastal management in an era of increasing rates of sea level rise.
The “open ocean” has become a highly contested space as coastal populations and maritime uses soared in abundance and intensity over the last decades. Changing marine utilization patterns represent a considerable challenge to society and governments. Maritime spatial planning has emerged as one tool to manage conflicts between users and achieve societal goals for the use of marine space; however, single-sector management approaches are too often still the norm. The last decades have seen the rise of a new ocean use concept: the joint “multi-use” of ocean space. This paper aims to explain and refine the concept of ocean multi-use of space by reviewing the development and state of the art of multi-use in Europe and presenting a clear definition and a comprehensive typology for existing multi-use combinations. It builds on the connectivity of uses and users in spatial, temporal, provisional, and functional dimensions as the underlying key characteristic of multi-use dimensions. Combinations of these dimensions yield four distinct types of multi-use with little overlap between them. The diversity of types demonstrates that there is no one-size-fits-all management approach, but rather that adaptive management plans are needed, focusing on achieving the highest societal benefit while minimizing conflicts. This work will help to sharpen, refine and advance the public and academic discourse over marine spatial planning by offering a common framework to planners, researchers and users alike, when discussing multi-use and its management implications.
Indonesia has more than 600s offshore oil and gas platforms spread in its territorial waters and of that amount, about 50 % were built around 1980s. Since the first generation platform was built almost half a century ago, decommissioning the offshore structures is something that has never been done before in Indonesia. The assets are now approaching their end of production and touching a point of minimum economic viability. Therefore, the dismantling of those structures is unavoidable issues in the near future. However, this process is not easy and presents many challenges, eg. status of assets, costs, etc. The current regulations have not been able to get the operators to dismantle and write off their assets so that many of them are left abandoned and endanger for the sea traffic for instance. There is a trend that these abandoned and idle offshore structures have now become "a fashionable donation" project from oil companies to coastal state to be re-used as artificial reefs or also known as Rigs-to-Reef (R2R). This study is attempting to improve the visibility of R2R as a potential decommissioning solution in Indonesia that provide good benefits not only for the environment but also for the coastal community while at the same time offer effective and efficient way out for oil and gas companies. The feasibility study of platform placement was done in the provincial marine conservation areas (Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Daerah, KKPD) in Bontang, East Kalimantan.
This study investigates where coastal green infrastructure (CGI) can provide highest potential coastal protection benefits, while considering its vulnerability to environmental conditions. CGI provides important coastal protection benefits, however, influenced by climate change and human activities, these benefits are highly threatened. This vulnerability of CGI was not considered in the previous studies. This study provides a framework and an indicator-based methodology to fill this gap. A review of the literature was conducted to identify the parameters used to measure CGI's coastal protection benefits and vulnerability. The content of the references that contained specific parameters related to CGI's role in coastal protection and vulnerability were systematically reviewed. A total of 11 indicators were identified and organized into two indices: CGI coastal protection index, and CGI vulnerability index. The indices were synthesized using a 2 × 2 matrix to identify areas with the highest coastal protection potential. Analysis was conducted for the 74 most populated coastal communities in the Salish Sea region. Results indicate that the British Columbia communities in the Salish Sea region have high potential to utilize CGI for coastal protection. CGI in 59% of the communities in British Columbia and 36% in Washington State can provide high coastal protection benefits, even when vulnerability is accounted for.
Rising seas, more frequent storms and other climate-driven coastal hazards necessitate adaptation planning measures to protect people and property. To date, coastal vulnerability assessments have prioritized the most exposed areas of coastline, but there is a gap between recognized climate science and the feasibility or suitability considerations relevant for implementing coastal adaptation strategies—including legal, policy, financial, or engineered approaches—to address coastal threats. This paper sets forth a methodology for bridging the gap between climate science, law and coastal adaptation policies. This methodology seeks to connect spatial analysis methods with attributes of coastal adaptation strategies that make them inherently place-based—ranging from engineered solutions, to legal strategies and financial tools—to determine where they are legally feasible and suitable. Both spatial and non-spatial limiting and enabling conditions of coastal adaptation policies drive these determinations. The methodology integrates a spatial framework using feasibility statements derived by 1) coupling these conditions and features with spatial information (e.g., zoning, land use/land cover, geomorphologic features), and 2) identifying suitability conditions through synthesizing policy considerations for each coastal adaptation strategy.
In the northeastern United States, flooding arising from wave overtopping poses a constant threat to coastal communities during storm events. The purpose of this study is to construct a novel integrated atmosphere-ocean-coast modeling framework based on the coupled tide, surge and wave model, ADCIRC-SWAN, to assess risk and facilitate coastal adaptation and resilience to flooding in a changing climate in this region. The integrated modeling system was validated against the field observations of water level, wave height and period during the January 2015 North American blizzard. Water level measurements by a sensor in the Avenues Basin behind the Seawall in Scituate, Massachusetts were combined with the basin volume determined by the USGS LIDAR data to verify the model predictions of wave overtopping volume. At the storm peak, the significant wave height was increased by 0.7 m at the coast by tide and surge. The wave setup along the coast varied from 0.1 m to 0.25 m depending on the coastline geometry. The interaction between tide-surge and waves increased the wave overtopping rate by five folds mainly due to increased wave height at the toe of the seawall. The wave overtopping discharge would approximately double in an intermediate sea level rise scenario of 0.36 m by 2050 for a storm like the January 2015 North American blizzard. The wave overtopping discharge would increase by 1.5 times if the seawall crest elevation was raised by the same amount as sea level rise. An increase of 0.9 m in the seawall crest elevation is required to bring the wave overtopping discharge to the current level under a 0.36 m sea level rise scenario, primarily due to larger waves arriving at the seawall without breaking in the presence of larger water depth.
Conflicts among and between local, national, regional and international stakeholders involved in marine turtle conservation are increasing. Often, they arise because of different socio-economic backgrounds of the people or groups involved. Here, we identified and assessed the conservation-based conflicts occurring in 24 of the 39 Caribbean countries, including their frequency, level of severity, number of stakeholders' groups involved, the degree to which they hinder conservation goals, and potential solutions. Using a cross-sectional social survey, we evaluated the presence and details of conservation conflicts provided by 72 respondents. The respondents included conservation-based project leaders, researchers, people involved in policy-based decision-making, conservation volunteers (community-based conservation groups), and species experts with experience working on marine turtle conservation programs in the Caribbean. The respondents identified 136 conflicts, and we grouped them into 16 different categories. The most commonly mentioned causes of conflicts were: 1) the ‘lack of enforcement by local authorities to support conservation-based legislation or programs’ (18%); 2) ‘legal consumption of turtles by one sector of community clashing the conservation aspirations of other sectors of community (14%); and 3) ’variable enforcement of legislation to limit/prohibit use across range states of the species (10%). From our data it is also apparent that illicit activities in the region are also likely to impact the future success of conservation or monitoring based projects and programs. Overall, an exhaustive review was carried out, and the potential solutions were gathered. Due to the level of severity (physical violence) that some conflicts have reached, achieving solutions will be challenging without mediation, mutual cooperation around shared values, and adaptive management arrangements. Achieving this will require combinations of bottom up and top down collaborative governance approaches.
Climate change and sea level rise (SLR) poses serious risks to coastal communities around the world requiring nations to apply adaptation laws and policies. Climate change will exacerbate the existing threats to vulnerable communities, such as the poor, and threaten the food security of populations in coastal areas through the effects of flooding due to coastal inundation. Indonesia is an Archipelagic State of over 17,000 islands and is vulnerable to climate change impacts in its coastal areas and especially in its highly populated low lying delta areas, such as Jakarta and Semarang, where vulnerability to sea level rise is evident. The adequacy of the legal adaptation framework in Indonesia to respond to this climate vulnerability is assessed and it is found to have limited consideration of the community burden arising from these climate and SLR uncertainties. A more inclusive social justice approach could assist government to respond to the impacts from these issues and to their implications for vulnerable groups. The nation can improve adaptive legal measures to address climate change impacts and increase the involvement of local people in climate change adaptation decision making. Funding is required to assist policy makers to further incorporate adaptation into decision making, and this could improve social justice outcomes for vulnerable Indonesian coastal communities.
The oceans and fisheries are strongly impacted by climate change and acidification, and will increasingly be so. Four multilateral funds have been created under the climate change regime in order to support developing countries’ adaptation. These funds finance a number of projects mostly or partly related to marine and coastal fisheries. They include measures of a structural nature meant to modify laws, policies or strategies and to improve one’s understanding of climate change impacts on fisheries; measures to improve fish stocks’ resilience to climate change, by reducing harvesting and ecosystem-related stressors; and measures to improve fishing communities’ resilience in terms of food security and livelihoods. A majority of the marine fisheries projects focuses on the countries that are most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change on marine fisheries. However, many vulnerable countries still do not receive financial support for adaptation in the marine fisheries sector. The four multilateral funds operate with insufficient and unequal levels of transparency regarding several stages of projects’ cycles; this raises issues of efficiency and accountability. The four funds also do not provide a harmonized and searchable marker dedicated to fisheries; this lack of transparency makes it impossible for the international community to comprehensively monitor progress in the implementation of Sustainable Development Goals 13 and 14. In any case, the existence of adaptation projects focused on coastal and marine fisheries may serve to promote the mainstreaming of ocean-related questions into the climate change regime.