Aquaculture, Seafood, and Food Security

Comparison of infectious agents detected from hatchery and wild juvenile Coho salmon in British Columbia, 2008-2018

Nekouei O, Vanderstichel R, Kaukinen KH, Thakur K, Ming T, Patterson DA, Trudel M, Neville C, Miller KM. Comparison of infectious agents detected from hatchery and wild juvenile Coho salmon in British Columbia, 2008-2018 Bryhn AC. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(9):e0221956. Available from: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221956
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Infectious diseases are potential contributors to decline in Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) populations. Although pathogens are theoretically considered to pose higher risk in high-density rearing environments like hatcheries, there is no direct evidence that hatchery-origin Coho salmon increase the transmission of infectious agents to sympatric wild populations. This study was undertaken to compare prevalence, burden, and diversity of infectious agents between hatchery-reared and wild juvenile Coho salmon in British Columbia (BC), Canada. In total, 2,655 juvenile Coho salmon were collected between 2008 and 2018 from four regions of freshwater and saltwater in BC. High-throughput microfluidics qPCR was employed for simultaneous detection of 36 infectious agents from mixed-tissue samples (gill, brain, heart, liver, and kidney). Thirty-one agents were detected at least once, including ten with prevalence >5%. Candidatus Brachiomonas cysticola, Paraneuclospora theridion, and Parvicapsula pseudobranchiocola were the most prevalent agents. Diversity and burden of infectious agents were substantially higher in marine environment than in freshwater. In Mainland BC, infectious burden and diversity were significantly lower in hatchery smolts than in wild counterparts, whereas in other regions, there were no significant differences. Observed differences in freshwater were predominantly driven by three parasites, Loma salmonae, Myxobolus arcticus, and Parvicapsula kabatai. In saltwater, there were no consistent differences in agent prevalence between hatchery and wild fish shared among the west and east coasts of Vancouver Island. Although some agents showed differential infectious patterns between regions, annual variations likely contributed to this signal. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that hatchery smolts carry higher burdens of infectious agents than conspecific wild fish, reducing the potential risk of transfer to wild smolts at this life stage. Moreover, we provide a baseline of infectious agents in juvenile Coho salmon that will be used in future research and modeling potential correlations between infectious profiles and marine survival.

Comparison of infectious agents detected from hatchery and wild juvenile Coho salmon in British Columbia, 2008-2018

Nekouei O, Vanderstichel R, Kaukinen KH, Thakur K, Ming T, Patterson DA, Trudel M, Neville C, Miller KM. Comparison of infectious agents detected from hatchery and wild juvenile Coho salmon in British Columbia, 2008-2018 Bryhn AC. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(9):e0221956. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221956
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Infectious diseases are potential contributors to decline in Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) populations. Although pathogens are theoretically considered to pose higher risk in high-density rearing environments like hatcheries, there is no direct evidence that hatchery-origin Coho salmon increase the transmission of infectious agents to sympatric wild populations. This study was undertaken to compare prevalence, burden, and diversity of infectious agents between hatchery-reared and wild juvenile Coho salmon in British Columbia (BC), Canada. In total, 2,655 juvenile Coho salmon were collected between 2008 and 2018 from four regions of freshwater and saltwater in BC. High-throughput microfluidics qPCR was employed for simultaneous detection of 36 infectious agents from mixed-tissue samples (gill, brain, heart, liver, and kidney). Thirty-one agents were detected at least once, including ten with prevalence >5%. Candidatus Brachiomonas cysticolaParaneuclospora theridion, and Parvicapsula pseudobranchiocola were the most prevalent agents. Diversity and burden of infectious agents were substantially higher in marine environment than in freshwater. In Mainland BC, infectious burden and diversity were significantly lower in hatchery smolts than in wild counterparts, whereas in other regions, there were no significant differences. Observed differences in freshwater were predominantly driven by three parasites, Loma salmonaeMyxobolus arcticus, and Parvicapsula kabatai. In saltwater, there were no consistent differences in agent prevalence between hatchery and wild fish shared among the west and east coasts of Vancouver Island. Although some agents showed differential infectious patterns between regions, annual variations likely contributed to this signal. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that hatchery smolts carry higher burdens of infectious agents than conspecific wild fish, reducing the potential risk of transfer to wild smolts at this life stage. Moreover, we provide a baseline of infectious agents in juvenile Coho salmon that will be used in future research and modeling potential correlations between infectious profiles and marine survival.

The evolution and application of carrying capacity in aquaculture: towards a research agenda

Weitzman J, Filgueira R. The evolution and application of carrying capacity in aquaculture: towards a research agenda. Reviews in Aquaculture [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/raq.12383
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $42.00
Type: Journal Article

Carrying capacity has become a fundamental concept within the context of environmental management. Carrying capacity for aquaculture has been studied since the 1960s and has attracted a dedicated literature focused on measuring the environmental and production limits of aquaculture developments. Nevertheless, management and policy face emerging challenges across environmental and social aspects and the growing need to manage multiple objectives in increasingly crowded aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, promoting more sustainable aquaculture development should consider how the tools, methods and research used to support management and decision‐making should advance to meet such challenges. Here, the conceptual and practical applications of carrying capacity are reviewed and future prospects discussed. Carrying capacity for aquaculture has developed a range of models, indicators and approaches to study the relationships between aquaculture and ecosystem components. Carrying capacity supports diverse management objectives to support physical, production, ecological and social goals, although greater emphasis has focused on ecological and production capacities. This review introduces research needs and strategies to advance methods and tools and improve carrying capacity utilization for more holistic, ecosystem‐based aquaculture decision‐making. This paper presents a five‐pillar research agenda for carrying capacity that (i) recognizes system complexity and is (ii) policy‐relevant, (iii) adaptive, (iv) interdisciplinary and (v) meaningful. By promoting knowledge uptake and addressing literature gaps, the proposed agenda could help operationalize a holistic approach to managing for aquaculture sustainability.

Fishy Business: Red Snapper Mislabeling Along the Coastline of the Southeastern United States

Spencer ET, Bruno JF. Fishy Business: Red Snapper Mislabeling Along the Coastline of the Southeastern United States. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00513/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Seafood mislabeling is a widely documented problem that has significant implications for human and environmental health. Defined as when seafood is sold under something other than its true species name, seafood fraud allows less-desired or illegally caught species to be marketed as one recognizable to consumers. Red snapper is one of the most frequently mislabeled species, with previous studies showing mislabeling rates as high as 77%. We assessed whether red snapper mislabeling rates varied among states or vendor type. We also determined the IUCN Red List designation of substituted species to assess whether frequently substituted stocks were more or less at-risk than red snapper stocks. We used standard DNA barcoding protocols to determine the identity of products labeled as “red snapper” from sushi restaurants, seafood markets, and grocery stores in the Southeastern United States. Overall, 72.6% of samples (out of 62) were mislabeled, with sushi restaurants mislabeling samples 100% of the time. Out of 13 substituted species (including samples that were indistinguishable between two species), seven (53.8%) were not native to the United States of the 12 substituted species assessed by the IUCN Red List, 11 (91.6%) were listed as less threatened than red snapper. These results contribute to a growing body of mislabeling research that can be used by government agencies trying to develop effective policies to combat seafood fraud and consumers hoping to avoid mislabeled products.

Survey of mislabelling across finfish supply chain reveals mislabelling both outside and within Canada

Shehata HR, Bourque D, Steinke D, Chen S, Hanner R. Survey of mislabelling across finfish supply chain reveals mislabelling both outside and within Canada. Food Research International [Internet]. 2019 ;121:723 - 729. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996918309943?dgcid=raven_sd_recommender_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Seafood has become one of the most heavily traded food commodities in the era of globalization. International seafood supply chains are complex and contend with many difficulties in bringing an enormous variety of products to market. A major challenge involves accurately labelling products such that they comply with a diverse set of regulatory frameworks, ranging from country-of-origin through to the final point of consumer sale. Thanks to DNA barcoding, seafood mislabelling is now recognized as a global problem, with potentially negative impacts on human health, economy and the environment. Mislabelling can result from species misidentification, use of inappropriate common names, incomplete and/or out-dated regulatory frameworks, or through market substitution. While prior studies have focused primarily on retail and food service establishments, this study used barcoding to assess rates of finfish mislabelling at multiple points in the supply chain within Ontario, Canada. A total of 203 specimens from 12 key targeted species were collected from varied importers, registered processing plants and retailers in Southern Ontario and identified using DNA barcoding. Species identity of samples was used to assess conformity of labelling against the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA) Fish List, which revealed an overall mislabelling rate of 32.3% among targeted species. The mislabelling rate was significantly different between samples collected from importers and retailers. Among the mislabelled samples were seven samples that originated from US and were properly labelled according to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Seafood List. This study evaluated the integrity of chain of custody documents and identified discrepancies in 43 samples (21.4%). Implementing seafood traceability throughout the supply chain and harmonizing labelling regulations between countries can help to ensure industry compliance in a globalized market, while sampling at multiple points in the supply chain can help to reveal causes.

Aquaculture of marine ornamental fish: overview of the production trends and the role of academia in research progress

Pouil S, Tlusty MF, Rhyne AL, Metian M. Aquaculture of marine ornamental fish: overview of the production trends and the role of academia in research progress. Reviews in Aquaculture [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/raq.12381
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $42.00
Type: Journal Article

The marine ornamental fish trade is expanding and still largely relies on wild fish from tropical coral reef ecosystems. There are unknowns in the wild harvest so that the sustainability of marine ornamental fish trade can therefore be questioned with aquaculture being perceived as a responsible alternative for the procurement of these ornamental marine fish. However, there are still many technical constraints that hinder its development. These blocks require additional coordination with the outcome being an accelerated development of ornamental marine fish production. The main objective of this review was to better identify, understand and discuss the role and the impacts of academic research in the production of marine ornamental fish through qualitative and quantitative approaches. To do so, 222 selected scientific publications (including peer‐reviewed articles, conferences articles, thesis and reports) from the literature available to date were analysed and outcomes were framed in perspective of the total number of captive‐bred species. Results of the meta‐analyses indicate that academic research has led to significant advances in the breeding of some of the more difficult to breed species. While it has a leading role in conservation, its advance of techniques still lags behind private companies and hobbyists. Partnerships promoting synergistic activities between academic research institutes and the private sector (aquaculture farms and public aquariums) are important to optimize future ornamental marine fish production.

Ecosystem-based management of seaweed harvesting

Lotze HK, Milewski I, Fast J, Kay L, Worm B. Ecosystem-based management of seaweed harvesting. Botanica Marina [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://www.degruyter.com/abstract/j/botm.ahead-of-print/bot-2019-0027/bot-2019-0027.xml
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $42.00
Type: Journal Article

Harvesting wild seaweeds has a long history and is still relevant today, even though aquaculture now supplies >96% of global seaweed production. Current wild harvests mostly target canopy-forming kelp, rockweed and red macroalgae that provide important ecosystem roles, including primary production, carbon storage, nutrient cycling, habitat provision, biodiversity and fisheries support. Harvest methods range from selective hand-cutting to bottom trawling. Resulting ecosystem impacts depend on extraction method and scale, ranging from changes in primary production to habitat disruption, fragmentation, food-web alterations and bycatch of non-target species. Current management often aims for sustainable harvesting in a single-species context, although some agencies acknowledge the wider ecosystem structure, functions and services seaweeds provide. We outline potential ecosystem-based management approaches that would help sustain productive and diverse seaweed-based ecosystems. These include maintaining high canopy biomass, recovery potential, habitat structure and connectivity, limiting bycatch and discards, while incorporating seasonal closures and harvest-exclusion zones into spatial management plans. Other sustainability considerations concern monitoring, enforcement and certification standards, a shift to aquaculture, and addressing cumulative human impacts, invasive species and climate change. Our review provides a concise overview on how to define and operationalize ecosystem-based management of seaweed harvesting that can inform ongoing management and conservation efforts.

Harmful Fouling Communities on Fish Farms in the SW Mediterranean Sea: Composition, Growth and Reproductive Periods

-Belmar B, Escurriola , Milisenda , Fuentes , Piraino . Harmful Fouling Communities on Fish Farms in the SW Mediterranean Sea: Composition, Growth and Reproductive Periods. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering [Internet]. 2019 ;7(9):288. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/2077-1312/7/9/288
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Biological fouling organisms on fish cages represent a major issue and costly factor in marine finfish aquaculture. Cnidarians have been identified as one of the most problematical groups, contributing significantly to the occlusion and structural stress of the cage nets, but also dramatically affecting farmed species health in aquaculture facilities worldwide. Recently, significant relationships were established in different Spanish aquaculture facilities between hydrozoans and juvenile fish affected by gill injuries and mortality episodes. Community composition, growth rate and reproductive potential of biofouling were monitored on fish cages over two seasonal periods of fry cages farming, located in southern Spain (SW Alboran Sea), with a special focus on cnidarians. Biomass and community composition of biofouling changed with time and between studied periods, with a marked seasonality in colonization periods and taxonomic composition, particularly for the colonial hydrozoans. The hydroids Ectopleura larynx and Pennaria disticha were found at the highest densities. P. disticha was responsible for major biomass contribution to total hydroid biomass with the fastest growth rates. In addition, actinulae larvae of E. larynx were identified in zooplankton samples at high densities especially during periods of fry introduction in sea cages (when fish are highly vulnerable). These results corroborate evidence of the detrimental influence of fouling cnidarians in Mediterranean finfish aquaculture due to a direct harmful impact on fish health. Investigations on population dynamics, reproductive biology and envenomation potential of fouling hydrozoans should be regarded as key component of best monitoring practices to ensure good farmed fish welfare, maximization of aquaculture production and overall marine spatial planning.

Shellfish Aquaculture Map Viewers: An Assessment of Design, Data, and Functions to Inform Planning and Siting in the United States

Wickliffe LC, Crothers VC, Theuerkauf SJ, Riley KL, Morris JA. Shellfish Aquaculture Map Viewers: An Assessment of Design, Data, and Functions to Inform Planning and Siting in the United States. Journal of Shellfish Research [Internet]. 2019 ;38(2):209. Available from: https://bioone.org/journals/Journal-of-Shellfish-Research/volume-38/issue-2/035.038.0201/Shellfish-Aquaculture-Map-Viewers--An-Assessment-of-Design-Data/10.2983/035.038.0201.short
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $10.00
Type: Journal Article

Shellfish aquaculture in the United States contributes to the global seafood supply, provides habitat and restoration opportunities, and enhances the economic sustainability of coastal communities. Most marine aquaculture production (two-thirds by value) in the United States comprises bivalve shellfish (oysters, clams, and mussels). As the marine aquaculture footprint grows, so too does the potential for negative environmental and space–use interactions. To streamline shellfish aquaculture permitting, many states have developed web-based aquaculture map viewers to communicate critical regulatory, space–use, and natural resource information. In this study, 18 state-level shellfish aquaculture map viewers were reviewed for common design approaches, important data considerations, and useful tools and functions. Key characteristics of a successful shellfish aquaculture map viewer include a user-friendly interface, instructional guidance, the ability to assess both opportunity and risk, inclusion of authoritative data, and a long-term maintenance plan for the viewer and data. The most common design approaches reviewed were Esri Web AppBuilder and Google. Viewers ranged from having 3–27 layers, with “view orthoimagery” (94%) as the most commonly occurring function. This review provides valuable information on using map viewers and technological innovation to communicate shellfish aquaculture planning and permitting information to a variety of stakeholders.

Food security and maritime security: A new challenge for the European Union's ocean policy

de Vivero JLSuárez, Mateos JCRodríg, del Corral DFlorido, Barragán MJosé, Calado H, Kjellevold M, Miasik EJanowska. Food security and maritime security: A new challenge for the European Union's ocean policy. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;108:103640. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X1830962X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

This paper revolves around the role that food-from-the-sea plays in European maritime security. It aims to illustrate the links between food, fisheries, and maritime security by considering these as coexisting attributes of security in general and of maritime (in)security, in particular. The article analyzes three dimensions of this issue: the links between food security, maritime security and maritime policy; the principles that inspire the Common Fisheries Policy and their implications for the food system; and the complexity involved in the trade relations between European markets (EU) and non European suppliers (the case of Cape Verde). The relevant conclusions that can be established are i) the EU's food security policy shows little sign of changing the course of its fisheries policy objectives; ii) The different dimensions of the relationship between fisheries and food security should not be neglected. In fact, from a local perspective, the concept of food sovereignty could be applied to some of the European Union's coastal territories. Therefore, European decision-makers should not ignore the fact that subsistence fisheries are still a strategy in some European coastal areas, where access to maritime resources is the key to their economies.

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