Aquaculture, Seafood, and Food Security

Ocean acidification and adaptive bivalve farming

Tan K, Zheng H. Ocean acidification and adaptive bivalve farming. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2020 ;701:134794. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719347850
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Multiple lines of evidence, ranging from time series field observations to climate change stimulation experiments demonstrate the negative effects of global warming and ocean acidification (OA) on bivalve molluscs. The impact of global warming on bivalve aquaculture has recently been reviewed. However, the impact of OA on bivalve aquaculture has received relatively less attention. Although there are many reports on the effects of OA on bivalves, this information is poorly organized and the connection between OA and bivalve aquaculture is unclear. Therefore, understanding the potential impact of acidification on ecosystems and bivalve aquaculture is of prime importance. Here, we provide a comprehensive scientific review of the impact of OA on bivalves and propose mitigation measures for future bivalve farming. This information will help to establish aquaculture and fisheries management plans to be implemented in commercial fisheries and nature conservation. In general, scientific evidence suggests that OA threatens bivalves by diminishing the availability of carbonate minerals, which may adversely affect the development of early life stages, calcification, growth, byssus attachment and survival of bivalves. The Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) approach is a useful method in slowing the effects of climate change, thereby providing longer adaptation period for bivalves to changing ocean conditions. However, for certain regions that experience intense OA effects or for certain bivalve species that have much longer generational time, IMTA alone may not be sufficient to protect bivalves from the adverse effects of climate change. Therefore, it is highly recommended to combine IMTA and genetic breeding methods to facilitate transgenerational acclimation or evolution processes to enhance the climate resilience of bivalves.

Fishing for feed in China: Facts, impacts and implications

Zhang W, Liu M, de Mitcheson YSadovy, Cao L, Leadbitter D, Newton R, Little DC, Li S, Yang Y, Chen X, et al. Fishing for feed in China: Facts, impacts and implications. Fish and Fisheries [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/faf.12414
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $42.00
Type: Journal Article

China is the world's largest capture fisheries and aquaculture producer. Over recent decades, China's domestic marine catch composition has changed markedly, from large volumes of a few high‐valued food species to multiple, small, low‐valued, species, a significant proportion of which is primarily used as animal, especially fish, feed. Despite the growing volume and economic importance of the feed catches, their species composition, catch volumes and socio‐environmental impacts are all poorly understood. Based on a nationwide survey of >800 fishing vessels, and the identification and measurement of >12,000 fish and invertebrate individuals, the present study provides an overview of the feed component of China's domestic marine catch, by volumes, species and sizes, and found it to be substantial and biologically unsustainable. Half of the trawler catch (3 million metric tons, mmt), or 35% of the total catch (4.6 mmt) in China's exclusive economic zone, are now comprised of low‐valued “feed‐grade fish”. The present study identified 218 fish species, 50 crustaceans and five cephalopods, and of these, 102 fish species were food species with 89% individuals in their juvenile size ranges. Feed‐grade fish were mainly used as aquaculture feed directly, or indirectly, through the feed industry after reduction to fishmeal and fish oil. The unparalleled scale and poor fisheries resource condition of China's domestic marine fisheries, in parallel with severe overfishing of juveniles, creates a demand for fundamental changes to fishery management practices, including a significant reduction of fishing effort to ensure productivity and ecosystem resilience.

Plastic debris accumulation in the seabed derived from coastal fish farming

Krüger L, Casado-Coy N, Valle C, Ramos M, Sánchez-Jerez P, Gago J, Carretero O, Beltrán-Sanahuja A, Sanz-Lazaro C. Plastic debris accumulation in the seabed derived from coastal fish farming. Environmental Pollution [Internet]. In Press :113336. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749119330222
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

In this study, we assessed plastic accumulation in marine sediments due to finfish aquaculture using floating net-pens. We studied plastic concentrations around three fish farms located at the Mediterranean coastline of Spain. The macroplastic categories and abundances were determined by video monitoring, detecting the majority of elements (78%), including ropes, nets and fibres, a basket trap and a cable tie, close to the facilities, which were not exclusively linked to fish farming but also to fishing activities. Concentrations of microplastics (<5 mm) ranged from 0 to 213 particles/kg dry weight sediment with higher values in sites directly under the influence of the fish farms. Most particles (27.8%) were within the size fraction from 1.1 to 2.0 mm and fibre was the most common shape with 62.2%. The Infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that PE and PP were the predominant types of polymers analysed. In addition, changes in the enthalpy of melting (ΔHm (J/g)) and the degree of crystallinity indicate degradation of the microplastics analysed. This study shows that, in the studied fish farms, levels of microplastic pollution can be one order of magnitude lower compared to other areas suffering other anthropogenic pressures from the same or similar regions. Nevertheless, more research effort is needed to get concluding results.

A global spatial analysis reveals where marine aquaculture can benefit nature and people

Theuerkauf SJ, Morris JA, Waters TJ, Wickliffe LC, Alleway HK, Jones RC. A global spatial analysis reveals where marine aquaculture can benefit nature and people Hewitt J. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(10):e0222282. Available from: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222282
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Aquaculture of bivalve shellfish and seaweed represents a global opportunity to simultaneously advance coastal ecosystem recovery and provide substantive benefits to humanity. To identify marine ecoregions with the greatest potential for development of shellfish and seaweed aquaculture to meet this opportunity, we conducted a global spatial analysis using key environmental (e.g., nutrient pollution status), socioeconomic (e.g., governance quality), and human health factors (e.g., wastewater treatment prevalence). We identify a substantial opportunity for strategic sector development, with the highest opportunity marine ecoregions for shellfish aquaculture centered on Oceania, North America, and portions of Asia, and the highest opportunity for seaweed aquaculture distributed throughout Europe, Asia, Oceania, and North and South America. This study provides insights into specific areas where governments, international development organizations, and investors should prioritize new efforts to drive changes in public policy, capacity-building, and business planning to realize the ecosystem and societal benefits of shellfish and seaweed aquaculture.

Dissuasive effect, information provision, and consumer reactions to the term ‘Biotechnology’: The case of reproductive interventions in farmed fish

Kulesz MM, Lundh T, De Koning D-J, Lagerkvist C-J. Dissuasive effect, information provision, and consumer reactions to the term ‘Biotechnology’: The case of reproductive interventions in farmed fis I. Olsson AS. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(9):e0222494. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0222494
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Biotechnology can provide innovative and efficient tools to support sustainable development of aquaculture. It is generally accepted that use of the term ‘genetically modified’ causes controversy and conflict among consumers, but little is known about how using the term ‘biotechnology’ as a salient feature on product packaging affects consumer preferences. In an online discrete choice experiment consisting of two treatments, a set of 1005 randomly chosen Swedish consumers were surveyed about use of hormone and triploidization sterilization techniques for salmonids. The information given to the treatment group included an additional sentence stating that the triploidization technique is an application of biotechnology, while the control group received the same text but without reference to biotechnology. Analysis using a hierarchical Bayes approach revealed significant consumer reactions to the term biotechnology. When the term was included in information, variation in consumer willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates increased significantly. Moreover, some participants were dissuaded towards an option guaranteeing no biotechnological intervention in production of fish. These results have multiple implications for research and for the food industry. For research, they indicate the importance of examining the distribution of variation in WTP estimates for more complete characterization of the effects of information on consumer behavior. For the food industry, they show that associating food with biotechnology creates more variability in demand. Initiatives should be introduced to reduce the confusion associated with the term biotechnology among consumers.

Vaccines and immune protection of principal Mediterranean marine fish species

Miccoli A, Saraceni PR, Scapigliati G. Vaccines and immune protection of principal Mediterranean marine fish species. Fish & Shellfish Immunology [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1050464819309490?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

This review describes and summarizes the knowledge on established and experimental vaccines developed against viral and bacterial pathologies affecting the most important farmed marine finfish species present in the Mediterranean area, namely European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax, sea bream Sparus aurata, turbot Psetta maxima and meagre Argyrosomus regius. The diseases that have been recorded in seabass, sea bream and meagre are caused by bacteria Vibrio anguillarumPhotobacterium damselaeTenacibaculum maritimum as well as by viruses such as Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy/Viral Nervous Necrosis and Lymphocystic disease. The main pathologies of turbot are instead bacteriosis provoked by Tenacibaculum maritimumAeromonas sp. and Vibrio anguillarum, and virosis by viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus. Some vaccines have been optimized and are now regularly available for the majority of the above-mentioned pathogens. A measurable immune protection has been conferred principally against Vibrio anguillarum, Photobacterium damselae sub. piscicida and VER/VNN.

Exploring the causes of seafood fraud: A meta-analysis on mislabeling and price

C. Donlan J, Luque GM. Exploring the causes of seafood fraud: A meta-analysis on mislabeling and price. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;100:258 - 264. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18304731?dgcid=raven_sd_recommender_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Seafood mislabeling is receiving increased attention by civil society, and programs and policies to address it are being implemented widely. Yet, evidence for the causes of mislabeling are largely limited to anecdotes and untested hypotheses. Mislabeling is commonly assumed to be motivated by the desire to label a lesser value product as a higher value one. Using price data from mislabeling studies, Δmislabel is estimated (i.e., the difference between the price of a labeled seafood product and its substitute when it was not mislabeled) and a meta-analysis is conducted to evaluate the evidence for an overall mislabeling for profit driver for seafood fraud. Evidence is lacking; rather, Δmislabel is highly variable. Country nor location in the supply chain do not account for the observed heterogeneity. The Δmislabel of substitute species, however, provides insights. Some species, such a sturgeon caviar, Atlantic Salmon, and Yellowfin Tuna have a positive Δmislabel, and may have the sufficient characteristics to motivate mislabeling for profitAtlantic Bluefin Tuna and Patagonian Toothfish have a negative Δmislabel, which could represent an incentive to mislabel in order to facilitate market access for illegally-landed seafood. Most species have price differentials close to zero—suggesting other incentives may be influencing seafood mislabeling. Less than 10% of studies report price information; doing so more often could provide insights into the motivations for fraud. The causes of mislabeling appear to be diverse and context dependent, as opposed to being driven primarily by one incentive.

An ecosystem approach to kelp aquaculture in the Americas and Europe

Grebe GS, Byron CJ, Gelais ASt., Kotowicz DM, Olson TK. An ecosystem approach to kelp aquaculture in the Americas and Europe. Aquaculture Reports [Internet]. 2019 ;15:100215. Available from: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2352513419300134
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Kelp farming is increasing along the temperate coastlines of the Americas and Europe. The economic, ecological, and social frameworks surrounding kelp farming in these new areas are in contrast with the conditions of progenitor kelp farming regions in China, Japan, and Korea.

Thus, identifying and addressing the environmental and social impacts of kelp farming in these regions is vital to ensuring the industry’s long-term sustainability. Here, a conceptual model of the human and natural systems supporting this nascent kelp aquaculture sector was developed using Maine, USA as a focal region. Potential negative impacts of kelp aquaculture were identified to be habitat degradation, overfishing of wild seeds, predation and competition with wild fish and genes, and transmission of diseases. Increased food security, improved restoration efforts, greater fisheries productivity, and alternative livelihoods development were determined to be potential positive impacts of kelp aquaculture. Changes in biodiversity and productivity resulting from either negative or positive impacts of kelp aquaculture were confirmed to have downstream effects on local fisheries and coastal communities. Recommendations to improve or protect the ecosystem services tangential to kelp farming include: define ecosystem and management boundaries, assess ecosystem services and environmental carrying capacity, pursue ecologically and socially considerate engineering, and protect the health and genetic diversity of wild kelp beds. Recommendations to ensure that kelp farming improves the well-being of all stakeholders include: increase horizontal expansion, expand and teach Best Management Practices, and develop climate change resiliency. Additionally, an integrated management strategy should be developed for wild and farmed kelp to ensure that kelp aquaculture is developed in the context of other sectors and goals.

Comparison of infectious agents detected from hatchery and wild juvenile Coho salmon in British Columbia, 2008-2018

Nekouei O, Vanderstichel R, Kaukinen KH, Thakur K, Ming T, Patterson DA, Trudel M, Neville C, Miller KM. Comparison of infectious agents detected from hatchery and wild juvenile Coho salmon in British Columbia, 2008-2018 Bryhn AC. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(9):e0221956. Available from: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221956
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Infectious diseases are potential contributors to decline in Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) populations. Although pathogens are theoretically considered to pose higher risk in high-density rearing environments like hatcheries, there is no direct evidence that hatchery-origin Coho salmon increase the transmission of infectious agents to sympatric wild populations. This study was undertaken to compare prevalence, burden, and diversity of infectious agents between hatchery-reared and wild juvenile Coho salmon in British Columbia (BC), Canada. In total, 2,655 juvenile Coho salmon were collected between 2008 and 2018 from four regions of freshwater and saltwater in BC. High-throughput microfluidics qPCR was employed for simultaneous detection of 36 infectious agents from mixed-tissue samples (gill, brain, heart, liver, and kidney). Thirty-one agents were detected at least once, including ten with prevalence >5%. Candidatus Brachiomonas cysticola, Paraneuclospora theridion, and Parvicapsula pseudobranchiocola were the most prevalent agents. Diversity and burden of infectious agents were substantially higher in marine environment than in freshwater. In Mainland BC, infectious burden and diversity were significantly lower in hatchery smolts than in wild counterparts, whereas in other regions, there were no significant differences. Observed differences in freshwater were predominantly driven by three parasites, Loma salmonae, Myxobolus arcticus, and Parvicapsula kabatai. In saltwater, there were no consistent differences in agent prevalence between hatchery and wild fish shared among the west and east coasts of Vancouver Island. Although some agents showed differential infectious patterns between regions, annual variations likely contributed to this signal. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that hatchery smolts carry higher burdens of infectious agents than conspecific wild fish, reducing the potential risk of transfer to wild smolts at this life stage. Moreover, we provide a baseline of infectious agents in juvenile Coho salmon that will be used in future research and modeling potential correlations between infectious profiles and marine survival.

Comparison of infectious agents detected from hatchery and wild juvenile Coho salmon in British Columbia, 2008-2018

Nekouei O, Vanderstichel R, Kaukinen KH, Thakur K, Ming T, Patterson DA, Trudel M, Neville C, Miller KM. Comparison of infectious agents detected from hatchery and wild juvenile Coho salmon in British Columbia, 2008-2018 Bryhn AC. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(9):e0221956. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221956
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Infectious diseases are potential contributors to decline in Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) populations. Although pathogens are theoretically considered to pose higher risk in high-density rearing environments like hatcheries, there is no direct evidence that hatchery-origin Coho salmon increase the transmission of infectious agents to sympatric wild populations. This study was undertaken to compare prevalence, burden, and diversity of infectious agents between hatchery-reared and wild juvenile Coho salmon in British Columbia (BC), Canada. In total, 2,655 juvenile Coho salmon were collected between 2008 and 2018 from four regions of freshwater and saltwater in BC. High-throughput microfluidics qPCR was employed for simultaneous detection of 36 infectious agents from mixed-tissue samples (gill, brain, heart, liver, and kidney). Thirty-one agents were detected at least once, including ten with prevalence >5%. Candidatus Brachiomonas cysticolaParaneuclospora theridion, and Parvicapsula pseudobranchiocola were the most prevalent agents. Diversity and burden of infectious agents were substantially higher in marine environment than in freshwater. In Mainland BC, infectious burden and diversity were significantly lower in hatchery smolts than in wild counterparts, whereas in other regions, there were no significant differences. Observed differences in freshwater were predominantly driven by three parasites, Loma salmonaeMyxobolus arcticus, and Parvicapsula kabatai. In saltwater, there were no consistent differences in agent prevalence between hatchery and wild fish shared among the west and east coasts of Vancouver Island. Although some agents showed differential infectious patterns between regions, annual variations likely contributed to this signal. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that hatchery smolts carry higher burdens of infectious agents than conspecific wild fish, reducing the potential risk of transfer to wild smolts at this life stage. Moreover, we provide a baseline of infectious agents in juvenile Coho salmon that will be used in future research and modeling potential correlations between infectious profiles and marine survival.

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