Blue Carbon & Sequestration

Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage

Ezcurra P, Ezcurra E, Garcillán PP, Costa MT, Aburto-Oropeza O. Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2016 . Available from: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2016/03/22/1519774113
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Given their relatively small area, mangroves and their organic sediments are of disproportionate importance to global carbon sequestration and carbon storage. Peat deposition and preservation allows some mangroves to accrete vertically and keep pace with sea-level rise by growing on their own root remains. In this study we show that mangroves in desert inlets in the coasts of the Baja California have been accumulating root peat for nearly 2,000 y and harbor a belowground carbon content of 900–34,00 Mg C/ha, with an average value of 1,130 (± 128) Mg C/ha, and a belowground carbon accumulation similar to that found under some of the tallest tropical mangroves in the Mexican Pacific coast. The depth–age curve for the mangrove sediments of Baja California indicates that sea level in the peninsula has been rising at a mean rate of 0.70 mm/y (± 0.07) during the last 17 centuries, a value similar to the rates of sea-level rise estimated for the Caribbean during a comparable period. By accreting on their own accumulated peat, these desert mangroves store large amounts of carbon in their sediments. We estimate that mangroves and halophyte scrubs in Mexico’s arid northwest, with less than 1% of the terrestrial area, store in their belowground sediments around 28% of the total belowground carbon pool of the whole region.

Deciphering ocean carbon in a changing world

Moran MAnn, Kujawinski EB, Stubbins A, Fatland R, Aluwihare LI, Buchan A, Crump BC, Dorrestein PC, Dyhrman ST, Hess NJ, et al. Deciphering ocean carbon in a changing world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2016 . Available from: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2016/03/04/1514645113.abstract.html?etoc
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the oceans is one of the largest pools of reduced carbon on Earth, comparable in size to the atmospheric CO2 reservoir. A vast number of compounds are present in DOM, and they play important roles in all major element cycles, contribute to the storage of atmospheric CO2 in the ocean, support marine ecosystems, and facilitate interactions between organisms. At the heart of the DOM cycle lie molecular-level relationships between the individual compounds in DOM and the members of the ocean microbiome that produce and consume them. In the past, these connections have eluded clear definition because of the sheer numerical complexity of both DOM molecules and microorganisms. Emerging tools in analytical chemistry, microbiology, and informatics are breaking down the barriers to a fuller appreciation of these connections. Here we highlight questions being addressed using recent methodological and technological developments in those fields and consider how these advances are transforming our understanding of some of the most important reactions of the marine carbon cycle.

Development of environmental impact monitoring protocol for offshore carbon capture and storage (CCS): A biological perspective

Kim H, Kim YHoon, Kang S-G, Park Y-G. Development of environmental impact monitoring protocol for offshore carbon capture and storage (CCS): A biological perspective. Environmental Impact Assessment Review [Internet]. 2016 ;57:139 - 150. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925515001201
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Offshore geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), known as offshore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), has been under active investigation as a safe, effective mitigation option for reducing CO2 levels from anthropogenic fossil fuel burning and climate change. Along with increasing trends in implementation plans and related logistics on offshore CCS, thorough risk assessment (i.e. environmental impact monitoring) needs to be conducted to evaluate potential risks, such as CO2 gas leakage at injection sites. Gas leaks from offshore CCS may affect the physiology of marine organisms and disrupt certain ecosystem functions, thereby posing an environmental risk. Here, we synthesize current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore CCS with an emphasis on biological aspects and provide suggestions for better practice. Based on our critical review of preexisting literatures, this paper: 1) discusses key variables sensitive to or indicative of gas leakage by summarizing physico-chemical and ecological variables measured from previous monitoring cruises on offshore CCS; 2) lists ecosystem and organism responses to a similar environmental condition to CO2leakage and associated impacts, such as ocean acidification and hypercapnia, to predict how they serve as responsive indicators of short- and long-term gas exposure, and 3) discusses the designs of the artificial gas release experiments in fields and the best model simulation to produce realistic leakage scenarios in marine ecosystems. Based on our analysis, we suggest that proper incorporation of biological aspects will provide successful and robust long-term monitoring strategies with earlier detection of gas leakage, thus reducing the risks associated with offshore CCS.

Living Shorelines: Coastal Resilience with a Blue Carbon Benefit

Davis JL, Currin CA, O’Brien C, Raffenburg C, Davis A. Living Shorelines: Coastal Resilience with a Blue Carbon Benefit. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2015 ;10(11):e0142595. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0142595
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Living shorelines are a type of estuarine shoreline erosion control that incorporates native vegetation and preserves native habitats. Because they provide the ecosystem services associated with natural coastal wetlands while also increasing shoreline resilience, living shorelines are part of the natural and hybrid infrastructure approach to coastal resiliency. Marshes created as living shorelines are typically narrow (< 30 m) fringing marshes with sandy substrates that are well flushed by tides. These characteristics distinguish living shorelines from the larger meadow marshes in which most of the current knowledge about created marshes was developed. The value of living shorelines for providing both erosion control and habitat for estuarine organisms has been documented but their capacity for carbon sequestration has not. We measured carbon sequestration rates in living shorelines and sandy transplanted Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Newport River Estuary, North Carolina. The marshes sampled here range in age from 12 to 38 years and represent a continuum of soil development. Carbon sequestration rates ranged from 58 to 283 g C m-2 yr-1 and decreased with marsh age. The pattern of lower sequestration rates in older marshes is hypothesized to be the result of a relative enrichment of labile organic matter in younger sites and illustrates the importance of choosing mature marshes for determination of long-term carbon sequestration potential. The data presented here are within the range of published carbon sequestration rates for Salterniflora marshes and suggest that wide-scale use of the living shoreline approach to shoreline management may come with a substantial carbon benefit.

Do protected areas reduce blue carbon emissions? A quasi-experimental evaluation of mangroves in Indonesia

Miteva DA, Murray BC, Pattanayak SK. Do protected areas reduce blue carbon emissions? A quasi-experimental evaluation of mangroves in Indonesia. Ecological Economics [Internet]. 2015 ;119:127 - 135. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800915003419
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Mangroves provide multiple ecosystem services such as blue carbon sequestration, storm protection, and unique habitat for species. Despite these services, mangroves are being lost at rapid rates around the world. Using the best available biophysical and socio-economic data, we present the first rigorous large-scale evaluation of the effectiveness of protected areas (PAs) at conserving mangroves and reducing blue carbon emissions. We focus on Indonesia as it has the largest absolute area of mangroves (about 22.6% of the world's mangroves), is one of the most diverse in terms of mangrove species and has been losing its mangroves at a very fast rate. Specifically, we apply quasi-experimental techniques (combining propensity score and covariate matching, differences-in-differences, and post-matching bias adjustments) to assess whether PAs prevented mangrove loss between 2000 and 2010. Our results show that marine protected areas reduced mangrove loss by about 14,000 ha and avoided blue carbon emissions of approximately 13 million metric tons (CO2 equivalent). However, we find no evidence that species management PAs stalled the loss of mangroves. We conclude by providing illustrative estimates of the blue carbon benefits of establishing PAs, which can be cost-effective policies for mitigating climate change and biodiversity loss.

Seasonal copepod lipid pump promotes carbon sequestration in the deep North Atlantic

Jónasdóttir SHuld, Visser AW, Richardson K, Heath MR. Seasonal copepod lipid pump promotes carbon sequestration in the deep North Atlantic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2015 . Available from: http://www.pnas.org/lookup/doi/10.1073/pnas.1512110112
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Estimates of carbon flux to the deep oceans are essential for our understanding of global carbon budgets. Sinking of detrital material (“biological pump”) is usually thought to be the main biological component of this flux. Here, we identify an additional biological mechanism, the seasonal “lipid pump,” which is highly efficient at sequestering carbon into the deep ocean. It involves the vertical transport and metabolism of carbon rich lipids by overwintering zooplankton. We show that one species, the copepod Calanus finmarchicusoverwintering in the North Atlantic, sequesters an amount of carbon equivalent to the sinking flux of detrital material. The efficiency of the lipid pump derives from a near-complete decoupling between nutrient and carbon cycling—a “lipid shunt,” and its direct transport of carbon through the mesopelagic zone to below the permanent thermocline with very little attenuation. Inclusion of the lipid pump almost doubles the previous estimates of deep-ocean carbon sequestration by biological processes in the North Atlantic.

Estimating the value of carbon sequestration ecosystem services in the Mediterranean Sea: An ecological economics approach

Canu DMelaku, Ghermandi A, Nunes PALD, Lazzari P, Cossarini G, Solidoro C. Estimating the value of carbon sequestration ecosystem services in the Mediterranean Sea: An ecological economics approach. Global Environmental Change [Internet]. 2015 ;32:87 - 95. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378015000278
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
Yes
Type: Journal Article

Ocean and marine ecosystems provide a range of valuable services to humans, including benefits such as carbon sequestration, whose economic value are as yet poorly understood. This paper presents a novel contribution to the valuation of carbon sequestration services in marine ecosystems with an application to the Mediterranean Sea. We combine a state-of-the-art biogeochemical model with various estimates of the social cost of carbon emissions to provide a spatially explicit characterization of the current flow of values that are attributable to the various sequestration processes, including the biological component. Using conservative estimates of the social cost of carbon, we evaluate the carbon sequestration value flows over the entire basin to range between 127 and 1722 million €/year. Values per unit area range from −135 to 1000 €/km2 year, with the exclusive economic zone of some countries acting as net carbon sources. Whereas the contribution of physical processes can be either positive or negative, also depending on the properties of incoming Atlantic water, the contribution of biological processes to the marine “blue carbon” sequestration is always positive, and found to range between 100 to 1500 million €/year for the whole basin.

Harnessing the climate mitigation, conservation and poverty alleviation potential of seagrasses: prospects for developing blue carbon initiatives and payment for ecosystem service programmes

Hejnowicz AP, Kennedy H, Rudd MA, Huxham MR. Harnessing the climate mitigation, conservation and poverty alleviation potential of seagrasses: prospects for developing blue carbon initiatives and payment for ecosystem service programmes. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2015 ;2. Available from: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2015.00032
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Seagrass ecosystems provide numerous ecosystem services that support coastal communities around the world. They sustain abundant marine life as well as commercial and artisanal fisheries, and help protect shorelines from coastal erosion. Additionally, seagrass meadows are a globally significant sink for carbon and represent a key ecosystem for combating climate change. However, seagrass habitats are suffering rapid global decline. Despite recognition of the importance of “Blue Carbon,” no functioning seagrass restoration or conservation projects supported by carbon finance currently operate, and the policies and frameworks to achieve this have not been developed. Yet, seagrass ecosystems could play a central role in addressing important international research questions regarding the natural mechanisms through which the ocean and the seabed can mitigate climate change, and how ecosystem structure links to service provision. The relative inattention that seagrass ecosystems have received represents both a serious oversight and a major missed opportunity. In this paper we review the prospects of further inclusion of seagrass ecosystems in climate policy frameworks, with a particular focus on carbon storage and sequestration, as well as the potential for developing payment for ecosystem service (PES) schemes that are complementary to carbon management. Prospects for the inclusion of seagrass Blue Carbon in regulatory compliance markets are currently limited; yet despite the risks the voluntary carbon sector offers the most immediately attractive avenue for the development of carbon credits. Given the array of ecosystem services seagrass ecosystems provide the most viable route to combat climate change, ensure seagrass conservation and improve livelihoods may be to complement any carbon payments with seagrass PES schemes based on the provision of additional ecosystem services.

The significance and management of natural carbon stores in the open ocean

Laffoley D, Baxter JM, Thevenon F, Oliver J eds. The significance and management of natural carbon stores in the open ocean. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN; 2014 p. 124. Available from: https://portals.iucn.org/library/node/44905
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

This report focuses on the open ocean, which is often referred to in the literature as the largest carbon sink on Earth. The report has been produced to promote better understanding of how atmospheric carbon is captured, stored and mobilized in the ocean, and how this has a significant bearing on sustainability, the welfare of people, and the future scale and intensity of climate change and ocean acidification. Whilst there has been a significant effort on managing carbon in natural environments on land in places such as forest and peatlands, we have been largely ignoring the ocean that is now responding to the full impact of the consequences of our activities.

The report sets out the importance of carbon in the open ocean and, through examples, illustrates the significance and values of some of its major carbon pools and sinks. This analysis ranges from microscopic organisms in the plankton that drive the biological pump, which take CO2 out of the air and ultimately trap a proportion of solid carbon permanently in the sediments of the deep ocean, through to groups of animals, which perhaps hitherto have not been considered as very relevant in carbon management, such as krill and fish – and in so doing introduces the notion of ‘mobile carbon units’. The report ranges in its attention from the surface waters, where carbon capture is powered by photosynthetic activities, through to the deep ocean. It describes the role and importance of deep sea microbes, and the recently discovered, increasingly important chemosynthetic pathways through which carbon is converted in the deep dark ocean to organic matter.

Operationalizing and Leveraging an Ecosystem Services Framework for Habitat Conservation: Coastal Blue Carbon

Sutton-Grier A. Operationalizing and Leveraging an Ecosystem Services Framework for Habitat Conservation: Coastal Blue Carbon. Durham, NC: National Ecosystem Services Partnership, Duke University; 2014 p. 13. Available from: https://nespguidebook.com/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Describes NOAA’s efforts to support the scientific, policy, and economic framework needed to increase use of information on coastal wetland’s carbon sequestration potential in coastal management.

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