Mangroves provide multiple ecosystem services such as blue carbon sequestration, storm protection, and unique habitat for species. Despite these services, mangroves are being lost at rapid rates around the world. Using the best available biophysical and socio-economic data, we present the first rigorous large-scale evaluation of the effectiveness of protected areas (PAs) at conserving mangroves and reducing blue carbon emissions. We focus on Indonesia as it has the largest absolute area of mangroves (about 22.6% of the world's mangroves), is one of the most diverse in terms of mangrove species and has been losing its mangroves at a very fast rate. Specifically, we apply quasi-experimental techniques (combining propensity score and covariate matching, differences-in-differences, and post-matching bias adjustments) to assess whether PAs prevented mangrove loss between 2000 and 2010. Our results show that marine protected areas reduced mangrove loss by about 14,000 ha and avoided blue carbon emissions of approximately 13 million metric tons (CO2 equivalent). However, we find no evidence that species management PAs stalled the loss of mangroves. We conclude by providing illustrative estimates of the blue carbon benefits of establishing PAs, which can be cost-effective policies for mitigating climate change and biodiversity loss.
Blue Carbon & Sequestration
Estimates of carbon flux to the deep oceans are essential for our understanding of global carbon budgets. Sinking of detrital material (“biological pump”) is usually thought to be the main biological component of this flux. Here, we identify an additional biological mechanism, the seasonal “lipid pump,” which is highly efficient at sequestering carbon into the deep ocean. It involves the vertical transport and metabolism of carbon rich lipids by overwintering zooplankton. We show that one species, the copepod Calanus finmarchicusoverwintering in the North Atlantic, sequesters an amount of carbon equivalent to the sinking flux of detrital material. The efficiency of the lipid pump derives from a near-complete decoupling between nutrient and carbon cycling—a “lipid shunt,” and its direct transport of carbon through the mesopelagic zone to below the permanent thermocline with very little attenuation. Inclusion of the lipid pump almost doubles the previous estimates of deep-ocean carbon sequestration by biological processes in the North Atlantic.
Ocean and marine ecosystems provide a range of valuable services to humans, including benefits such as carbon sequestration, whose economic value are as yet poorly understood. This paper presents a novel contribution to the valuation of carbon sequestration services in marine ecosystems with an application to the Mediterranean Sea. We combine a state-of-the-art biogeochemical model with various estimates of the social cost of carbon emissions to provide a spatially explicit characterization of the current flow of values that are attributable to the various sequestration processes, including the biological component. Using conservative estimates of the social cost of carbon, we evaluate the carbon sequestration value flows over the entire basin to range between 127 and 1722 million €/year. Values per unit area range from −135 to 1000 €/km2 year, with the exclusive economic zone of some countries acting as net carbon sources. Whereas the contribution of physical processes can be either positive or negative, also depending on the properties of incoming Atlantic water, the contribution of biological processes to the marine “blue carbon” sequestration is always positive, and found to range between 100 to 1500 million €/year for the whole basin.
Seagrass ecosystems provide numerous ecosystem services that support coastal communities around the world. They sustain abundant marine life as well as commercial and artisanal fisheries, and help protect shorelines from coastal erosion. Additionally, seagrass meadows are a globally significant sink for carbon and represent a key ecosystem for combating climate change. However, seagrass habitats are suffering rapid global decline. Despite recognition of the importance of “Blue Carbon,” no functioning seagrass restoration or conservation projects supported by carbon finance currently operate, and the policies and frameworks to achieve this have not been developed. Yet, seagrass ecosystems could play a central role in addressing important international research questions regarding the natural mechanisms through which the ocean and the seabed can mitigate climate change, and how ecosystem structure links to service provision. The relative inattention that seagrass ecosystems have received represents both a serious oversight and a major missed opportunity. In this paper we review the prospects of further inclusion of seagrass ecosystems in climate policy frameworks, with a particular focus on carbon storage and sequestration, as well as the potential for developing payment for ecosystem service (PES) schemes that are complementary to carbon management. Prospects for the inclusion of seagrass Blue Carbon in regulatory compliance markets are currently limited; yet despite the risks the voluntary carbon sector offers the most immediately attractive avenue for the development of carbon credits. Given the array of ecosystem services seagrass ecosystems provide the most viable route to combat climate change, ensure seagrass conservation and improve livelihoods may be to complement any carbon payments with seagrass PES schemes based on the provision of additional ecosystem services.
This report focuses on the open ocean, which is often referred to in the literature as the largest carbon sink on Earth. The report has been produced to promote better understanding of how atmospheric carbon is captured, stored and mobilized in the ocean, and how this has a significant bearing on sustainability, the welfare of people, and the future scale and intensity of climate change and ocean acidification. Whilst there has been a significant effort on managing carbon in natural environments on land in places such as forest and peatlands, we have been largely ignoring the ocean that is now responding to the full impact of the consequences of our activities.
The report sets out the importance of carbon in the open ocean and, through examples, illustrates the significance and values of some of its major carbon pools and sinks. This analysis ranges from microscopic organisms in the plankton that drive the biological pump, which take CO2 out of the air and ultimately trap a proportion of solid carbon permanently in the sediments of the deep ocean, through to groups of animals, which perhaps hitherto have not been considered as very relevant in carbon management, such as krill and fish – and in so doing introduces the notion of ‘mobile carbon units’. The report ranges in its attention from the surface waters, where carbon capture is powered by photosynthetic activities, through to the deep ocean. It describes the role and importance of deep sea microbes, and the recently discovered, increasingly important chemosynthetic pathways through which carbon is converted in the deep dark ocean to organic matter.
Describes NOAA’s efforts to support the scientific, policy, and economic framework needed to increase use of information on coastal wetland’s carbon sequestration potential in coastal management.
The manual outlines the rationale and project design for measuring blue carbon in the field and approaches for data analysis and reporting. Effort was made to ensure consistency with international standards, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines, and other relevant sourcebooks.
The manual is structured as follows:
Chapter 1: Introduces the role of blue carbon in climate change mitigation and outlines the manual’s purpose and objectives;
Chapter 2: Outlines the main steps to prepare a robust field measurement plan;
Chapter 3: Provides protocols and guidance for measuring organic carbon stocks found in the soils of all three ecosystems;
Chapter 4: Provides protocols and guidance for measuring organic carbon stocks, found in above- and belowground biomass, with specific protocols designed for each ecosystem;
Chapter 5: H ighlights methods for determining the changes in carbon stocks over time and monitoring greenhouse gas emissions;
Chapter 6: G ives an overview of remote sensing options and applications;
Chapter 7: Provides guidance on managing large data sets and data sharing; and
Appendices: T here are several appendices; they contain supplementary information, worked through examples, lists of equations, and more.