Coastal and Offshore Energy

From strategic marine planning to project licences – Striking a balance between predictability and adaptability in the management of aquaculture and offshore wind farms

Schütz SEskeland, Slater A-M. From strategic marine planning to project licences – Striking a balance between predictability and adaptability in the management of aquaculture and offshore wind farms. Marine Policy [Internet]. In Press :103556. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19303215
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Renewable energy and sustainable food production are high on the international agenda, as is the prospect of expanding activity northwards to Arctic waters. In this article, we review core elements of the marine governance systems for aquaculture facilities and offshore wind farms in Norway and Scotland. Management of these sectors through strategic planning, marine spatial planning and licensing systems furthers rule of law values such as stability and predictability, making investment less risky. The review illustrates how the governance systems also facilitate flexibility and adaptability, balancing predictability considerations against the need to adapt management to natural and economic changes and innovative technologies, or even effective multi-use. This article discusses what endeavours have been made to strike a balance between predictability and adaptability in these sectors in Norway and Scotland. This study of marine management regimes in the Arctic and northern parts of the Temperate Northern Atlantic, and the values underpinning these regimes, provides lessons for the future of the Arctic.

Lessons learned from offshore oil and gas incidents in the Arctic and other ice-prone seas

Necci A, Tarantola S, Vamanu B, Krausmann E, Ponte L. Lessons learned from offshore oil and gas incidents in the Arctic and other ice-prone seas. Ocean Engineering [Internet]. 2019 ;185:12 - 26. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0029801819302471
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Specific risks to offshore oil and gas operations manifest in the Arctic and other harsh environments. Such extreme operating conditions can disrupt the offshore infrastructure and cause major accidents, posing a great challenge to operators. A thorough investigation of past incidents helps to learn lessons to ensure that a recurrence of serious accidents affecting workers and the environment can be prevented.

The analysis of past incidents is divided into two parts. First, we offer a statistical analysis of offshore incidents triggered by natural events in the Arctic and in similar harsh environments. The analysis, organised by location, cause, and type of damage, failure mechanisms, and consequences, is based on data from the World Offshore Accident Database (WOAD). Second, we analyse a selection of accidents that occurred in the recent past in ice-prone seas, with particular attention to potential deficiencies in safety measures, design requirements and design methodologies, operations planning and component reliability.

Based on the analysis, important lessons were identified which stress the need for further efforts to ensure the safety of workers and of assets and to get all actors involved in offshore operations engaged towards achieving a safer future for the exploitation of oil and gas resources.

Minimizing wildlife impacts for offshore wind energy development: Winning tradeoffs for seabirds in space and cetaceans in time

Best BD, Halpin PN. Minimizing wildlife impacts for offshore wind energy development: Winning tradeoffs for seabirds in space and cetaceans in time Yue B-S. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(5):e0215722. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215722
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Although offshore wind energy development (OWED) offers a much-needed renewable energy alternative to fossil fuels, holistic and effective methods for evaluating environmental impacts on wildlife in both space and time have been lacking. The lengthy environmental compliance process, estimated to incur a 7–10 year permitting timeline [1], has been identified as a significant impediment to offshore energy development in U.S. waters. During operation, seabirds can collide and be displaced by turbines. During episodic pre-operation phases, cetaceans are most heavily impacted acoustically by pile driving (and similarly seismic air gun surveys for oil and gas exploration). The varying nature of impacts in space and time leads us to conclude that sites should be selected in space to minimize long-term operational impacts on seabirds, and timing of surveying and construction activities to be conducted in times of the year when sensitive migratory marine mammals are least present. We developed a novel spatiotemporal decision support framework that interactively visualizes tradeoffs between OWED industry profits and wildlife sensitivities, in both space and time. The framework highlights sites on a map that are the most profitable and least sensitive to seabirds. Within the U.S. Mid-Atlantic study area, the New York Call Areas are particularly well optimized for minimal impact on seabirds with maximal profits to OWED. For a given site, pre-operational activities (e.g. pile driving and seismic air gun surveying) are advised by cetacean sensitivity across months of the year that minimize impacts on migratory cetaceans, particularly those of highest conservation concern such as the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena Glacialis). For instance, within optimal sites for the New York Call Area the least impacting months are May and June. Other taxa are certainly affected by OWED and should be incorporated into this framework, but data on their distributions and/or sensitivities is currently less well known. Built with open-source software made publicly available, the authors hope this framework will be extended even more comprehensively into the future as our knowledge on species distributions and OWED sensitivities expands for streamlining environmental compliance.

Europe, China and the United States: Three different approaches to the development of offshore wind energy

deCastro M, Salvador S, Gómez-Gesteira M, Costoya X, Carvalho D, Sanz-Larruga FJ, Gimeno L. Europe, China and the United States: Three different approaches to the development of offshore wind energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews [Internet]. 2019 ;109:55 - 70. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032119302370
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $37.95
Type: Journal Article

In those countries where wind plays a major role in the energy mix (EU, China and USA) actions have been carried out to develop offshore wind energy, albeit to varying degrees. These actions range from studying offshore wind to the development of laws and planning related to the construction of wind farms. Europe currently leads the way in offshore wind energy (with 84% of global installations), having achieved technical and commercial maturity, including the first floating wind farm to generate electricity, together with an emerging zero-subsidy culture. The Chinese wind industry has seen rapid development since 2005, however, well established laws, the use of a one-stop-shop system in the licencing process, and the establishment of higher feed-in tariffs (FITs), could all boost the Chinese offshore wind industry further. The possible future role of the USA in the offshore wind industry is now in the hands of its decision makers. A more streamlined licencing process, together with a long-term vision enshrined within stable economic incentives, could help to boost the offshore wind industry in the USA.

Wind Energy and Wildlife Impacts: Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Assess the Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy

Pezy J-P, Raoux A, Niquil N, Dauvin J-C. Wind Energy and Wildlife Impacts: Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Assess the Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy. In: Bispo R, Bernardino J, Coelho H, Costa JLino Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2019. pp. 153 - 164. Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-05520-2_10
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $29.95
Type: Book Chapter

Since the beginning of the 2000’, the French government ambition was to have an offshore wind production formed 40% of the renewable electricity in 2030. Three calls tenders of Offshore Wind Farms (OWFs) construction have been pronounced since 2011. However, no offshore wind farm (OWF) had been constructed at the end of 2017 due to long administrative procedures and numerous appeals in justice, at French and European levels. Nevertheless, several studies have been enterprised to identify the environmental conditions and ecosystem functioning in selected sites before OWF implantations. However, these studies are generally focused on the conservation of some species or groups of species, and there is no holistic study on the effects of the construction and operation of OWF on an ecosystem taken as a whole. In 2017, a complete and integrated view of the ecosystem of two future OWF sites of the eastern English Channel (Courseulles-sur-Mer and Dieppe-Le Tréport) was developed to model the marine ecosystems before OWF implementation and to simulate reef effects due to new spatial occupation of maritime territory. Results contribute to a better knowledge of the impacts of the OWFs on the functioning of marine ecosystems. They also allow to define recommendations for environmental managers and industry in terms of monitoring the effects of marine renewable energy (MRE), not only locally but also on other sites, at national and European levels.

Wind Energy and Wildlife ImpactsTowards an Ecosystem Approach to Assess the Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy

Pezy J-P, Raoux A, Niquil N, Dauvin J-C. Wind Energy and Wildlife ImpactsTowards an Ecosystem Approach to Assess the Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy. In: Bispo R, Bernardino J, Coelho H, Costa JLino Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2019. pp. 153 - 164. Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-05520-2_10
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $29.95
Type: Book Chapter

Since the beginning of the 2000’, the French government ambition was to have an offshore wind production formed 40% of the renewable electricity in 2030. Three calls tenders of Offshore Wind Farms (OWFs) construction have been pronounced since 2011. However, no offshore wind farm (OWF) had been constructed at the end of 2017 due to long administrative procedures and numerous appeals in justice, at French and European levels. Nevertheless, several studies have been enterprised to identify the environmental conditions and ecosystem functioning in selected sites before OWF implantations. However, these studies are generally focused on the conservation of some species or groups of species, and there is no holistic study on the effects of the construction and operation of OWF on an ecosystem taken as a whole. In 2017, a complete and integrated view of the ecosystem of two future OWF sites of the eastern English Channel (Courseulles-sur-Mer and Dieppe-Le Tréport) was developed to model the marine ecosystems before OWF implementation and to simulate reef effects due to new spatial occupation of maritime territory. Results contribute to a better knowledge of the impacts of the OWFs on the functioning of marine ecosystems. They also allow to define recommendations for environmental managers and industry in terms of monitoring the effects of marine renewable energy (MRE), not only locally but also on other sites, at national and European levels.

Fish, finances, and feasibility: Concerns about tidal energy development in the United States

Dreyer SJ, Beaver E, Polis HJ, Jenkins LD. Fish, finances, and feasibility: Concerns about tidal energy development in the United States. Energy Research & Social Science [Internet]. 2019 ;53:126 - 136. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221462961830625X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Journal Article

This article explores stakeholder views on tidal energy in the state of Washington. Through compiling and analyzing three qualitative datasets, we take a triangulated approach to better understand stakeholders’ positive and negative views, concerns, and needs regarding tidal energy and if and how these are represented through print and online news sources. We analyzed comments submitted during the permitting process for the Admiralty Inlet Pilot Tidal Project, comments included as part of a tidal energy mail survey sent to Washington residents, and media articles about tidal energy. We found four types of concern themes within negative views towards tidal energy: environmental, social, economic, and technical. Shared concerns between organized stakeholder groups and resident stakeholders about the project and tidal energy in general included concerns related to the harm to marine life, the loss of native fishing rights, expensiveness of development, increased electricity costs, and the engineering challenge of developing tidal energy. Concerns unique to stakeholder groups for the project included threats from scaling up, issues related to public safety and security, damage to cables, inability to stop the turbine, harm to terrestrial flora, and sediment disruption and contamination. Positive views were commonly associated with the need to address environmental issues, technological innovation and leadership, desire to have a diverse energy portfolio, and economic benefits.

Overview of ocean power technology

Wilberforce T, Hassan ZEl, Durrant A, Thompson J, Soudan B, Olabi AG. Overview of ocean power technology. Energy [Internet]. 2019 ;175:165 - 181. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0360544219304724?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

This work discusses and provides a critical expose of some of the newly emerging renewable energy technologies with special concentration on marine energy generation.

The work shows that there are several promising new developments in harvesting marine energy and it examines some of these technologies and discusses their advantages and some of the obstacles that are impeding the commercialization of these emerging technologies. This includes wave energy harvestingtidal energy harvesting, ocean thermal energy and the utilisation of salinity gradients for electricity generation.

The work emphasises the fact that these new emerging technologies are currently at the developing stages and has a long way to go before successful commercialization and wide adoption become the norm.

The work stresses the need for more research and developmental work to address several of the technical issues that need to be addressed including devices designs, their installation and maintenance, the infrastructure which includes the grid and power transmission as well as losses, their use in arrays, and their longevity.

This work underlines the lack of reliable studies on the long term impacts of these technologies on both the marine environment and nearby habitations and highlights the need for proper environmental and social impact assessments of these technologies.

The work concludes that combination of technical, policy and economic advances will enable marine energy technologies to play a large role in combination with currently adopted non-pollution renewable energy resources to provide the world population with their energy needs and contribute to affecting significant reduction in the use of non-renewable and other polluting fuels worldwide.

Global assessment of marine biodiversity potentially threatened by offshore hydrocarbon activities

Venegas-Li R, Levin N, Morales-Barquero L, Kaschner K, Garilao C, Kark S. Global assessment of marine biodiversity potentially threatened by offshore hydrocarbon activities. Global Change Biology [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gcb.14616
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $42.00
Type: Journal Article

Increasing global energy demands have led to the ongoing intensification of hydrocarbon extraction from marine areas. Hydrocarbon extractive activities pose threats to native marine biodiversity, such as noise, light, and chemical pollution, physical changes to the sea floor, invasive species, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we assessed at a global scale the spatial overlap between offshore hydrocarbon activities and marine biodiversity (>25,000 species, nine major ecosystems, and marine protected areas), and quantify the changes over time. We discovered that two‐thirds of global offshore hydrocarbon activities occur in areas within the top 10% for species richness, range rarity, and proportional range rarity values globally. Thus, while hydrocarbon activities are undertaken in less than one percent of the ocean's area, they overlap with approximately 85% of all assessed species. Of conservation concern, 4% of species with the largest proportion of their range overlapping hydrocarbon activities are range restricted, potentially increasing their vulnerability to localized threats such as oil spills. While hydrocarbon activities have extended to greater depths since the mid‐1990s, we found that the largest overlap is with coastal ecosystems, particularly estuaries, saltmarshes, and mangroves. Furthermore, in most countries where offshore hydrocarbon exploration licensing blocks have been delineated, they do not overlap with marine protected areas (MPAs). Although this is positive in principle, many countries have far more licensing block areas than protected areas, and in some instances, MPA coverage is minimal. These findings suggest the need for marine spatial prioritisation to help limit future spatial overlap between marine conservation priorities and hydrocarbon activities. Such prioritisation can be informed by the spatial and quantitative baseline information provided here. In increasingly shared seascapes, prioritising management actions that set both conservation and development targets could help minimize further declines of biodiversity and environmental changes at a global scale.

Dual wave farms for energy production and coastal protection under sea level rise

Rodriguez-Delgado C, Bergillos RJ, Iglesias G. Dual wave farms for energy production and coastal protection under sea level rise. Journal of Cleaner Production [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652619307474
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Climate change is poised to exacerbate coastal erosion. Recent research has presented a novel strategy to tackle this issue: dual wave farms, i.e., arrays of wave energy converters with the dual function of carbon-free energy generation and coastal erosion mitigation. However, the implications of sea level rise – another consequence of climate change – for the effectiveness of wave farms as coastal defence elements against shoreline erosion have not been studied so far. The objective of this work is to investigate how the coastal defence performance of a dual wave farm is affected by sea level rise through a case study (Playa Granada, southern Iberian Peninsula). To this end, a spectral wave propagation model, a longshore sediment transport formulation and a one-line model are combined to obtain the final subaerial beach areas for three sea level rise scenarios: the present situation, an optimistic and a pessimistic projection. These scenarios were modelled with and without the wave farm to assess its effects. We find that the dual wave farm reduces erosion and promotes accretion regardless of the sea level rise scenario considered. In the case of westerly storms, the dual wave farm is particularly effective: erosion is transformed into accretion. In general, and importantly, sea level rise strengthens the effectiveness of the dual wave farm as a coastal protection mechanism. This fact enhances the competitiveness of wave farms as coastal defence elements.

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