With the rapid development of human society, the demand for energy has accordingly increased, and along with this increasingly serious energy and environmental crises have developed. Many countries have been focusing on new energy resources to combat these crises, and offshore wind energy resources are especially attractive; they are safe, non-polluting, renewable, and widely distributed with large reserves, which has made them become the focus of developed countries. However, the distribution of wind energy has strong regional and seasonal differences, which determines the success and efficiency of wind energy developments. Therefore, there is a clear need for “resource evaluation and planning in advance” in the wind energy development. Previous research has made a great contribution to the evaluation of offshore wind energy resources, mostly through analysis of the climatic characteristics of wind energy. In the actual development process of wind energy resources, these analyses of the climatic characteristics of wind energy provide a reference for site selection. However, after constructing wind farms, to aid their operation, there needs to be a more comprehensive understanding of other factors, such as the short-term forecasting and medium- to long-term predictions of wind energy. This paper reviews the research progress of the wind energy resource evaluations, and then considers where future research needs to focus, for the evaluation of wind energy resources. This mainly includes further analyses of the climatic characteristics of wind energy, short-term forecasting, medium- to long-term predictions, early disaster warning systems, the establishment of a wind energy development index (WEDI) and an integrated application system, in hope of providing a reference for offshore wind power generation, seawater desalination and other wind energy resource developments, and accelerating the industrialization and utilization of offshore wind energy. Doing this will alleviate the energy and environmental crises, and promote the sustainable development of human society.
Coastal and Offshore Energy
In this paper, we estimate the potential marine energy available from different types of resources in Colombia: waves, tides, currents, salinity gradients and thermal gradients, focussing on specific locations. The main constraint on this analysis is the lack of long-term marine instrumentation and data. In order to overcome this difficulty, we use oceanic numerical modelling with data from reanalysis models, climatic data from remote sensors, and primary data from existing instrumentation and fieldwork. The models were calibrated and run to calculate—based on existing marine systems—the potential nationwide marine power resources, on different time and spatial scales, for both the Colombian Caribbean and Pacific coasts. For each marine resource, we first explain the method used to assess the power potential; then we present the potential marine energy result. Further, we carry out a policy analysis where we discuss not only the power potential but also the barriers (mainly cost) faced by marine energy. Given the potentials found by earlier studies, these results define for Colombia, and also for Central and South America generally, the road map for future pre-feasibility analysis, taking into account the energy demands of the populations, existing technologies, and the environmental, social and geographical characteristics of the regions.
Anthropogenic activity such as offshore wind energy farm development, shipping activity, resource extraction platforms or marine aquaculture can have adverse impacts on the visual quality of coastal landscapes. GIS-based viewshed analysis is the most widely used technique to address visual impacts. However, despite the wide application its spatial extent remains limited to local and regional studies. This study presents a GIS-based model for cumulative visual impact assessment on macro-regional scale based on a case study for the Baltic Sea. The viewshed model was deployed over a visibility zone covering 54% (223.641 km2) of the Baltic Sea space using a database of 63,672 observation points integrated by geospatial data on existing and planned sea uses representing potential visual stressors. Results show that areas of highest potential visual impact are sheltered coastal areas with complex geomorphological features such as barrier islands, peninsulas, straits, archipelagos and lagoons in combination with intensive anthropogenic activity and presence of nature protected areas. The methodology can be applied to any coastal area of the world to classify coastal areas due to their cumulative viewshed characteristics and as early monitoring tool for visual impact assessment on transboundary scale.
The literature on ocean energy has, to date, largely focussed on technical, environmental, and, increasingly, social and political aspects. Legal and regulatory factors have received far less attention, despite their importance in supporting this new technology and ensuring its sustainable development. Building on the social sciences research agenda developed by the International network for Social Studies of Marine Energy (ISSMER) and published in Energy Policy, a complementary agenda for legal research linked to ocean energy was set out. Key directions for future research structured around the core themes of marine governance: (i) international law; (ii) environmental impacts; (iii) rights and ownership; (iv) consenting processes; and (v) management of marine space and resources were identified.
This study aims to improve the current inefficiency and ineffectiveness of communications among stakeholders when planning and constructing offshore wind farms (OWFs). An analysis using a social marketing approach with segmentation techniques is used to identify the target market based on stakeholders’ perceptions. The empirical results identify three stakeholder segments: (1) impact-attend group; (2) comprehensive group; and (3) benefit-attend group. The results suggest that communication should be implemented to alter stakeholders’ attitudes toward the construction of OWFs. Furthermore, based on the results of segmentation, target markets are identified to plan the communication strategies for reducing the conflicts among stakeholders of OWF construction. The results also indicated that in the planning phase of construction for OWFs, effective stakeholder participation and policy communication can enhance the perception of benefits to reduce conflict with local communities and ocean users.
Extracting power from the tide is a potential avenue for renewable energy production but is also a significant engineering challenge. This challenge has many different aspects but the basic problem is the hydrodynamic problem of converting the movement of the ocean into mechanical power. This paper presents a review of some of the hydrodynamic modelling techniques which can be used to model tidal barrages and tidal turbines. The analysis of these is broken down into different length scales, ranging from a single device, to an array of devices, and up to regional scales. As well as discussing modelling techniques some of the hydrodynamic problems, such as resource assessment and efficiency of power generation, are discussed.
If Scottish Government targets are met, the equivalent of 100% of Scotland's electricity demand will be generated from renewable sources by 2020. There are several possible risks posed to seabirds from marine renewable energy installations (MREIs) and many knowledge gaps still exist around the extent to which seabird habitats can overlap with MREIs. In this study, underlying seasonal and interannual variation in seabird distributions was investigated using kernel density estimation (KDE) to identify areas of core habitat use. This allowed the potential interactions between seabirds and a wave energy converter (WEC) to be assessed. The distributions of four seabird species were compared between seasons, years, and in the presence and absence of WECs. Although substantial interannual variation existed in baseline years prior to WEC deployment, the KDEs for all four species analysed were closer to the mooring points in the presence of a WEC in at least one season. The KDEs for all four species also increased in area in at least one season in the presence of a WEC. The KDEs of the northern fulmar and great skua overlapped the mooring points during spring in the presence of a device. The density of observations close to the mooring points increased for great skua, northern gannet, and northern fulmar during summer in the presence of a device. These results suggest that none of the four species analysed have shown avoidance or an extreme change in distribution as a result of the presence of a WEC. The continued monitoring of seabirds during WEC deployments is necessary to provide further data on how distributions may change in response to the presence of WECs.
In this work an analysis of suitable locations for the development of wave energy farms is carried out based on representative operation and maintenance parameters. The analysis is applied globally on the basis of long-term global climate data set. Availability and accessibility levels are assessed first by considering different wave height thresholds. Secondly, the O&M access limits are quantified in terms of the weather windows and waiting period between them considering different windows lengths and scenarios. Finally, the O&M cost per kW h is calculated for a wave energy converter based on a point absorber concept. O&M costs has been calculated following the methodology proposed on Guanche et al. (2014). As expected, results show that locations with mild wave climate have very low O&M costs per kW h. Some areas with high wave resource, such as Scotland, Spain or Nova Scotia present reasonable O&M costs compared to the power production in these areas. However, other locations with high resource like Chile or Australia resulted in extremely high O&M costs due to the inaccessibility of these sites during long periods of time.
While there are as yet no wind energy facilities in New England coastal waters, a number of wind turbine projects are now operating on land adjacent to the coast. In the Gulf of Maine region (from Maine to Massachusetts), at least two such projects, one in Falmouth, Massachusetts, and another on the island of Vinalhaven, Maine, began operation with public backing only to face subsequent opposition from some who were initially project supporters. I investigate the reasons for this dynamic using content analysis of documents related to wind energy facility development in three case study communities. For comparison and contrast with the Vinalhaven and Falmouth case studies, I examine materials from Hull, Massachusetts, where wind turbine construction and operation has received steady public support and acceptance. My research addresses the central question: What does case study analysis of the siting and initial operation of three wind energy projects in the Gulf of Maine region reveal that can inform future governance of wind energy in Massachusetts state coastal waters? I consider the question with specific attention to governance of wind energy in Massachusetts, then explore ways in which the research results may be broadly transferable in the U.S. coastal context. I determine that the change in local response noted in Vinalhaven and Falmouth may have arisen from a failure of consistent inclusion of stakeholders throughout the entire scoping-to-siting process, especially around the reporting of environmental impact studies. I find that, consistent with the principles of ecosystem-based and adaptive management, design of governance systems may require on-going cycles of review and adjustment before the implementation of such systems as intended is achieved in practice. I conclude that evolving collaborative processes must underlie science and policy in our approach to complex environmental and wind energy projects; indeed, collaborative process is fundamental to the successful governance of such projects, including any that may involve development of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone or beyond. Three supplemental files of coded data accompany this dissertation.
In this study, wave power atlas is generated for Aegean Sea for years from 1999 to 2013 using a third-generation spectral wave model MIKE 21 SW. Wind data was obtained from ECMWF(ERA-Interim) with 0.125° spatial resolution and 6 hourly temporal resolution which was then interpolated to 10 min interval data. Distribution plots and statistical parameters were used to evaluate the performance of the model. Calibration results with 9 observational buoy data show high accuracy of the model. Analyses of the proposed model are done for offshore in this study. Analysis in time domain is divided into 15-year, seasonal and monthly mean wave height and wave powers. For analysis in space domain, wave characteristics are calculated on 4 bands with different widths parallel to Turkish coast. Moreover, 10 separate points were selected in different locations of the domain to derive wave roses and scatter diagrams. Maximum wave power values occur in Winter in northern part of the Aegean Sea with more than 8 kW/m. Maximum mean wave power occurrence location changes from north to middle southern part of the study region between Crete and Kasos islands in the period of Winter to Spring season.