Community Engagement

Principles for Stakeholder Involvement in Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning

Anon. Principles for Stakeholder Involvement in Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning. Udall Foundation, U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution; 2011.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

In the CMSP decision-making process, as outlined in the NOP, decision-making authority is provided to the regional planning bodies, which are composed of federal, tribal, and state officials. The NOP recognizes that the coastal and marine spatial plans will need to respond to the needs of all who rely on the marine environment for economic and environmental services, and that effective consultation with the full range of these groups is essential to build the relationships needed to achieve national and regional goals for ocean management. Therefore, stakeholder involvement in the development of regional plans is an important responsibility assigned to the regional planning bodies.

The purpose of this document is to provide an overarching set of suggested principles for effectively engaging all stakeholders in a CMSP process. In developing this informational resource document, the Udall Foundation’s U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution (U.S. Institute) reviewed current and past CMSP stakeholder processes in the United States and internationally, analyzed academic literature on stakeholder engagement best practices, and reviewed surveys and white papers about desirable stakeholder involvement mechanisms from various interest groups, including government, tribal, environmental and ocean user groups. The principles described in this document are drawn from this research and from the U.S. Institute’s experience in developing similar guidelines for a range of complex federal and regional stakeholder involvement efforts.

Conflict resolution in coastal resource management: Comparative analysis of case studies from four European countries

Stepanova O. Conflict resolution in coastal resource management: Comparative analysis of case studies from four European countries. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2015 ;103:109 - 122. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096456911400341X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Coastal resource management requires the resolution of local resource use conflicts. The research on coastal conflict resolution is still scarce despite the progress made in fisheries and marine related conflict studies. Utilizing qualitative methodology this paper makes comparative analyses of strengths and deficits of coastal conflict resolution practices in three conflicts from the Swedish west coast and five conflicts from the United Kingdom, Italy and Belgium, all studied in the context of the European research project SECOA (Solutions to Environmental Contrasts in Coastal Areas). The analyses focus on power relations among the stakeholders and their practices of knowledge use, including knowledge integration and joint learning. The results show deficits of research and practical neglect of these aspects in coastal management. In the discussion the question of how approaches to conflict resolution can be improved and integrated into long-term strategies of sustainable resource management in coastal areas is addressed. It is concluded that complex conflicts over natural resource use require context specific combinations of formal and informal resolution methods. The interconnected components of transformation of power relations, knowledge integration and joint learning are seen as key components of conflict resolution.

Environmental and resource conflicts and conflict resolution practices in coastal areas of the North American Great Lakes: towards an integrated approach for policymaking

Skarlato O. Environmental and resource conflicts and conflict resolution practices in coastal areas of the North American Great Lakes: towards an integrated approach for policymaking. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba; 2013. Available from: https://mspace.lib.umanitoba.ca/handle/1993/22033
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Thesis

Environmental conflicts are multi-dimensional. Individual components of environmental and resource-related conflicts are closely interlinked with other structural societal elements, including economic, social, political and cultural developments. Coastal areas are significant for people’s subsistence, as well as industrial development, cultural heritage, and waterways; therefore, they require integrated research approaches and the implementation of comprehensive strategies of resource management, dispute resolution and conflict prevention. This qualitative exploratory study contributes to the development of the field of environmental conflict resolution (ECR) by examining the perceptions and experiences of 52 key stakeholders from the coastal areas of the Great Lakes region of Canada and the United States (US) with regards to environmental and resource conflicts and conflict resolution approaches. The study invited coastal stakeholders such as environmental policymakers, researchers, academics, educators and NGO members to share their perceptions, images, experiences and knowledge about environmental and resource conflicts and conflict resolution practices in the coastal areas of the Great Lakes. The framework of this holistic study integrates public policy, alternative dispute resolution, conflict analysis, project evaluation, dialogue and public participation, education and other creative interventions into an inclusive strategy of integrated environmental and resource management of coastal areas. Analysis of the study participants’ responses revealed several key findings. First, the multi-dimensional character of environmental and resource conflicts and the wide range of coastal stakeholders involved necessitate creating spaces for dialogue and communication among coastal stakeholders, which may facilitate relationship building and encourage collaborative problem solving and constructive conflict resolution. Second, establishing links between science and policymaking within environmental and resource management, as well as introducing conflict resolution education for coastal stakeholders, may significantly enhance the capacity of coastal stakeholders in ECR. Third, coastal stakeholders in the Great Lakes have an extensive and wide-ranging existing local knowledge, experience and expertise in resolving environmental and resource conflicts. Fourth, a conflict resolution system’s design developed in this study may serve as an integrated framework for the analysis and resolution of environmental and resource conflicts. This ECR system design involves such important components as conducting conflict and stakeholder analysis; identifying the root causes of conflict; bringing conflict participants together to discuss resolution options; and building in continuous evaluation of environmental conflict resolution processes.

Coming to the table: Early stakeholder engagement in marine spatial planning

Gopnik M, Fieseler C, Cantral L, McClellan K, Pendleton L, Crowder L. Coming to the table: Early stakeholder engagement in marine spatial planning. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2012 ;36(5):1139 - 1149. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X1200019X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

From 2009 to 2011, marine spatial planning (MSP) rapidly gained visibility in the United States as a promising ocean management tool. A few small-scale planning efforts were completed in state waters, and the Obama Administration proposed a framework for large-scale regional MSP throughout the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. During that same time period, the authors engaged a variety of U.S ocean stakeholders in a series of dialogs with several goals: to share information about what MSP is or could be, to hear stakeholder views and concerns about MSP, and to foster better understanding between those who depend on ocean resources for their livelihood and ocean conservation advocates. The stakeholder meetings were supplemented with several rounds of in-depth interviews and a survey. Despite some predictable areas of conflict, project participants agreed on a number of issues related to stakeholder engagement in MSP: all felt strongly that government planners need to engage outsiders earlier, more often, more meaningfully, and through an open and transparent process. Equally important, the project affirmed the value of bringing unlike parties together at the earliest opportunity to learn, talk, and listen to others with whom they rarely engage.

Stakeholder Involvement in MSP

Pentz T-A. Stakeholder Involvement in MSP. BaltSeaPlan; 2012. Available from: http://www.baltseaplan.eu/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

There is surprisingly little information available on stakeholder management in the evolving and dynamic field of Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP). Based on the experiences made during the pilot planning processes in the framework of the BaltSeaPlan project (2009-­-2012) this report provides recommendations and information about the reasons and rationales for stakeholder involvement in maritime spatial planning, formal and informal approaches to stakeholder involvement in maritime spatial planning, the distinctions of stakeholder involvement in maritime spatial planning, stakeholder identification and stakeholder typologyin maritime spatial planning and Tools, techniques and the right timing to interact with stakeholders.

Beyond traditional stakeholder engagement: Public participation roles in California's statewide marine protected area planning process

Sayce K, Shuman C, Connor D, Reisewitz A, Pope E, Miller-Henson M, Poncelet E, Monié D, Owens B. Beyond traditional stakeholder engagement: Public participation roles in California's statewide marine protected area planning process. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2013 ;74:57 - 66. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569112002062
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Public participation was one of the hallmarks of the California Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA) Initiative, a planning process to support the redesign of California's system of marine protected areas (MPAs). The MLPA Initiative implemented innovative and unconventional public outreach and engagement strategies to assist local communities share relevant knowledge and data, and provide timely and targeted contributions to MPA planning discussions. This collaborative model helped broaden traditional forms of participation to ensure public input received and integrated into MPA planning legitimately reflected the interests and priorities of California's coastal communities. A number of considerations were critical to the success of this collaborative approach, including: understanding the needs and limitations of public audiences; working directly with communities to identify appropriate outreach and engagement strategies; prioritizing strategies that supported a multi-directional exchange of information; adapting strategies based on public feedback and internal lessons learned; and hiring professional public engagement specialists. Strategies evolved over time and increased the level and quality of public participation over this multi-stage planning process. Experiences gained from the MLPA Initiative can be used to encourage consideration of collaborative participation in other environmental planning and decision-making processes.

Stakeholder Engagement: Participatory Approaches for the Planning and Development of Marine Protected Areas

Walton A, Gomei M, Di Carlo G. Stakeholder Engagement: Participatory Approaches for the Planning and Development of Marine Protected Areas. World Wide Fund for Nature and NOAA—National Marine Sanctuary Program; 2013 p. 36 pp.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Stakeholder engagement in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) can be described as a process of maturity from initial stages to more developed and self-sustaining stages. At early stages, practitioners may consult stakeholder communities as they plan, designate and implement an MPA. As the MPA development process evolves, stakeholders take a more active role, reaching consensus on MPA structure and management, and then perhaps negotiating with MPA managers to ensure their specific goals and values are represented. At full maturity, MPAs may share authority between their management body and stakeholders, or even transfer authority completely to local communities, with the MPA management authority only providing advice and consultation.

It is critical to note that the participatory engagement of stakeholders is perhaps the most important component of the planning and development of an MPA. Meaningful engagement depends on the ability of practitioners to build a healthy, lasting, and trustful relationship with stakeholders, including local communities. The approaches described in this guidebook are intended to help practitioners navigate this process of stakeholder engagement.

A series of five steps as shown in the figure below have been developed in workshops and training sessions over several years: Understanding and engaging stakeholders; Getting started with stakeholders; Participatory problem solving; Stakeholders as advisors; and Co-management approaches. Each step includes progressively greater participation from stakeholders and increasingly more shared responsibility with the MPA management authority.

At each step toward increased stakeholder engagement maturity, different techniques will be required. Some techniques and/or tools may be more useful at some stages of the MPA process than others. For example, creating an advisory body or engaging in a cooperative management approach will probably not be important to focus on in the beginning stages, when a MPA manager is just beginning to work with stakeholders. At these early stages, it is more important to focus on building trust and engaging stakeholders. However, it is good to keep in mind that advisory bodies and cooperative management will become useful in the later steps of MPA development. MPA practitioners should be able to quickly reference those tools that are most useful at each step of the MPA process.

This guidebook does not provide complete details about the steps and techniques listed; those are provided in many other documents. Instead, this serves as a helpful guide for practitioners who need guidance on the steps and techniques for engaging stakeholders in MPA management.

Key players in conservation diffusion: Using social network analysis to identify critical injection points

Mbaru EK, Barnes ML. Key players in conservation diffusion: Using social network analysis to identify critical injection points. Biological Conservation [Internet]. 2017 ;210:222 - 232. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320716308801
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Identifying the right stakeholders to engage with is fundamental to ensuring conservation information and initiatives diffuse through target populations. Yet this process can be challenging, particularly as practitioners and policy makers grapple with different conservation objectives and a diverse landscape of relevant stakeholders. Here we draw on social network theory and methods to develop guidelines for selecting ‘key players’ better positioned to successfully implement four distinct conservation objectives: (1) rapid diffusion of conservation information, (2) diffusion between disconnected groups, (3) rapid diffusion of complex knowledge or initiatives, or (4) widespread diffusion of conservation information or complex initiatives over a longer time period. Using complete network data among coastal fishers from six villages in Kenya, we apply this approach to select key players for each type of conservation objective. We then draw on key informant interviews from seven resource management and conservation organizations working along the Kenyan coast to investigate whether the socioeconomic attributes of the key players we identified match the ones typically selected to facilitate conservation diffusion (i.e., ‘current players’). Our findings show clear discrepancies between current players and key players, highlighting missed opportunities for progressing more effective conservation diffusion. We conclude with specific criteria for selecting key stakeholders to facilitate each distinct conservation objective, thereby helping to mitigate the problem of stakeholder identification in ways that avoid blueprint approaches. These guidelines can also be applied in other research and intervention areas, such as community development studies, participatory research, and community intervention.

Picturing a place by the sea: Geovisualizations as place-based tools for collaborative coastal management

Newell R, Canessa R. Picturing a place by the sea: Geovisualizations as place-based tools for collaborative coastal management. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;141:29 - 42. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117302156
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Effective coastal management is integrative and aims to incorporate the wide variety of user needs, values and interests associated with coastal environments. This requires understanding how different user groups relate to coastal environments as ‘places’, imbued with values and meanings, rather than simply ‘spaces’. Accordingly, tools and techniques that can capture and convey place-based information have potential for supporting coastal management strategies. This suggests a role for geovisualizations that inclusively reflect the range of values and meanings through immersion and realism. The current paper aims to advance coastal geovisualization research by firstly, examining relationships with, understandings of, and behaviours toward coastal places, and secondly, using this insight to create recommendations for building geovisualizations that can effectively facilitate collaboration among conflicting user groups. The paper identifies different coastal user groups using a cultural model framework, and through a review of previous research on coastal communities, it examines how the values and interests of these user groups influence understandings and perceptions of coastal places. Recommendations for geovisualizations emerging from this research include full navigability, dynamic elements, and flexibility in the way that they allow for continual modification and scenario building.

The role of NGOs in negotiating the use of biodiversity in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction

Blasiak R, Durussel C, Pittman J, Sénit C-A, Petersson M, Yagi N. The role of NGOs in negotiating the use of biodiversity in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2017 ;81:1 - 8. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17300787
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

In 2004, the UN General Assembly resolved to establish a working group to consider issues pertaining to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ). The group met nine times between 2006 and 2015 before concluding its mandate by recommending the development of an international legally binding instrument on BBNJ under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Based on in-depth interviews with working group participants, this research examines how NGOs contributed to the working group process. Respondents from government delegations highlighted the usefulness of workshops and side events convened by NGOs, and the role of NGOs in bringing experts on technical issues – particularly marine genetic resources and the sharing of benefits – into the BBNJ negotiations. Respondents from both NGOs and government delegations emphasized the importance of fostering personal relationships in order to ensure a steady and constructive information flow. Social media efforts by NGOs were considered by some government representatives to have occasionally hampered open discussion, although they noted that conditions have improved. The lengthy working group process was marked by substantial fluctuation in participation, particularly within government delegations from developing states. Of 1523 individuals who participated in at least one of the working group meetings, only 45 attended more than half of the meetings, and 80% of these were representing NGOs or highly industrialized countries. Respondents felt that this comparatively small number of individuals provided a source of continuity that was crucial for moving the discussions forward.

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