The notion of clusters has increasingly been integrated into regional economic development policies. This paper examines the extent to which maritime cluster policy strategies in Québec's coastal region are associated with employment growth in the region, and more specifically, science-based, skill-intensive employment. Whilst early evaluations conducted about a decade ago suggested that cluster policies implemented from the mid-1990s onwards had little effect, the question addressed in this paper concerns their effect over the long term. Based on descriptive statistics and trend analysis, the results reveal that the sectors targeted by the cluster policies have tended to grow more slowly within the cluster, and that jobs in the cluster are decreasingly science-intensive. At best, cluster policies have had a weak and diffused effect. This is in keeping with other recent work on clusters, and calls into question policy attempts to generate cluster dynamics in regions where these do not emerge spontaneously.
The Atlas of Ocean Wealth is the largest collection to date of information about the economic, social and cultural values of coastal and marine habitats from all over the world. It is a synthesis of innovative science, led by The Nature Conservancy (TNC), with many partners around the world. Through these efforts, we’ve gathered vast new datasets from both traditional and less likely sources.
The work includes more than 35 novel and critically important maps that show how nature’s value to people varies widely from place to place. They also illustrate nature’s potential. These maps show that we can accurately quantify the value of marine resources. Further, by enumerating such values, we can encourage their protection or enhancement for the benefit of people all around the world. In summary, it clearly articulates not just that we need nature, but how much we need it, and where.
The fisheries sector is vital to the Philippine economy, providing substantial employment and income, contributing export earnings, and meeting local food security and nutrition requirements. To protect coastal and marine habitat and to sustain fisheries, over 1000 marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established, in the Philippines. This paper provides empirical evidence on the variance of net revenues linked with MPA establishment and the possible range of relocation costs for fishing effort displaced by an MPA. A total of 424 households were randomly selected from 18 barangays (villages) adjacent to MPAs in three regions in the Philippines. Results show that incomes decrease significantly for both fulltime and seasonal types of fishers after 1-3 years of MPA establishment. The loss occurring through MPA is higher than expected and at least on the short run (up to 4 years) the spill-over effect does not compensate. This information helped to determine the necessary conditional cash transfers for coastal communities who are highly dependent on coastal and marine resources.
This resource compiles several examples of tools and software used for valuing marine ecosystems services.
Vertical chain collaboration is a strategy for customers’ value creation. However, Dutch fishermen are hardly participating in integrated value chains. While supply chain literature describes factors that contribute to successful chain partnerships, scarce research has been done on the dynamics of the sociocultural context for chain collaboration.
In 10 semi-structured interviews, representatives of supply chain parties were asked for their perceptions on chain collaboration, trust, and the role of the local community. The interviews were directed at obtaining so-called ‘tacit’ knowledge, the non-spoken codified truths of social networks. Without generalizing, this research provides benchmarks to monitor how the different domains, laid out in this study, impact chain collaboration: community values, network participation and company competences. An overview is given of socio-economic factors blocking and enhancing chain collaboration at company and community level. Factors such as the strong bonding of family with business in tightly knit networks, a high level of social control, entrepreneurial autonomy, and loyalty as community norm hamper collaboration within the supply chain.
Respondents’ discourse demonstrates that cultural codes and identity form the very core of the entrepreneur, driving rather than ‘embedding’ economic behavior. Kinship, religion and peer pressure determine ‘windows on the world’ when engaging in chain collaboration. Consequently, any analysis of economics that does not integrate sociological and psychological methodology is flawed from the outset.
Ocean and coastal management regimes are increasingly subject to competing demands from stakeholders. Regulations must not only address fishing, recreation, and shipping, but also sand and gravel mining, gas pipelines, harbor/port development, offshore wind and tidal energy facilities, liquefied natural gas terminals, offshore aquaculture, and desalinization plants. The growing variety and intensity of ocean and coastal uses increases the call for a more holistic, comprehensive, and coordinated management approach that recognizes the often complex relationships between natural and human systems. For both economist and non-economist audiences, this book describes ways in which economic analysis can be an important tool to inform and improve ecosystem-based management (EBM). Topics include modeling economic impacts, benefit-cost analysis, spatial considerations in EBM, incentives and human behaviors, and accounting for uncertainty in policy analysis. Throughout the book the authors elucidate the different kinds of insights which can be gained from the use of different economic tools. In this rigorous and accessible work, the authors defy the conventional stereotype that economic perspectives necessarily favor the greatest commercial development. Instead, they demonstrate how comprehensive economic analyses consider the full range of potential services offered by marine and coastal ecosystems, including the conservation of biodiversity and creation of recreational opportunities.
This report reviews approaches for compensatory mitigation of economic impacts on commercial fisheries, and proposes alternatives.
This paper merges inclusive wealth accounting theory with ecosystem based management (EBM) to resolve two problems. First, we provide measures of an ecosystem’s contribution to larger scale sustainability accounts by enabling ecosystems to be better included in inclusive wealth measures. We show the ecosystems are better thought of as portfolios of assets, and the portfolio’s performance is depended on the performance of the underlying assets, including their interactions. Second, the wealth held in the ecosystem is an attractive headline index for EBM regardless of whether ecosystem wealth is ultimately included in a broader index. We generalize natural capital theory to approximate realized shadow prices (accounting prices) for multiple interacting stocks of biotic and abiotic assets and liabilities that comprise ecosystems. We apply our approach to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, focusing on the interacting community of three commercially important fish species; cod, herring and sprat. The accounting prices of the three species show decreasing patterns with larger stock accumulation. Our results reveal the “supporting value or regulation services” embodied in the shadow price of a species through its trophic influence on other species. Prey fish have greater shadow prices than would be expected based on market value and predatory fish have lower shadow prices than may be expected based on market value.
European Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), including the EU marine Natura 2000 network and areas protected under other regional or national legislation, covered 7,725 sites and an area of 338,623 km2, i.e. 5.9% of the EU waters in 20121. Almost 70% of these MPAs (228,000 km2) are included in the Natura 2000 network. While the coverage of MPAs in the EU has been increasing over time, especially during the past 10 years, the marine network is still considered far from complete.
MPAs play a key role in the protection of marine biodiversity and ecosystems. As with terrestrial protected areas, this is the principal objective of their establishment. As European experience in managing MPAs is increasing, it is becoming more and more evident that MPAs also provide benefits beyond biodiversity conservation. They can help to maintain and improve the provision of a wide range of ecosystem services and related socio-economic benefits provided by coastal and marine ecosystems. This realisation is supported by emerging data from existing sites that have now been in place long enough to assess their effects.
This report collects, systematises and discusses the available evidence on the socio- economic benefits provided by the protection of European coastal areas and seascapes. The focus is on benefits associated with MPAs. However, when such information is not available, the report draws from studies documenting benefits associated with protection or restoration of coastal and marine ecosystems in general, considering this as indirect evidence for MPAs.
Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA) has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical) attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity.