Ecosystem-based Management (EBM)

Constrained by markets: processing costs limit potential for managing predator-prey interactions in a commercial fishery

Walsworth TE, Schindler DE, Essington TE. Constrained by markets: processing costs limit potential for managing predator-prey interactions in a commercial fishery. Journal of Applied Ecology [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.12900/full
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

Selective fisheries may impact non-target species as well as limit the productivity of target species if their predators are not harvested. The outcomes of multispecies harvest strategies that include targeting predators depend on ecological and economic constraints, though the development of ecosystem-based management plans has typically focused on ecological constraints.

In Chignik, Alaska, sockeye salmon support a valuable commercial fishery and, as juveniles, are preyed upon by coho salmon, a species not subject to a targeted harvest. Whether exploitation of coho salmon would enhance overall fishery value by releasing sockeye salmon from predation constraints is not understood. We employ simulation models to examine the ecological and economic conditions necessary for directly targeting coho salmon to benefit fishers and seafood processors, two distinct but inter-dependent stakeholders in this ecosystem.

Model results indicate fishers are likely to experience increased value regardless of economic constraints, as long as coho salmon predation negatively affects sockeye salmon productivity. However, seafood processors are much more limited in the conditions which produce increased economic value, constrained by greater operation costs required to process harvested coho salmon.

Synthesis and applications. The unique economic constraints and opportunities of different stakeholders can present contrasting outlooks on the potential benefits of alternative harvest strategies, even if the alternative strategies are predicted to increase yield. The findings herein demonstrate the importance of considering multiple stakeholders when considering alternative management strategies. Depending on the level of risk stakeholders are willing to accept, an active adaptive management strategy reducing coho salmon escapement to low levels could provide valuable information about ecosystem structure as well as potentially providing the greatest economic benefit to the fishery.

An approach for effective stakeholder engagement as an essential component of the ecosystem approach

Oates J, Dodds LA. An approach for effective stakeholder engagement as an essential component of the ecosystem approach. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article/74/1/391/2967555/An-approach-for-effective-stakeholder-engagement
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Effective stakeholder engagement is an essential, but commonly overlooked, component of the ecosystem approach. In this article, we draw lessons from two European Union LIFE+ (LIFE is the European Union's financial instrument supporting environmental, nature conservation and climate action projects throughout the EU.) funded projects led by WWF-UK: PISCES (Partnerships Involving Stakeholders in the Celtic sea EcoSystem) and the Celtic Seas Partnership to present an approach for effective stakeholder engagement. These projects developed steps to operationalise the ecosystem approach within the context of a key piece of European legislation: the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC).

We identified an approach for involving stakeholders in delivery of the ecosystem approach, which can be applied to other areas and contexts. The approach involves four steps:

  1. Identify a relevant policy framework and the role of stakeholders in its implementation and identify or agree environmental, social and economic objectives for the area.

  2. Create an open, neutral, cross-sectoral forum and design an engagement process that creates a “safe” and inclusive space, and is facilitated independently.

  3. Demystify terminology and develop a shared vision or principles through an engagement process

  4. Collaboratively develop management actions that are needed to achieve objectives and implement them.

How fisher-influenced marine closed areas contribute to ecosystem-based management: A review and performance indicator scorecard

Kincaid K, Rose G, Devillers R. How fisher-influenced marine closed areas contribute to ecosystem-based management: A review and performance indicator scorecard. Fish and Fisheries [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/faf.12211/full
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

A rapid review of the literature on closed areas that recognize key ecosystem-based management (EBM) principles of fisheries and biodiversity conservation and had fisher involvement was employed to review closed areas worldwide from a fisheries perspective and to develop a scorecard that can assess their efficacy. The review provided 523 abstracts of which 19 areas from various regions worldwide had peer-reviewed studies that met strict selection criteria. Criteria included fisher involvement, biodiversity conservation and fisheries management objectives. A repeat search without “fisher” and synonyms found, 62,622 papers indicating that most closed area studies had no mention of any fisher involvement. The general success of the areas selected suggests that fisher involvement benefits both biological conservation and fisheries management. Fisheries and biodiversity conservation outcomes were not exclusive to any one type of management closure (e.g. MPA, Fishery Closure). Twenty-four indicators were selected, designed to provide measurable targets. High scoring indicators included management, planning and socio-economic indicators such as local support (100%), habitat protection (100%), conservation and fisheries objectives (100%), monitoring (91.7%) and fishers concerns (91.7%). Bio-ecological-based indicators scored lower in most cases for all types of areas. Fisheries closures rated as highly as the MPAs with respect to both fisheries and bio-ecological indicators. The scorecard provided a reasonable means to evaluate management success in the light of often qualitative or missing data. Addressing the interests and utilizing knowledge of those affected by closures and familiar with the area, most often local fishers, is key to achieving management objectives.

US-Mexico joint gulf of Mexico large marine ecosystem based assessment and management: Experience in community involvement and mangrove wetland restoration in Términos lagoon, Mexico

Zaldívar-Jiménez A, de PGuevara-Po, Pérez-Ceballos R, Díaz-Mondragón S, Rosado-Solórzano R. US-Mexico joint gulf of Mexico large marine ecosystem based assessment and management: Experience in community involvement and mangrove wetland restoration in Términos lagoon, Mexico. Environmental Development [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211464516302512
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Journal Article

The purpose of this article is to present the Mexican experience related to the US-Mexico joint Gulf of Mexico Large Marine Ecosystem-Based Assessment and Management Project, particularly the community involvement and mangrove wetland restoration, and the challenges for its replication and up-scaling. Results focus on community engagement, environmental education and social participation, strategies for hydrological restoration of mangrove, and difficulties and recommendations for the implementation of the Strategic Action Program. The main conclusions are that the community-based hydrologic restoration approach, is a good way to ensure long-term restoration of wetlands. Changing from mangrove plantations to the hydrological restoration of wetlands, and construction of human capacities resulted in a more efficient strategy for ecosystem restoration and had influenced the forest environmental policy. The involvement of government and education institutions as execution agencies will contribute to a more efficient appropriation of the project and LME approach. The development of economic alternatives and the ecological monitoring are some of the identified challenges within the implementation phase of the Strategic Action Program.

Rapid and direct recoveries of predators and prey through synchronized ecosystem management

Samhouri JF, Stier AC, Hennessey SM, Novak M, Halpern BS, Levin PS. Rapid and direct recoveries of predators and prey through synchronized ecosystem management. Nature Ecology & Evolution [Internet]. 2017 ;1:0068. Available from: http://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-016-0068
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

One of the twenty-first century’s greatest environmental challenges is to recover and restore species, habitats and ecosystems. The decision about how to initiate restoration is best-informed by an understanding of the linkages between ecosystem components and, given these linkages, an appreciation of the consequences of choosing to recover one ecosystem component before another. However, it remains difficult to predict how the sequence of species’ recoveries within food webs influences the speed and trajectory of restoration, and what that means for human well-being. Here, we develop theory to consider the ecological and social implications of synchronous versus sequential (species-by-species) recovery in the context of exploited food webs. A dynamical systems model demonstrates that synchronous recovery of predators and prey is almost always more efficient than sequential recovery. Compared with sequential recovery, synchronous recovery can be twice as fast and produce transient fluctuations of much lower amplitude. A predator-first strategy is particularly slow because it counterproductively suppresses prey recovery. An analysis of real-world predator–prey recoveries shows that synchronous and sequential recoveries are similarly common, suggesting that current practices are not ideal. We highlight policy tools that can facilitate swift and steady recovery of ecosystem structure, function and associated services.

Ocean Watch Howe Sound Edition

Day A, Bodtker K. Ocean Watch Howe Sound Edition. Coastal Ocean Research Institute; 2017. Available from: http://oceanwatch.ca/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
Yes
Type: Report

Howe Sound is a remarkable blend of wilderness and accessibility. It sits directly adjacent to the growing metropolis of Vancouver, yet also contains fantastic wild places and natural recreational opportunities. With the population and development growing quickly, many are wondering how it can maintain its ecological values and way of life.

intro_map 11Nov-edited

Figure 1. The Howe Sound

This report provides information to help guide decisions as the area grows and changes. Working with scientists and other collaborators, we have produced a series of articles on key elements of Howe Sound (Figure 1).

These are grouped under seven themes, listed above in the navigation bar.  For each article subject, we produced a summary assessment rating, using four colours. While the assessment rating gives a quick snapshot, you can find out the whole story by going to the articles themselves. They are summarized on this site, and available as pdf downloads. Each article has information on why the subject is important, what is happening, and what people can do. 

Thank you for your interest in Howe Sound — it is a beautiful part of the world. We hope you find our information useful and inspiring. This is our first report and we look forward to your questions and suggestions on content and presentation. Our aim is to produce independent, credible, and well-presented information so that you are inspired to make better decisions for nature and people in Howe Sound.

The status of marine biodiversity in the Eastern Central Atlantic (West and Central Africa)

Polidoro BA, Ralph GM, Strongin K, Harvey M, Carpenter KE, Arnold R, Buchanan JR, Camara KMohamed Ab, Collette BB, Comeros-Raynal MT, et al. The status of marine biodiversity in the Eastern Central Atlantic (West and Central Africa). Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/aqc.2744/full
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article
  1. The status of marine biodiversity in the Eastern Central Atlantic (ECA), especially of coastal and pelagic fishes, is of concern owing to a number of threats including overharvesting, habitat loss, pollution, and climate change combined with inadequate policy responses, legislation, and enforcement.
  2. This study provides the first comprehensive documentation of the presence, status, and level of extinction risk, based on IUCN Red List assessment methodology, for more than 1800 marine species, including all taxonomically described marine vertebrates (marine mammals, sea turtles, seabirds, fishes); complete clades of selected marine invertebrates (sea cucumbers, cone snails, cephalopods, lobsters, reef-building corals); and marine plants (mangroves, seagrasses).
  3. Approximately 8% of all marine species assessed in the ECA are in threatened categories, while 4% are listed as Near Threatened, 73% are Least Concern, and 15% are Data Deficient. Fisheries and overharvesting are the biggest threats to living marine resources in the ECA, with 87% of threatened species across all taxonomic groups affected by both large- and small-scale targeted fisheries, excessive capture as by-catch, or unsustainable harvest.
  4. The results of this study will transform the current state of knowledge and increase capacity for regional stakeholders to identify and enact marine conservation and research priorities, as a number of species are identified as having high conservation and/or research priorities in the region.
  5. Through the process of marine species data collection and risk assessments conducted over the past 5 years, several key conservation actions and research needs are identified to enable more effective conservation of marine biodiversity in the ECA, including increased governance, multilateral collaboration, taxonomic training, and improved reporting of fisheries catch and effort.

Marine Ecosystem-Based Management in Practice: Different Pathways, Common Lessons

Wondolleck JM, Yaffee SLewis. Marine Ecosystem-Based Management in Practice: Different Pathways, Common Lessons. Island Press; 2017. Available from: https://islandpress.org/book/marine-ecosystem-based-management-in-practice
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.00
Type: Book

Julia Wondolleck and Steven Yaffee are hopeful.  Rather than lamenting the persistent conflicts in global marine ecosystems, they instead sought out examples where managers were doing things differently and making progress against great odds. They interviewed planners, managers, community members, fishermen, and environmentalists throughout the world to find the best lessons for others hoping to advance marine conservation. Their surprising discovery? Successful marine management requires not only the right mix of science, law, financing, and organizational structure, but also an atmosphere of collaboration—a comfortable place for participants to learn about issues, craft solutions, and develop the interpersonal relationships, trust, and understanding needed to put plans into action.

Marine Ecosystem-Based Management in Practice is the first practical guide for the marine conservation realm. In a unique collection of case studies, the authors showcase successful collaborative approaches to ecosystem-based management. The authors introduce the basic concepts of ecosystem-based management and five different pathways for making progress from community to multinational levels. They spotlight the  characteristics that are evident in all successful cases —the governance structures and social motivations that make it work. Case analyses ranging from the Gulf of Maine to the Channel Islands in Southern California comprise the bulk of the book, augmented by text boxes showcasing examples of guiding documents important to the process. They devote several ending chapters to discussion of the interpersonal relationships critical to successful implementation of marine ecosystem-based management. The book concludes with a discussion of the implications for policy and on-the-ground practice.

This book offers a hopeful message to policy makers, managers, practitioners, and students who will find this an indispensable guide to field-tested, replicable marine conservation management practices that work.

Climate-Smart Design for Ecosystem Management: A Test Application for Coral Reefs

West JM, Courtney CA, Hamilton AT, Parker BA, Julius SH, Hoffman J, Koltes KH, MacGowan P. Climate-Smart Design for Ecosystem Management: A Test Application for Coral Reefs. Environmental Management [Internet]. 2017 ;59(1):102 - 117. Available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00267-016-0774-3
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The interactive and cumulative impacts of climate change on natural resources such as coral reefs present numerous challenges for conservation planning and management. Climate change adaptation is complex due to climate-stressor interactions across multiple spatial and temporal scales. This leaves decision makers worldwide faced with local, regional, and global-scale threats to ecosystem processes and services, occurring over time frames that require both near-term and long-term planning. Thus there is a need for structured approaches to adaptation planning that integrate existing methods for vulnerability assessment with design and evaluation of effective adaptation responses. The Corals and Climate Adaptation Planning project of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force seeks to develop guidance for improving coral reef management through tailored application of a climate-smart approach. This approach is based on principles from a recently-published guide which provides a framework for adopting forward-looking goals, based on assessing vulnerabilities to climate change and applying a structured process to design effective adaptation strategies. Work presented in this paper includes: (1) examination of the climate-smart management cycle as it relates to coral reefs; (2) a compilation of adaptation strategies for coral reefs drawn from a comprehensive review of the literature; (3) in-depth demonstration of climate-smart design for place-based crafting of robust adaptation actions; and (4) feedback from stakeholders on the perceived usefulness of the approach. We conclude with a discussion of lessons-learned on integrating climate-smart design into real-world management planning processes and a call from stakeholders for an “adaptation design tool” that is now under development.

An ecosystem-based deep-ocean strategy

Danovaro R, Aguzzi J, Fanelli E, Billett D, Gjerde K, Jamieson A, Ramirez-Llodra E, Smith CR, Snelgrove PVR, Thomsen L, et al. An ecosystem-based deep-ocean strategy. Science [Internet]. 2017 ;355(6324):452 - 454. Available from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/355/6324/452
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Increasing exploration and industrial exploitation of the vast and fragile deep-ocean environment for a wide range of resources (e.g., oil, gas, fisheries, new molecules, and soon, minerals) raises global concerns about potential ecological impacts (13). Multiple impacts on deep-sea ecosystems (>200 m below sea level; ∼65% of the Earth's surface is covered by deep ocean) caused by human activities may act synergistically and span extensive areas. Cumulative impacts could eventually cause regime shifts and alter deep-ocean life-support services, such as the biological pump or nutrient recycling (245). Although international law and national legislation largely ignore the deep sea's critical role in the functioning and buffering of planetary systems, there are promising developments in support of deep-sea protection at the United Nations and the International Seabed Authority (ISA). We propose a strategy that builds from existing infrastructures to address research and monitoring needs to inform governments and regulators.

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