Ecosystem-based Management (EBM)

Drivers of recovery and reassembly of coral reef communities

Gouezo M, Golbuu Y, Fabricius K, Olsudong D, Mereb G, Nestor V, Wolanski E, Harrison P, Doropoulos C. Drivers of recovery and reassembly of coral reef communities. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences [Internet]. 2019 ;286(1897):20182908. Available from: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rspb.2018.2908
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Understanding processes that drive community recovery are needed to predict ecosystem trajectories and manage for impacts under increasing global threats. Yet, the quantification of community recovery in coral reefs has been challenging owing to a paucity of long-term ecological data and high frequency of disturbances. Here we investigate community re-assembly and the bio-physical drivers that determine the capacity of coral reefs to recover following the 1998 bleaching event, using long-term monitoring data across four habitats in Palau. Our study documents that the time needed for coral reefs to recover from bleaching disturbance to coral-dominated state in disturbance-free regimes is at least 9–12 years. Importantly, we show that reefs in two habitats achieve relative stability to a climax community state within that time frame. We then investigated the direct and indirect effects of drivers on the rate of recovery of four dominant coral groups using a structural equation modelling approach. While the rates of recovery differed among coral groups, we found that larval connectivity and juvenile coral density were prominent drivers of recovery for fast growing Acropora but not for the other three groups. Competitive algae and parrotfish had negative and positive effects on coral recovery in general, whereas wave exposure had variable effects related to coral morphology. Overall, the time needed for community re-assembly is habitat specific and drivers of recovery are taxa specific, considerations that require incorporation into planning for ecosystem management under climate change.

A modelling approach for offshore wind farm feasibility with respect to ecosystem-based marine spatial planning

Pınarbaşı K, Galparsoro I, Depellegrin D, Bald J, Pérez-Morán G, Borja A. A modelling approach for offshore wind farm feasibility with respect to ecosystem-based marine spatial planning. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719307661
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Demand for renewable energy is increasing steadily and regulated by national and international policies. Offshore wind energy sector has been clearly the fastest in its development among other options, and development of new wind farms requires large ocean space. Therefore, there is a need of efficient spatial planning process, including the site selection constrained by technical (wind resource, coastal distance, seafloor) and environmental (impacts) factors and competence of uses. We present a novel approach, using Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN), for an integrated spatially explicit site feasibility identification for offshore wind farms. Our objectives are to: (i) develop a spatially explicit model that integrates the technical, economic, environmental and social dimensions; (ii) operationalize the BBN model; (iii) implement the model at local (Basque Country) and regional (North East Atlantic and Western Mediterranean), and (iv) develop and analyse future scenarios for wind farm installation in a local case study. Results demonstrated a total of 1% (23 km2) of moderate feasibility areas in local scaled analysis, compared to 4% of (21,600 km2) very high, and 5% (30,000 km2) of high feasibility in larger scale analysis. The main challenges were data availability and discretization when trying to expand the model from local to regional level. The use of BBN models to determine the feasibility of offshore wind farm areas has been demonstrated adequate and possible, both at local and regional scales, allowing managers to take management decisions regarding marine spatial planning when including different activities, environmental problems and technological constraints.

Managing the environment in a pinch: red swamp crayfish tells a cautionary tale of ecosystem based management in northeastern Italy

Gavioli A, Milardi M, Lanzoni M, Mantovani S, Aschonitis V, Soana E, Fano EAnna, Castaldelli G. Managing the environment in a pinch: red swamp crayfish tells a cautionary tale of ecosystem based management in northeastern Italy. Ecological Engineering [Internet]. 2018 ;120:546 - 553. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0925857418302519
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Farmlands are globally widespread and their management should consider both human and environmental needs. In fact, these man-made ecosystems provide subsistence to the human population but are also habitats for plant and animal communities. The worldwide increase of exotic species has affected native communities, but also human activities or health. We used an exploited farmland in northern Italy, where many exotics are present, as a test case for identifying restoration measures based on an ecosystem approach. In particular, we focused on red swap crayfish for its ecosystem engineering capabilities, and examined the factors affecting its invasion success in order to attempt the definition of management strategies. We used multivariate and regression analysis to evaluate the relationships between the red swamp crayfish, water quality, macrophytes abundance, watercourse hydraulics and the fish community. All analyses indicated that red swamp crayfish was less likely to establish in large, deeper and fast flowing waterways, especially when these are deprived of vegetation and less eutrophicated. Based on our results, fish predation was also a significant factor in limiting red swamp crayfish abundance. We thus concluded that a different hydraulic management, which leaves more water in irrigation canals throughout the winter, could be possibly used to slow down or even reverse the invasion process.

Building bridges between global information systems on marine organisms and ecosystem models

Grüss A, Palomares MLD, Poelen JH, Barile JR, Aldemita CD, Ortiz SR, Barrier N, Shin Y-J, Simons J, Pauly D. Building bridges between global information systems on marine organisms and ecosystem models. Ecological Modelling [Internet]. 2019 ;398:1 - 19. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304380019300432
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

To facilitate the wider implementation of ecosystem modeling platforms and, thereby, to help advance ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) worldwide, tools delivering a large quantity of inputs to ecosystem models are needed. We developed a web application providing OSMOSE ecosystem models with values for trophic, growth and reproduction parameters derived from data from two global information systems (FishBase and SeaLifeBase). Our web application guides the user through simple queries to extract information from FishBase and SeaLifeBase data archives, and it delivers all the configuration files necessary for running an OSMOSE model. Here, we present our web application and demonstrate it for the West Florida Shelf ecosystem. Our software architecture can serve as a basis for designing other advanced web applications using FishBase and SeaLifeBase data in support of EBFM.

Inclusion of ecosystem information in US fish stock assessments suggests progress toward ecosystem-based fisheries management

Marshall KN, Koehn LE, Levin PS, Essington TE, Jensen OP. Inclusion of ecosystem information in US fish stock assessments suggests progress toward ecosystem-based fisheries management. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 ;76(1):1 - 9. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article/76/1/1/5144591
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The appetite for ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) approaches has grown, but the perception persists that implementation is slow. Here, we synthesize progress toward implementing EBFM in the United States through one potential avenue: expanding fish stock assessments to include ecosystem considerations and interactions between species, fleets, and sectors. We reviewed over 200 stock assessments and assessed how the stock assessment reports included information about system influences on the assessed stock. Our goals were to quantify whether and how assessments incorporated broader system-level considerations, and to explore factors that might contribute to the use of system-level information. Interactions among fishing fleets (technical interactions) were more commonly included than biophysical interactions (species, habitat, climate). Interactions within the physical environment (habitat, climate) were included twice as often as interactions among species (predation). Many assessment reports included ecological interactions only as background or qualitative considerations, rather than incorporating them in the assessment model. Our analyses suggested that ecosystem characteristics are more likely to be included when the species was overfished (stock status), the assessment is conducted at a science centre with a longstanding stomach contents analysis program, and/or the species life history characteristics suggest it is likely to be influenced by the physical environment, habitat, or predation mortality (short-lived species, sessile benthic species, or low trophic-level species). Regional differences in stomach contents analysis programs may limit the inclusion of predation mortality in stock assessments, and more guidance is needed on best practices for the prioritization of when and how biophysical information should be considered. However, our results demonstrate that significant progress has been made to use best available science and data to expand single-species stock assessments, particularly when a broad definition of EBFM is applied.

Defining the economic scope for ecosystem-based fishery management

Kroetz K, Reimer MN, Sanchirico JN, Lew DK, Huetteman J. Defining the economic scope for ecosystem-based fishery management. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2019 :201816545. Available from: https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/02/12/1816545116.long
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The emergence of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) has broadened the policy scope of fisheries management by accounting for the biological and ecological connectivity of fisheries. Less attention, however, has been given to the economic connectivity of fisheries. If fishers consider multiple fisheries when deciding where, when, and how much to fish, then management changes in one fishery can generate spillover impacts in other fisheries. Catch-share programs are a popular fisheries management framework that may be particularly prone to generating spillovers given that they typically change fishers’ incentives and their subsequent actions. We use data from Alaska fisheries to examine spillovers from each of the main catch-share programs in Alaska. We evaluate changes in participation—a traditional indicator in fisheries economics—in both the catch-share and non–catch-share fisheries. Using network analysis, we also investigate whether catch-share programs change the economic connectivity of fisheries, which can have implications for the socioeconomic resilience and robustness of the ecosystem, and empirically identify the set of fisheries impacted by each Alaska catch-share program. We find that cross-fishery participation spillovers and changes in economic connectivity coincide with some, but not all, catch-share programs. Our findings suggest that economic connectivity and the potential for cross-fishery spillovers deserve serious consideration, especially when designing and evaluating EBFM policies.

Preparing for the future: integrating spatial ecology into ecosystem-based management

Lowerre-Barbieri SK, Catalán IA, Opdal AFrugård, Jørgensen C. Preparing for the future: integrating spatial ecology into ecosystem-based management. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/advance-article/doi/10.1093/icesjms/fsy209/5299619
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine resource management is shifting from optimizing single species yield to redefining sustainable fisheries within the context of managing ocean use and ecosystem health. In this introductory article to the theme set, “Plugging spatial ecology into ecosystem-based management (EBM)” we conduct an informal horizon scan with leaders in EBM research to identify three rapidly evolving areas that will be game changers in integrating spatial ecology into EBM. These are: (1) new data streams from fishers, genomics, and technological advances in remote sensing and bio-logging; (2) increased analytical power through “Big Data” and artificial intelligence; and (3) better integration of social dimensions into management. We address each of these areas by first imagining capacity in 20 years from now, and then highlighting emerging efforts to get us there, drawing on articles in this theme set, other scientific literature, and presentations/discussions from the symposium on “Linkages between spatial ecology and sustainable fisheries” held at the ICES Annual Science Conference in September 2017.

Preparing for the future: integrating spatial ecology into ecosystem-based management

Lowerre-Barbieri SK, Catalán IA, Opdal AFrugård, Jørgensen C. Preparing for the future: integrating spatial ecology into ecosystem-based management. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/advance-article/doi/10.1093/icesjms/fsy209/5299619
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine resource management is shifting from optimizing single species yield to redefining sustainable fisheries within the context of managing ocean use and ecosystem health. In this introductory article to the theme set, “Plugging spatial ecology into ecosystem-based management (EBM)” we conduct an informal horizon scan with leaders in EBM research to identify three rapidly evolving areas that will be game changers in integrating spatial ecology into EBM. These are: (1) new data streams from fishers, genomics, and technological advances in remote sensing and bio-logging; (2) increased analytical power through “Big Data” and artificial intelligence; and (3) better integration of social dimensions into management. We address each of these areas by first imagining capacity in 20 years from now, and then highlighting emerging efforts to get us there, drawing on articles in this theme set, other scientific literature, and presentations/discussions from the symposium on “Linkages between spatial ecology and sustainable fisheries” held at the ICES Annual Science Conference in September 2017.

An ecosystem-based risk assessment for California fisheries co-developed by scientists, managers, and stakeholders

Samhouri JF, Ramanujam E, Bizzarro JJ, Carter H, Sayce K, Shen S. An ecosystem-based risk assessment for California fisheries co-developed by scientists, managers, and stakeholders. Biological Conservation [Internet]. 2019 ;231:103 - 121. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320718302696
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The intensive harvest of wild populations for food can pose a risk to food security and to conservation goals. While ecosystem approaches to management offer a potential means to balance those risks, they require a method of assessment that is commensurate across multiple objectives. A major challenge is conducting these assessments in a way that considers the priorities and knowledge of stakeholders. In this study, we co-developed an ecological risk assessment (ERA) for fisheries in California (USA) with scientists, managers, and stakeholders. This ERA was intended to meet the requirements of existing policy mandates in the state of California and provide a systematic, efficient, and transparent approach to prioritize fisheries for additional management actions, including the development of fisheries management plans fully compliant with California laws. We assessed the relative risk posed to target species, bycatch, and habitats from nine state-managed fisheries and found risk to target species was not necessarily similar to risks to bycatch and habitat groups. In addition, no single fishery consistently presented the greatest risk for all bycatch or habitat groups. However, considered in combination, the greatest risk for target species, bycatch groups, and habitats emerged from two commercial fisheries for California halibut. The participatory process used to generate these results offers the potential to increase stakeholders' trust in the assessment and therefore its application in management. We suggest that adopting similar processes in other management contexts and jurisdictions will advance progress toward ecosystem-based fisheries management that simultaneously satisfies fisheries, conservation, and relationship-building objectives.

Marine environmental vulnerability and cumulative risk profiles to support ecosystem-based adaptive maritime spatial planning

Aps R, Herkül K, Kotta J, Cormier R, Kostamo K, Laamanen L, Lappalainen J, Lokko K, Peterson A, Varjopuro R. Marine environmental vulnerability and cumulative risk profiles to support ecosystem-based adaptive maritime spatial planning. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 ;75(7):2488 - 2500. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article-abstract/75/7/2488/5070430
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $45.00
Type: Journal Article

Human use of marine and coastal areas is increasing worldwide, resulting in conflicts between different interests for marine space, overexploitation of marine resources, and environmental degradation. In this study we developed a methodology that combines assessments of marine environmental vulnerability and cumulative human pressures to support the processes of ecosystem-based adaptive maritime spatial planning. The methodology is built on the spatially explicit marine environmental vulnerability profile (EVP) that is an aggregated product of the distribution of essential nature values (habitat-forming benthic macroalgal and invertebrate species, benthic species richness, birds and seals as top marine predators) and their sensitivities to disturbances. The marine environmental cumulative risk profile (ERP) combines the EVP and the HELCOM Baltic Sea Pressure Index (BSPI), the latter representing the spatial distribution of intensities of cumulative anthropogenic pressures. The ERP identifies areas where environmental risks are the highest due to both long recoveries of the biota and high intensities of human pressures. This methodology can be used in any other sea areas by modifying the list of nature values, their sensitivity to disturbances, and the intensities of human pressure.

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