Ecosystem-based Management (EBM)

Ecosystem-Based Harvest Control Rules for Norwegian and US Ecosystems

Kaplan IC, Hansen C, Morzaria-Luna HNalini, Girardin R, Marshall KN. Ecosystem-Based Harvest Control Rules for Norwegian and US Ecosystems. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00652/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1406443_45_Marine_20200818_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Management strategy evaluation (MSE) provides a simulation framework to test the performance of living marine resource management. MSE has now been adopted broadly for use in single-species fishery management, often using a relatively simple “operating model” that projects population dynamics of one species forward in time. However, many challenges in ecosystem-based management involve tradeoffs between multiple species and interactions of multiple stressors. Here we use complex operating models, multi-species ecosystem models of the California Current and Nordic and Barents Seas, to test threshold harvest control rules that explicitly address the linkage between predators and prey, and between the forage needs of predators and fisheries. Specifically, within Atlantis ecosystem models we focus on how forage (zooplankton) availability affects the performance of harvest rules for target fish, and how these harvest rules for fish can account for environmentally-driven fluctuations in zooplankton. Our investigation led to three main results. First, consistent with studies based on single-species operating models, we found that compared to constant F = FMSY policies, threshold rules led to higher target stock biomass for Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) in the California Current and mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the Nordic and Barents Seas. Performance in terms of catch of these species varied depending partly on the biomass and recovery trajectory for the simulated stock. Secondly, the multi-species operating models and the harvest control rules that linked fishing mortality rates to prey biomass (zooplankton) led to increased catch variability; this stemmed directly from the harvest rule that frequently adjusted Pacific hake or mackerel fishing rates in response to zooplankton, which are quite variable in these two ecosystems. Thirdly, tests suggested that threshold rules that increased fishing when productivity (zooplankton) declined had the potential for strong ecosystem effects on other species. These effects were most apparent in the Nordic and Barents Seas simulations. The tests of harvest control rules here do not include uncertainty in monitoring of fish and zooplankton, nor do they include uncertainty in stock assessment and implementation; these would be required for full MSE. Additionally, we intentionally chose target fish with strong mechanistic links to particular zooplankton groups, with the simplifying assumption that zooplankton biomass followed a forced time series. Further developing and testing of ecosystem-level considerations can be achieved with end-to-end ecosystem models, such as the Atlantis models applied here, which have the added benefit of tracking the follow-on effects of the harvest control rule on the broader ecosystem.

Global hotspots for coastal ecosystem-based adaptation

Jones HP, Nickel B, Srebotnjak T, Turner W, Gonzalez-Roglich M, Zavaleta E, Hole DG. Global hotspots for coastal ecosystem-based adaptation Villamayor-Tomas S. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(5):e0233005. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233005
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Helping the world’s coastal communities adapt to climate change impacts requires evaluating the vulnerability of coastal communities and assessing adaptation options. This includes understanding the potential for ‘natural’ infrastructure (ecosystems and the biodiversity that underpins them) to reduce communities’ vulnerability, alongside more traditional ‘hard’ infrastructure approaches. Here we present a spatially explicit global evaluation of the vulnerability of coastal-dwelling human populations to key climate change exposures and explore the potential for coastal ecosystems to help people adapt to climate change (ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA)). We find that mangroves and coral reefs are particularly well situated to help people cope with current weather extremes, a function that will only increase in importance as people adapt to climate change now and in coming decades. We find that around 30.9 million people living within 2km of the coast are highly vulnerable to tropical storms and sea-level rise (SLR). Mangroves and coral reefs overlap these threats to at least 5.3 and 3.4 million people, respectively, with substantial potential to dissipate storm surges and improve resilience against SLR effects. Significant co-benefits from mangroves also accrue, with 896 million metric tons of carbon stored in their soils and above- and below-ground biomass. Our framework offers a tool for prioritizing ‘hotspots’ of coastal EbA potential for further, national and local analyses to quantify risk reduction and, thereby, guide investment in coastal ecosystems to help people adapt to climate change. In doing so, it underscores the global role that conserving and restoring ecosystems can play in protecting human lives and livelihoods, as well as biodiversity, in the face of climate change.

Global hotspots for coastal ecosystem-based adaptation

Jones HP, Nickel B, Srebotnjak T, Turner W, Gonzalez-Roglich M, Zavaleta E, Hole DG. Global hotspots for coastal ecosystem-based adaptation Villamayor-Tomas S. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(5):e0233005. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233005
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Helping the world’s coastal communities adapt to climate change impacts requires evaluating the vulnerability of coastal communities and assessing adaptation options. This includes understanding the potential for ‘natural’ infrastructure (ecosystems and the biodiversity that underpins them) to reduce communities’ vulnerability, alongside more traditional ‘hard’ infrastructure approaches. Here we present a spatially explicit global evaluation of the vulnerability of coastal-dwelling human populations to key climate change exposures and explore the potential for coastal ecosystems to help people adapt to climate change (ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA)). We find that mangroves and coral reefs are particularly well situated to help people cope with current weather extremes, a function that will only increase in importance as people adapt to climate change now and in coming decades. We find that around 30.9 million people living within 2km of the coast are highly vulnerable to tropical storms and sea-level rise (SLR). Mangroves and coral reefs overlap these threats to at least 5.3 and 3.4 million people, respectively, with substantial potential to dissipate storm surges and improve resilience against SLR effects. Significant co-benefits from mangroves also accrue, with 896 million metric tons of carbon stored in their soils and above- and below-ground biomass. Our framework offers a tool for prioritizing ‘hotspots’ of coastal EbA potential for further, national and local analyses to quantify risk reduction and, thereby, guide investment in coastal ecosystems to help people adapt to climate change. In doing so, it underscores the global role that conserving and restoring ecosystems can play in protecting human lives and livelihoods, as well as biodiversity, in the face of climate change.

Spatial Management Units as an Ecosystem-Based Approach for Managing Bottom-Towed Fisheries in the Central Mediterranean Sea

Lauria V, Gristina M, Fiorentino F, Attrill MJ, Garofalo G. Spatial Management Units as an Ecosystem-Based Approach for Managing Bottom-Towed Fisheries in the Central Mediterranean Sea. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00233/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1320398_45_Marine_20200505_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine ecosystems are being continually impacted by human activities and, among these, fisheries have been one of the most damaging. Fisheries modify the structure and functioning of food-webs through biomass removal and physical damage to the seabed, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services provided by the oceans. The ecosystem-based approach to fisheries is considered the most efficient way to achieve the goal of sustainable use of marine resources while allowing for biodiversity protection. The Strait of Sicily is a biologically important area of the central Mediterranean Sea characterized by high habitat complexity and rich biodiversity, however, due to the multispecific nature of local fisheries and weak implementation of the adopted management plans, this region is particularly vulnerable. We used fishery independent time series (1994–2016) to identify the main demersal assemblages and map their spatial distribution. The pressure of fishing effort on each of these defined assemblages was then quantified in order to evaluate the impact of bottom trawling on demersal communities. Our results showed four spatially distinct and temporally stable assemblages of the Strait of Sicily. These have a clear spatial distribution, different species composition and biodiversity values and are driven primarily by environmental gradients (i.e., mainly depth and, to a lesser extent, surface salinity). The demersal assemblages were subsequently grouped in homogeneous areas characterized by specific communities of commercial and non-commercial species and response to trawling impacts. These areas are proposed as Spatial Managements Units to evaluate and manage demersal mixed fisheries, while also considering biodiversity conservation in the central Mediterranean Sea.

Optimization of hatchery-origin Chinook and hatchery- and natural-origin coho salmon releases in the Salish Sea through ecosystem-based management: adapting hatchery practices to pink salmon abundance

Kendall NW, Nelson BW, Losee JP. Optimization of hatchery-origin Chinook and hatchery- and natural-origin coho salmon releases in the Salish Sea through ecosystem-based management: adapting hatchery practices to pink salmon abundance. Pacific Salmon Commission; 2020. Available from: https://www.psc.org/fund-project/optimization-of-hatchery-chinook-salmon-releases-in-the-salish-sea-through-ecosystem-based-management-adapting-hatchery-practices-to-pink-and-chum-salmon-abundance/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Producing more hatchery Chinook salmon juveniles has recently been proposed in Washington State with hopes of enhanced ecosystem and fisheries benefits. However, it has recently been shown that even the vast North Pacific Ocean cannot support an infinite number of salmon (Ruggerone and Irvine 2018), and it appears that mortality of salmon in the Salish Sea can also be density dependent (Ruggerone and Goetz 2004). Density-dependent effects between pink salmon in particular (the most numerous species, but also chum salmon) and Chinook salmon have been documented by an increasing number of studies (e.g., Ruggerone and Nielsen 2004; Ruggerone et al. 2003), suggesting that salmon compete for food in the ocean, which can lead to reduced growth, delayed age at maturation, and lower survival rates (Ruggerone and Irvine 2018). Preliminary analyses of the relationships between Chinook salmon hatchery production and numbers surviving to adulthood suggest reduced Chinook survival in years when large numbers of juvenile pink salmon also out-migrate. In some regions, this density-dependent mortality may be so strong that large increases in hatchery releases may limit the number of returning adults.

We propose to evaluate the following questions: what Chinook salmon juvenile release abundance values are associated with greatest marine survival rates? How do survival rates vary with different numbers of juvenile pink salmon out-migrating in the Salish Sea? How do these relationships differ among Chinook salmon stocks from various regions of the Salish Sea?

Analysis of sustainability ecosystem mangrove management in Pangkah Wetan and Pangkah Kulon Villages Area, Ujungpangkah District, Gresik Regency, East Java Province

Santoso N, Sutopo , Nugraha RP. Analysis of sustainability ecosystem mangrove management in Pangkah Wetan and Pangkah Kulon Villages Area, Ujungpangkah District, Gresik Regency, East Java Province. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2019 ;399:012007. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/399/1/012007
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Mangroves provide several important functions such as gatherings, nurseries, living areas, and eating habitats. The best management plan designed for the conservation of mangrove wetlands must be considered as well as an ecological and social facility. The purpose of this study was to analyze the sustainability of mangrove ecosystem management from the ecological, economic, social, institutional and technological dimensions using the MDS (Multi Dimension Scaling) method through the RAP-MANGROVE (Rapid Assessment for Mangrove) approach in Pangkah Wetan and Pangkah Kulon Villages, Ujungpangkah District, Gresik Regency, East Java Province. The results of the study show that the sustainability index of the mangrove ecosystem in the Pangkah Wetan Village for ecological, institutional, and technological dimensions are less sustainable, while for economic and social dimensions are sufficiently sustainable; while in the Pangkah Kulon Village for ecological, social, institutional, and technology dimensions are sufficiently sustainable, while for economic dimension is sustainable. Based on the results of leverage analysis, it shows attributes that are very sensitive to the sustainability status of mangrove ecosystems, for the ecological dimension are fauna diversity in mangrove ecosystems, and coastline changes. The sensitive attributes in the economic dimension are a type of direct use mangrove ecosystems for community, and contributions mangrove ecosystem to increasing labor; while in social dimension are mangrove ecosystems damaged by community and community access to utilize mangrove ecosystems. The sensitive attributes in the institutional dimension are involvement of community institutions regarding mangrove ecosystem management and the existence of sanctions for violating regulations in the mangrove ecosystem; while in technological dimension are processing techniques for mangrove products, and the techniques for capturing biota in mangrove ecosystems. The results of the Monte Carlo analysis show that the overall dimensions in this study are adequate and valid (indicated by the difference between MDS and Monte Carlo <5%), while the Goodness of Fit analysis shows an S-stress value of <0.25 for each dimension, so the RAP-MANGROVE model in this analysis it is a good model and can be used to analyze the accuracy of the sustainability of mangrove ecosystem management.

Towards Ecosystem-based Management of the Global Ocean: Strengthening Regional Cooperation through a New Agreement for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Biodiversity in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction

Gjerde K, Wright G. Towards Ecosystem-based Management of the Global Ocean: Strengthening Regional Cooperation through a New Agreement for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Biodiversity in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction. STRONG High Seas Project; 2019.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Following more than a decade of informal de- liberations, States at the United Nations (UN) are currently negotiating an “international legally binding instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in ar- eas beyond national jurisdiction” (“BBNJ Agreement”). The negotiations aim to strengthen the international legal framework for the protection and management of the global ocean by addressing gaps in the current framework and building on existing obligations under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to cooperate to protect and preserve the marine environment and conserve marine living re- sources.

This policy brief explores how integrated ecosystem-based management (EBM) in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) can be advanced at the regional level and how the BBNJ Agreement can build on experiences in other legally binding agreements to strengthen region- al cooperation, coordination and coherence. To this end, five building blocks are identified: 1. A robust global body such as a Conference of Parties capable of taking decisions and adopt- ing recommendations; 2. A suite of regional mechanisms for integrated policy development and coordination; 3. Effective science-policy advisory mechanisms; 4. Overarching environ- mental obligations and principles; and 5. Operational principles to ensure good governance.

A review of the current President’s draft text of the BBNJ Agreement highlights where the text could be strengthened to advance EBM. In particular, the BBNJ Agreement could draw inspiration from a range of existing instruments and craft specific obligations to: cooperate to promote in-situ conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats; mainstream biodiversity into all decision-making bodies and processes; and strengthen regional cooperation by supporting existing institutions and by building cross-sectoral platforms for cooperation.

Socio-ecological vulnerability to tipping points: A review of empirical approaches and their use for marine management

Lauerburg RAM, Diekmann R, Blanz B, Gee K, Held H, Kannen A, Mollmann C, Probst WN, Rambo H, Cormier R, et al. Socio-ecological vulnerability to tipping points: A review of empirical approaches and their use for marine management. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. In Press :135838. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719358334
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Sustainability in the provision of ecosystem services requires understanding of the vulnerability of social-ecological systems (SES) to tipping points (TPs). Assessing SES vulnerability to abrupt ecosystem state changes remains challenging, however, because frameworks do not operationally link ecological, socio-economic and cultural elements of the SES. We conducted a targeted literature review on empirical assessments of SES and TPs in the marine realm and their use in ecosystem-based management. Our results revealed a plurality of terminologies, definitions and concepts that hampers practical operationalisation of these concepts. Furthermore, we found a striking lack of socio-cultural aspects in SES vulnerability assessments, possibly because of a lack of involvement of stakeholders and interest groups. We propose guiding principles for assessing vulnerability to TPs that build on participative approaches and prioritise the connectivity between SES components by accounting for component linkages, cascading effects and feedback processes.

An ecosystem approach to kelp aquaculture in the Americas and Europe

Grebe GS, Byron CJ, Gelais ASt., Kotowicz DM, Olson TK. An ecosystem approach to kelp aquaculture in the Americas and Europe. Aquaculture Reports [Internet]. 2019 ;15:100215. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352513419300134
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Kelp farming is increasing along the temperate coastlines of the Americas and Europe. The economic, ecological, and social frameworks surrounding kelp farming in these new areas are in contrast with the conditions of progenitor kelp farming regions in China, Japan, and Korea.

Thus, identifying and addressing the environmental and social impacts of kelp farming in these regions is vital to ensuring the industry’s long-term sustainability. Here, a conceptual model of the human and natural systems supporting this nascent kelp aquaculture sector was developed using Maine, USA as a focal region. Potential negative impacts of kelp aquaculture were identified to be habitat degradation, overfishing of wild seeds, predation and competition with wild fish and genes, and transmission of diseases. Increased food security, improved restoration efforts, greater fisheries productivity, and alternative livelihoods development were determined to be potential positive impacts of kelp aquaculture. Changes in biodiversity and productivity resulting from either negative or positive impacts of kelp aquaculture were confirmed to have downstream effects on local fisheries and coastal communities. Recommendations to improve or protect the ecosystem services tangential to kelp farming include: define ecosystem and management boundaries, assess ecosystem services and environmental carrying capacity, pursue ecologically and socially considerate engineering, and protect the health and genetic diversity of wild kelp beds. Recommendations to ensure that kelp farming improves the well-being of all stakeholders include: increase horizontal expansion, expand and teach Best Management Practices, and develop climate change resiliency. Additionally, an integrated management strategy should be developed for wild and farmed kelp to ensure that kelp aquaculture is developed in the context of other sectors and goals.

Oceanographic features delineate growth zonation in Northeast Pacific sablefish

Kapur M, Haltuch M, Connors B, Rogers L, Berger A, Koontz E, Cope J, Echave K, Fenske K, Hanselman D, et al. Oceanographic features delineate growth zonation in Northeast Pacific sablefish. Fisheries Research [Internet]. 2020 ;222:105414. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0165783619302693
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Renewed interest in the estimation of spatial and temporal variation in fish traits, such as body size, is a result of computing advances and the development of spatially-explicit management frameworks. However, many attempts to quantify spatial structure or the distribution of traits utilize a priori approaches, which involve pre-designated geographic regions and thus cannot detect unanticipated spatial patterns. We developed a new, model-based method that uses the first derivative of the spatial smoothing term of a generalized additive model to identify spatial zones of variation in fish length-at-age. We use simulation testing to evaluate the method across a variety of synthetic, stratified age and length datasets, and then apply it to survey data for Northeast Pacific sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria). Simulation testing illustrates the robustness of the method across a variety of scenarios related to spatially or temporally stratified length-at-age data, including strict boundaries, overlapping zones and changes at the extreme of the range. Results indicate that length-at-age for Northeast Pacific sablefish increases with latitude, which is consistent with previous work from the western United States. Model-detected spatial breakpoints corresponded to major oceanographic features, including the northern end of the Southern California Bight and the bifurcation of the North Pacific Current. This method has the potential to improve detection of large-scale patterns in fish growth, and aid in the development of spatiotemporally structured population dynamics models to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management.

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