Ecosystem-based Management (EBM)

Wind Energy and Wildlife Impacts: Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Assess the Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy

Pezy J-P, Raoux A, Niquil N, Dauvin J-C. Wind Energy and Wildlife Impacts: Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Assess the Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy. In: Bispo R, Bernardino J, Coelho H, Costa JLino Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2019. pp. 153 - 164. Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-05520-2_10
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $29.95
Type: Book Chapter

Since the beginning of the 2000’, the French government ambition was to have an offshore wind production formed 40% of the renewable electricity in 2030. Three calls tenders of Offshore Wind Farms (OWFs) construction have been pronounced since 2011. However, no offshore wind farm (OWF) had been constructed at the end of 2017 due to long administrative procedures and numerous appeals in justice, at French and European levels. Nevertheless, several studies have been enterprised to identify the environmental conditions and ecosystem functioning in selected sites before OWF implantations. However, these studies are generally focused on the conservation of some species or groups of species, and there is no holistic study on the effects of the construction and operation of OWF on an ecosystem taken as a whole. In 2017, a complete and integrated view of the ecosystem of two future OWF sites of the eastern English Channel (Courseulles-sur-Mer and Dieppe-Le Tréport) was developed to model the marine ecosystems before OWF implementation and to simulate reef effects due to new spatial occupation of maritime territory. Results contribute to a better knowledge of the impacts of the OWFs on the functioning of marine ecosystems. They also allow to define recommendations for environmental managers and industry in terms of monitoring the effects of marine renewable energy (MRE), not only locally but also on other sites, at national and European levels.

Wind Energy and Wildlife ImpactsTowards an Ecosystem Approach to Assess the Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy

Pezy J-P, Raoux A, Niquil N, Dauvin J-C. Wind Energy and Wildlife ImpactsTowards an Ecosystem Approach to Assess the Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy. In: Bispo R, Bernardino J, Coelho H, Costa JLino Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2019. pp. 153 - 164. Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-05520-2_10
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $29.95
Type: Book Chapter

Since the beginning of the 2000’, the French government ambition was to have an offshore wind production formed 40% of the renewable electricity in 2030. Three calls tenders of Offshore Wind Farms (OWFs) construction have been pronounced since 2011. However, no offshore wind farm (OWF) had been constructed at the end of 2017 due to long administrative procedures and numerous appeals in justice, at French and European levels. Nevertheless, several studies have been enterprised to identify the environmental conditions and ecosystem functioning in selected sites before OWF implantations. However, these studies are generally focused on the conservation of some species or groups of species, and there is no holistic study on the effects of the construction and operation of OWF on an ecosystem taken as a whole. In 2017, a complete and integrated view of the ecosystem of two future OWF sites of the eastern English Channel (Courseulles-sur-Mer and Dieppe-Le Tréport) was developed to model the marine ecosystems before OWF implementation and to simulate reef effects due to new spatial occupation of maritime territory. Results contribute to a better knowledge of the impacts of the OWFs on the functioning of marine ecosystems. They also allow to define recommendations for environmental managers and industry in terms of monitoring the effects of marine renewable energy (MRE), not only locally but also on other sites, at national and European levels.

Establishing causal links between aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: Status and research needs

Daam MA, Teixeira H, Lillebø AI, Nogueira AJA. Establishing causal links between aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: Status and research needs. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2019 ;656:1145 - 1156. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969718347685
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Understanding how changes in biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning is imperative in allowing Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM), especially when addressing global change and environmental degradation. Research into the link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) has indeed increased considerably over the past decades. BEF research has focussed on terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems have received considerably less attention. Due to differences in phylogenetic diversity, ecological processes and reported BEF relationships, however, it may at least be questionable whether BEF relationships are exchangeable between these ecosystems (i.e. terrestrial and aquatic). The aim of the present paper was therefore to pinpoint key areas and bottlenecks in establishing BEF relationships for aquatic ecosystems (freshwater, transitional, and marine). To this end, the available literature with special emphasis on the last 10 years was assessed to evaluate: i) reported mechanisms and shapes of aquatic BEF relationships; ii) to what extent BEF relations are interchangeable or ecosystem-specific; and iii) contemporary gaps and needs in aquatic BEF research. Based on our analysis, it may be concluded that despite considerable progress in BEF research over the past decades, several bottlenecks still need to be tackled, namely incorporating the multitude of functions supported by ecosystems, functional distinctiveness of rare species, multitrophic interactions and spatial-temporal scales, before BEF relationships can be used in ecosystem-based management.

Drivers of recovery and reassembly of coral reef communities

Gouezo M, Golbuu Y, Fabricius K, Olsudong D, Mereb G, Nestor V, Wolanski E, Harrison P, Doropoulos C. Drivers of recovery and reassembly of coral reef communities. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences [Internet]. 2019 ;286(1897):20182908. Available from: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rspb.2018.2908
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Understanding processes that drive community recovery are needed to predict ecosystem trajectories and manage for impacts under increasing global threats. Yet, the quantification of community recovery in coral reefs has been challenging owing to a paucity of long-term ecological data and high frequency of disturbances. Here we investigate community re-assembly and the bio-physical drivers that determine the capacity of coral reefs to recover following the 1998 bleaching event, using long-term monitoring data across four habitats in Palau. Our study documents that the time needed for coral reefs to recover from bleaching disturbance to coral-dominated state in disturbance-free regimes is at least 9–12 years. Importantly, we show that reefs in two habitats achieve relative stability to a climax community state within that time frame. We then investigated the direct and indirect effects of drivers on the rate of recovery of four dominant coral groups using a structural equation modelling approach. While the rates of recovery differed among coral groups, we found that larval connectivity and juvenile coral density were prominent drivers of recovery for fast growing Acropora but not for the other three groups. Competitive algae and parrotfish had negative and positive effects on coral recovery in general, whereas wave exposure had variable effects related to coral morphology. Overall, the time needed for community re-assembly is habitat specific and drivers of recovery are taxa specific, considerations that require incorporation into planning for ecosystem management under climate change.

A modelling approach for offshore wind farm feasibility with respect to ecosystem-based marine spatial planning

Pınarbaşı K, Galparsoro I, Depellegrin D, Bald J, Pérez-Morán G, Borja A. A modelling approach for offshore wind farm feasibility with respect to ecosystem-based marine spatial planning. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719307661
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Demand for renewable energy is increasing steadily and regulated by national and international policies. Offshore wind energy sector has been clearly the fastest in its development among other options, and development of new wind farms requires large ocean space. Therefore, there is a need of efficient spatial planning process, including the site selection constrained by technical (wind resource, coastal distance, seafloor) and environmental (impacts) factors and competence of uses. We present a novel approach, using Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN), for an integrated spatially explicit site feasibility identification for offshore wind farms. Our objectives are to: (i) develop a spatially explicit model that integrates the technical, economic, environmental and social dimensions; (ii) operationalize the BBN model; (iii) implement the model at local (Basque Country) and regional (North East Atlantic and Western Mediterranean), and (iv) develop and analyse future scenarios for wind farm installation in a local case study. Results demonstrated a total of 1% (23 km2) of moderate feasibility areas in local scaled analysis, compared to 4% of (21,600 km2) very high, and 5% (30,000 km2) of high feasibility in larger scale analysis. The main challenges were data availability and discretization when trying to expand the model from local to regional level. The use of BBN models to determine the feasibility of offshore wind farm areas has been demonstrated adequate and possible, both at local and regional scales, allowing managers to take management decisions regarding marine spatial planning when including different activities, environmental problems and technological constraints.

Managing the environment in a pinch: red swamp crayfish tells a cautionary tale of ecosystem based management in northeastern Italy

Gavioli A, Milardi M, Lanzoni M, Mantovani S, Aschonitis V, Soana E, Fano EAnna, Castaldelli G. Managing the environment in a pinch: red swamp crayfish tells a cautionary tale of ecosystem based management in northeastern Italy. Ecological Engineering [Internet]. 2018 ;120:546 - 553. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0925857418302519
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Farmlands are globally widespread and their management should consider both human and environmental needs. In fact, these man-made ecosystems provide subsistence to the human population but are also habitats for plant and animal communities. The worldwide increase of exotic species has affected native communities, but also human activities or health. We used an exploited farmland in northern Italy, where many exotics are present, as a test case for identifying restoration measures based on an ecosystem approach. In particular, we focused on red swap crayfish for its ecosystem engineering capabilities, and examined the factors affecting its invasion success in order to attempt the definition of management strategies. We used multivariate and regression analysis to evaluate the relationships between the red swamp crayfish, water quality, macrophytes abundance, watercourse hydraulics and the fish community. All analyses indicated that red swamp crayfish was less likely to establish in large, deeper and fast flowing waterways, especially when these are deprived of vegetation and less eutrophicated. Based on our results, fish predation was also a significant factor in limiting red swamp crayfish abundance. We thus concluded that a different hydraulic management, which leaves more water in irrigation canals throughout the winter, could be possibly used to slow down or even reverse the invasion process.

Building bridges between global information systems on marine organisms and ecosystem models

Grüss A, Palomares MLD, Poelen JH, Barile JR, Aldemita CD, Ortiz SR, Barrier N, Shin Y-J, Simons J, Pauly D. Building bridges between global information systems on marine organisms and ecosystem models. Ecological Modelling [Internet]. 2019 ;398:1 - 19. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304380019300432
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

To facilitate the wider implementation of ecosystem modeling platforms and, thereby, to help advance ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) worldwide, tools delivering a large quantity of inputs to ecosystem models are needed. We developed a web application providing OSMOSE ecosystem models with values for trophic, growth and reproduction parameters derived from data from two global information systems (FishBase and SeaLifeBase). Our web application guides the user through simple queries to extract information from FishBase and SeaLifeBase data archives, and it delivers all the configuration files necessary for running an OSMOSE model. Here, we present our web application and demonstrate it for the West Florida Shelf ecosystem. Our software architecture can serve as a basis for designing other advanced web applications using FishBase and SeaLifeBase data in support of EBFM.

Inclusion of ecosystem information in US fish stock assessments suggests progress toward ecosystem-based fisheries management

Marshall KN, Koehn LE, Levin PS, Essington TE, Jensen OP. Inclusion of ecosystem information in US fish stock assessments suggests progress toward ecosystem-based fisheries management. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 ;76(1):1 - 9. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article/76/1/1/5144591
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The appetite for ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) approaches has grown, but the perception persists that implementation is slow. Here, we synthesize progress toward implementing EBFM in the United States through one potential avenue: expanding fish stock assessments to include ecosystem considerations and interactions between species, fleets, and sectors. We reviewed over 200 stock assessments and assessed how the stock assessment reports included information about system influences on the assessed stock. Our goals were to quantify whether and how assessments incorporated broader system-level considerations, and to explore factors that might contribute to the use of system-level information. Interactions among fishing fleets (technical interactions) were more commonly included than biophysical interactions (species, habitat, climate). Interactions within the physical environment (habitat, climate) were included twice as often as interactions among species (predation). Many assessment reports included ecological interactions only as background or qualitative considerations, rather than incorporating them in the assessment model. Our analyses suggested that ecosystem characteristics are more likely to be included when the species was overfished (stock status), the assessment is conducted at a science centre with a longstanding stomach contents analysis program, and/or the species life history characteristics suggest it is likely to be influenced by the physical environment, habitat, or predation mortality (short-lived species, sessile benthic species, or low trophic-level species). Regional differences in stomach contents analysis programs may limit the inclusion of predation mortality in stock assessments, and more guidance is needed on best practices for the prioritization of when and how biophysical information should be considered. However, our results demonstrate that significant progress has been made to use best available science and data to expand single-species stock assessments, particularly when a broad definition of EBFM is applied.

Defining the economic scope for ecosystem-based fishery management

Kroetz K, Reimer MN, Sanchirico JN, Lew DK, Huetteman J. Defining the economic scope for ecosystem-based fishery management. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2019 :201816545. Available from: https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/02/12/1816545116.long
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The emergence of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) has broadened the policy scope of fisheries management by accounting for the biological and ecological connectivity of fisheries. Less attention, however, has been given to the economic connectivity of fisheries. If fishers consider multiple fisheries when deciding where, when, and how much to fish, then management changes in one fishery can generate spillover impacts in other fisheries. Catch-share programs are a popular fisheries management framework that may be particularly prone to generating spillovers given that they typically change fishers’ incentives and their subsequent actions. We use data from Alaska fisheries to examine spillovers from each of the main catch-share programs in Alaska. We evaluate changes in participation—a traditional indicator in fisheries economics—in both the catch-share and non–catch-share fisheries. Using network analysis, we also investigate whether catch-share programs change the economic connectivity of fisheries, which can have implications for the socioeconomic resilience and robustness of the ecosystem, and empirically identify the set of fisheries impacted by each Alaska catch-share program. We find that cross-fishery participation spillovers and changes in economic connectivity coincide with some, but not all, catch-share programs. Our findings suggest that economic connectivity and the potential for cross-fishery spillovers deserve serious consideration, especially when designing and evaluating EBFM policies.

Preparing for the future: integrating spatial ecology into ecosystem-based management

Lowerre-Barbieri SK, Catalán IA, Opdal AFrugård, Jørgensen C. Preparing for the future: integrating spatial ecology into ecosystem-based management. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/advance-article/doi/10.1093/icesjms/fsy209/5299619
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine resource management is shifting from optimizing single species yield to redefining sustainable fisheries within the context of managing ocean use and ecosystem health. In this introductory article to the theme set, “Plugging spatial ecology into ecosystem-based management (EBM)” we conduct an informal horizon scan with leaders in EBM research to identify three rapidly evolving areas that will be game changers in integrating spatial ecology into EBM. These are: (1) new data streams from fishers, genomics, and technological advances in remote sensing and bio-logging; (2) increased analytical power through “Big Data” and artificial intelligence; and (3) better integration of social dimensions into management. We address each of these areas by first imagining capacity in 20 years from now, and then highlighting emerging efforts to get us there, drawing on articles in this theme set, other scientific literature, and presentations/discussions from the symposium on “Linkages between spatial ecology and sustainable fisheries” held at the ICES Annual Science Conference in September 2017.

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