This chapter analyzes the contribution of Participative Management Plans (PMP) for the identification of ecosystem services and the protection of conservation objects from the multiple-use protected coastal marine areas (MU-CMPA). The objective of these areas is to conserve the natural capital and cultural patrimony without restricting traditional productive activities such as fishing, mollusks and algae extraction, and energy resources. There are ten MU-CMPAs areas in Chile, but their implementation has been slow and 14 years after the first areas were legally declared, some of them still do not have management plans. Here we analyze the experiences of Isla Grande de Atacama MU-CMPA (MU-CMPA IGA) in the north of Chile, including the complexities of implementing PMPs and the challenges and opportunities of generating an ecosystem perspective in the management plans for protected areas. Administrative problems and conflicts of interest have worn social relationships generating little community participation regarding the design of a management plan. Nevertheless, there is a consensus among local social actors about the benefits of the ecosystems of the MU-CMPA IGA due to the high economic and social values given by the community to the services provided by the area.
Ecosystem Services and Uses
Integrated approaches to engage coastal communities in management are urgently needed to address coastal change and associated uncertainty. Towards this aim, understanding the complex relationships between coastal well-being and ecosystem services provides a foundation for a range of management and governance interventions. While these relationships are considered in a growing number of case-based studies, the complexity of these linkages has not been comprehensively assessed. We use a systematic review protocol of 50 articles published between 2008 and 2018 to assess the evidence about the interplay among coastal well-being and ecosystem services. We find that empirical research has fallen behind theoretical development in five key areas: 1) geographic diversity; 2) disaggregated data; 3) temporal dynamics; 4) co-production, and; 5) uncertainty of outcomes. We highlight these gaps as frontiers for interdisciplinary coastal well-being and ecosystem service research. Together, the five frontiers chart a potential new research agenda for coastal well-being and ecosystem services research, namely one that involves more cases and authors from the Global South, that explicitly explores social differentiation and changes overtime, that is collaborative from the start, and that engages empirically with the complexity and uncertainty of well-being-ecosystem service interactions and their implications for enhancing management. Our proposed agenda is vital to inform management that effectively supports the health and sustainability of coastal social-ecological systems.
Ecosystem services have become a dominant paradigm for understanding how people derive well-being from ecosystems. However, the framework has been critiqued for over-emphasizing the availability of services as a proxy for benefits, and thus missing the socially-stratified ways that people access ecosystem services. We aim to contribute to ecosystem services’ theoretical treatment of access by drawing on ideas from political ecology (legitimacy) and anthropology (entanglement). We hypothesize that where customary and modern forms of resource management co-exist, changes in customary institutions will also change people’s ability to and means of benefiting from ecosystem services, with implications for well-being. We ask a) what are the constellations of social, economic, and institutional mechanisms that enable or hinder access to a range of provisioning ecosystem services; and b) how are these constellations shifting as different elements of customary institutions gain or lose legitimacy in the process of entanglement with modernity? Through a qualitative mixed-methods case study in a coastal atoll community in Papua New Guinea, we identify key access mechanisms across the value chain of marine provisioning services. Our study finds the legitimacy of customary systems – and thus their power in shaping access – has eroded unevenly for some ecosystem services, and some people within the community (e.g. younger men), and less for others (e.g. women), and that different marine provisioning services are shaped by specific access mechanisms, which vary along the value chain. Our findings suggest that attention to entanglement and legitimacy can help ecosystem services approaches capture the dynamic and relational aspects of power that shape how people navigate access to resources in a changing world. We contend that viewing power as relational illuminates how customary institutions lose or gain legitimacy as they become entangled with modernity.
Mangrove degradation threatens the capacity of these important ecosystems to provide goods and services that contribute to human wellbeing. This study uses a deliberative choice experiment to value non-market mangrove ecosystem services (ES) at Mida Creek, Kenya. The attributes assessed include “shoreline erosion protection”, “biodiversity richness and abundance”, “nursery and breeding ground for fish”, and “education and research”. Unpaid labour (volunteer time) for mangroves conservation was used as the payment mechanism to estimate willingness to pay (WTP). Results suggest that respondents were willing to volunteer: 5.82 h/month for preserving the mangrove nursery and breeding ground functions to gain an additional metric ton of fish; 21.16 h/month for increasing biodiversity richness and abundance; 10.81 h/month for reducing shoreline erosion by 1 m over 25 years; and 0.14 h/month for gaining 100 student/researcher visits/month. The estimation of WTP for mangrove ES provides valuable insights into the awareness of local communities about the contribution of mangrove forests to ES delivery. This knowledge could assist decision-making for the management and conservation of mangroves in Mida Creek and its environs.
The concept of ecosystem services (ES) emerges as strategic to explain the influences that the ocean, and in particular coastal ecosystems, have on us and how we influence them back. Despite being a term coined several decades ago and being already wide-spread in the scientific community and among policy-makers, the ES concept still lacks recognition among citizens and educators. There is therefore a need to mainstream this concept in formal education and through Ocean Literacy resources. Although important developments in OL were done in the United States, particularly through the National Marine Educators Association (NMEA), this concept was only recently introduced in Europe. In Portugal, several informal OL education programs were developed in the last years, yet formal education on OL and, in particular, on ES is still very deficient. To address this limitation, the “Environmental Education Network for Ecosystem Services” (REASE), founded in 2017 in the Algarve region by a consortium of educational, environmental and scientific institutions, aims to increase OL through the dissemination of the perspective of how ES provided by coastal vegetation may contribute to the human well-being. The projects and activities implemented by REASE focus mostly on formal-education of school children and include: (1) capacity building for K-12 teachers, (2) educational programs to support and develop ES projects in schools, including a citizen science project to evaluate blue carbon stocks in the Algarve, (3) the publication of a children’s book about the ES provided by the local Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, with a community-based participatory design (illustrations made by schoolchildren) and (4) a diverse array of informal education activities to raise awareness on the importance of coastal ecosystems on human well-being. REASE challenges are being successfully addressed by identifying threats to local coastal ecosystems that people worry about, and highlighting solutions to improve and maintain their health.
Understanding spatial patterns of visitation and benefits accrued to different types of natural and cultural heritage tourists may have important implications for the sustainable management of their destinations. We investigate cultural services accrued to local, domestic and international visitors to the Usumacinta floodplain, a coastal region with one of the highest biological and cultural diversities in Mexico. We combine analysis of social media photographs and high-resolution land cover mapping to identify different cultural services and their association with specific ecosystem and land cover types. Hotspots for international tourists are spatially restricted to well-known and accessible sites. Locals are 2.2–2.5 times more likely than international visitors to be associated with aesthetic appreciation and birdwatching. Locals upload more photographs of coastal lagoons, mangroves, beach and sea. Results are analyzed in light of land cover changes in the region and provide valuable information to decision makers for improved tourism management and conservation strategies.
Nature-based solutions attract more and more interest due to increasing maintenance costs of grey infrastructure, increasing design conditions and growing environmental awareness. Integrating ecosystems in coastal engineering practice not only scores with societal and ecological benefits, such as biodiversity and cultural services, but also provides coastal protection services by attenuating waves and stabilizing sediments. Although nature-based solutions can already be found along many coasts around the globe, coastal engineers are still posed to challenges when evaluating, designing, implementing or maintaining nature-based solutions as guidance and in-depth investigations on efficiency, vulnerabilities and natural dynamics are often lacking. Current challenges for science and practice relate to the general requirements of nature-based solutions, the determination of fundamental data and insecurities and knowledge gaps. To overcome these challenges, close collaboration of engineers and ecologists is necessary.
The Lithuanian sea space belongs to the smallest sea areas in Europe. The sea space incorporates multiple marine ecosystem services (MES) that support human-wellbeing and sustain maritime economies, but is also subjected to intensive anthropogenic activities that can affect its vulnerable ecological components. We present a flexible geospatial methodology to assess MES richness (MESR) and to analyse areas of exposure of MES to human impacts using a MES exposure index (MESEx). Source of anthropogenic threats to MES were firstly derived from the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and include marine litter (from ports and shipping), underwater noise (from offshore pile driving and shipping) and hazardous substances (from oil extraction platforms). Results were presented for the three main planning areas in Lithuania, the Lithuanian Coastal Stripe, territorial waters and EEZ. In detail, areas of highest MESR are located in the coastal areas of the Lithuanian Mainland Coast that are particularly rich in ecosystem services such as nursery function from for Baltic Herring and cultural services related to valuable recreational resorts, landscape aesthetic values and natural heritage sites. Modelled pressure exposure on selected MES show that cultural ecosystem services in proximity of Klaipėda Port can be particularly affected by marine litter accumulation phenomena, while transboundary effects of potential oil spills from D6-Platform (Kaliningrad Region) can affect valuable fish provisioning areas and coastal cultural values in the Curonian Spit. Results were discussed for the relevance in MES assessment for marine spatial planning in small sea areas and the methodological outlook of the application of geospatial techniques on cumulative impacts assessment within this region of the Baltic Sea.
Goal 14, ‘Life Below Water’, of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals sets a target for nations to increase the number of marine protected areas managed using ecosystem-based management, which requires interventions focused on fish stock conservation and enhancement, environmental sustainability and ecosystem services of benefit to human beings. Although not adhering to the International Union for Conservation of Nature's criteria for marine protected areas, whale sanctuaries are an increasingly common approach to conservation around the world. This paper is the first in the academic literature to use a case study approach to review the extent to which whale sanctuaries contribute to ecosystem-based management. A fifteen-criteria framework for marine ecosystem-based management is applied with reference to six whale sanctuary case studies, including the International Whaling Commission's two designations in the Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean. The review underscores the generally very limited contribution of whale sanctuaries to ecosystem-based management, unless they are explicit in stating conservation goals and embedding these within iterative management plans. The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary is cited as an example of an approach that comes closest to fulfilling the objectives of ecosystem-based management, albeit its designation lacks consideration of ecosystem dynamics and the interrelationships between multiple economic actors operating within its boundaries. In order to meet the requirements of Goal 14, the case studies in this paper reveal advancements necessary for whale sanctuaries to transition towards ecosystem-based management: establishment of objectives broader than the conservation of whale stocks, assessment of the contribution of the sanctuary to human well-being and trade-offs in ecosystem services, accounting for ecological and socio-economic dynamics, and ensuring broad stakeholder consultation and participatory adaptive management.