Ecosystem Services and Uses

Expert-based ecosystem services capacity matrices: Dealing with scoring variability

Campagne CSylvie, Roche P, Gosselin F, Tschanz L, Tatoni T. Expert-based ecosystem services capacity matrices: Dealing with scoring variability. Ecological Indicators [Internet]. 2017 ;79:63 - 72. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X17301619
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Capacity matrices are widely used for assessment of ecosystems services, especially when based on participatory approaches. A capacity matrix is basically a look-up table that links land cover types to ecosystem services potentially provided. The method introduced by Burkhard et al. in 2009 has since been developed and applied in an array of case studies. Here we adress some of the criticisms on the use of capacity matrices such as expert panel size, expert confidence, and scoring variability.

Based on three case-study capacity matrices derived from expert participatory scoring, we used three different approaches to estimate the score means and standard errors: usual statistics, bootstrapping, and Bayesian models. Based on a resampling of the three capacity matrices, we show that central score stabilizes very quickly but that intersample variability shrinks after 10–15 experts while standard error of the scores continues to decrease as sample size increases. Compared to usual statistics, bootstrapping methods only reduce the estimated standard errors for small samples. The use of confidence scores expressed by experts and associated with their scores on ecosystem services does not change the mean scores but slightly increases the standard errors associated with the scores on ecosystem services. Here, computations considering the confidence scores marginally changed the final scores. Nevertheless, many participants felt it important to have a confidence score in the capacity matrix to let them express uncertainties on their own knowledge. This means that confidence scores could be considered as supplementary materials in a participatory approach but should not necessarily be used to compute final scores.

We compared usual statistics, bootstrapping and Bayesian models to estimate central scores and standard errors for a capacity matrix based on a panel of 30 experts, and found that the three methods give very similar results. This was interpreted as a consequence of having a panel size that counted twice the minimal number of experts needed. Bayesian models provided the lowest standard errors, whereas bootrapping with confidence scores provided the largest standard errors.

These conclusions prompt us to advocate when the panel size is small (less than 10 experts), to use bootstrapping to estimate final scores and their variability. If more than 15 experts are involved, the usual statistics are appropriate. Bayesian models are more complex to implement but can also provide more informative outputs to help analyze results.

Indicators of the ‘wild seafood’ provisioning ecosystem service based on the surplus production of commercial fish stocks

Piet GJ, van Overzee HMJ, Miller DCM, E. Gelabert R. Indicators of the ‘wild seafood’ provisioning ecosystem service based on the surplus production of commercial fish stocks. Ecological Indicators [Internet]. 2017 ;72:194 - 202. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X16304642
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The ‘Wild Seafood’ Provisioning Service (WSPS), on which commercial fisheries rely, is probably one of the best studied marine ecosystem services due to its economic relevance and because extensive information sources exist for assessment purposes. Yet, the indicators often proposed are not suitable to describe the capacity of the ecosystem to deliver the WSPS. Therefore this study proposes surplus production (SP), a well-established concept in fisheries science, as the basis to calculate the capacity of marine ecosystems to provide the WSPS. SP is defined as the difference between stock production (through recruitment and body growth) and losses through natural mortality. This is, therefore, the production of the stock that could be harvested sustainably without decreasing the biomass. To assess the sustainability of the exploitation of the WSPS we also developed an indicator for this based on SP and compared it to existing fisheries management indicators. When both SP-based indicators showed a decreasing trend, contrasting with an increasing trend in the existing fisheries management indicators, the calculation of the SP-based indicators was scrutinized revealing that the weighting of the stocks into an aggregated indicator, strongly determines the indicator values, even up to the point that the trend is reversed. The aggregated indicators based on SP-weighted stocks can be considered complementary to existing fisheries management indicators as the former accurately reflect the capacity of the commercial fish to provide the WSPS and the sustainability of the exploitation of this service. In contrast the existing fisheries management indicators primarily reflect the performance of management towards achieving fisheries-specific policy goals.

Assessing the value of natural capital in marine protected areas: A biophysical and trophodynamic environmental accounting model

Vassallo P, Paoli C, Buonocore E, Franzese PP, Russo GF, Povero P. Assessing the value of natural capital in marine protected areas: A biophysical and trophodynamic environmental accounting model. Ecological Modelling [Internet]. 2017 ;355:12 - 17. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304380017300984
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Changes imposed to nature by human activities and related impacts on all environmental matrices have become a critical issue. Gradually, humans began to perceive and face the magnitude of the impact of human economy on natural ecosystems and the implications for human well-being. From this perception, the concepts of natural capital and ecosystem services arose, highlighting the relationships between natural and human economy while boosting environmental conservation and management. In this framework, the definition and application of metrics and models capable of accounting for natural capital value are much needed. This is even more important when a protection regime is established (such as in the case of marine protected areas) to evaluate the efficacy of undertaken conservation measures. In this study, a biophysical and trophodynamic environmental accounting model was developed to assess the value of natural capital in marine protected areas. The model of natural capital assessment is articulated in three main steps: 1) trophodynamic analysis, providing an estimate of the primary productivity used to support the benthic trophic web within the study area, 2) biophysical accounting, providing an estimate of the biophysical value of natural capital by means of emergy accounting, and 3) monetary conversion, expressing the biophysical value of natural capital into monetary units. This conversion does not change the biophysical feature of the assessment, but instead it has the merit of allowing an easier understanding and effective communication of the ecological value of natural capital in socio-economic contexts.

Mapping ecosystem services for marine spatial planning: Recreation opportunities in Sub-Antarctic Chile

Nahuelhual L, Vergara X, Kusch A, Campos G, Droguett D. Mapping ecosystem services for marine spatial planning: Recreation opportunities in Sub-Antarctic Chile. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2017 ;81:211 - 218. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16308296
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The ecosystem services approach has increasingly emerged as a core requirement of ecosystem-based management of the marine space. In this context, explicit quantification and mapping of ecosystem services is considered key. This research proposes a methodological framework that combines Geographic Information Systems and participatory techniques to map the ecosystem service of recreation opportunities, provided by coastal and marine ecosystems. Attributes selected to represent the ecosystem service were scenic beauty, unique natural resources, accessibility, cultural sites and tourism use aptitude. High values of the indicator concentrated on areas that combined the presence of unique marine fauna (e.g. Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina), terrestrial and marine routs, and areas of high scenic beauty, associated to the presence of glaciers. These areas corresponded to the southern part of Almirantazgo Sound, the northern part of Navarino Island on the coast of the Beagle Channel, and to areas surrounding Wulaia fishermen's cove. Zones showing highest values of the indicator 81–100) comprised 0.89% of the study area and a small proportion of them coincided with areas of aptitude for aquaculture, which represents potential use conflicts, as long as aquaculture concessions remain operative. In turn, the areas of lowest values 0–20) were located offshore in open sea, and comprised 0.49% of the study area. Overall, the methodology demonstrated the capacity to identify potential recreation areas to inform regional decision making regarding marine use planning.

The Convention on Biological Diversity as a legal framework for safeguarding ecosystem services

Prip C. The Convention on Biological Diversity as a legal framework for safeguarding ecosystem services. Ecosystem Services [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041617301043
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Journal Article

Biodiversity underpins ecosystem services. The UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has adopted an ecosystem services approach as a framework for biodiversity management at the national level. Protection of ecosystem services requires far more than traditional nature conservation measures like the designation and management of protected areas. The economic sectors that affect biodiversity and ecosystem services must be involved, to address not merely the symptoms but the root causes of the degradation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Achieving coherence in policies and actions across economic sectors and the changes involved in values, decision-making and practices, requires legal approaches to ensure buy-in and accountability. Ideally, such approaches should be included in National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs), the key instrument for translating the CBD into national action. A review of 20 revised NBSAPs shows that such measures have been introduced only to a very limited extent with many countries still in the earliest stages of preparing measures to protect ecosystem services. Thus, there is a need for further research and practical guidance regarding legal approaches to ecosystem services.

An empirical analysis of cultural ecosystem values in coastal landscapes

Brown G, Hausner VHelene. An empirical analysis of cultural ecosystem values in coastal landscapes. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;142:49 - 60. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117302831
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Coastal areas are especially important to human well-being with half the world's population living within 60 km of the sea and three-quarters of all large cities located in the coastal zone. Supporting and regulatory ecosystem services in coastal areas have received considerable research attention given human vulnerability to climate change, but cultural ecosystem services in the coastal zone are less understood. This study describes and analyzes the distribution of cultural ecosystem values found in coastal areas in multiple countries (n = 5) and compares the results with non-coastal areas. Mapped cultural ecosystem values were collected from public participation GIS (PPGIS) processes in the U.S., Australia, New Zealand, Norway, and Malaysia and analyzed to identify the type and intensity of ecosystem values located in coastal areas. Mapped ecosystem values were significantly more abundant in all coastal zones, regardless of ecosystem value category, country, population, or dominant land use. Compared to cultural ecosystem values, biological and life-sustaining values were mapped less frequently in the coastal zone. Economic and social values were significantly associated with developed (built) coastal zones, while aesthetic and recreation values were more strongly associated with natural coastal zones. Coastal access, especially by road, influences the mix of perceived values from nature-based values to anthropocentric values. Coastal zones will continue to be the principle location for potential future land use conflict given their high social and cultural value relative to other ecological values. Understanding trade-offs in coastal zone planning and management requires a systematic inventory of the full range of ecosystem services, including cultural services.

How can marine ecosystem services support the Blue Growth agenda?

Lillebø AI, Pita C, J. Rodrigues G, Ramos S, Villasante S. How can marine ecosystem services support the Blue Growth agenda?. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2017 ;81:132 - 142. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16308107
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The EU Blue Growth Agenda targets maritime economic activities that have the sea and the coasts as drivers. These activities are supported by marine Ecosystem Services (ES) in combination, or not, with abiotic outputs from the marine natural capital. This paper analyses Blue Growth activities with regards to the demand and supply of marine ES and Good Environmental Status (GES). The results show that marine provisioning ES support aquaculture and blue biotechnology, while blue energy is supported by marine provisioning ES and by abiotic provisioning, and abiotic provisioning supports extraction of marine mineral resources. Maritime, coastal and cruise tourism is supported by cultural marine ES and cultural settings dependent on marine abiotic structures. All these multi-sectoral economic activities depend on healthy marine and coastal ecosystems that are provided by regulating and maintenance ES combined with the abiotic regulation and maintenance by natural marine physical structures and processes. In order to balance concurrent sectoral interests and achieve sustainable use of marine resources there is the need to consider indicators for demand for ES, which are social and economically driven, and for the supply, which are dependent on ecosystems capacity to provide the required marine ES. Some of the actions foreseeing GES are already anticipated in legislation that underpin Blue Growth, whilst others could benefit from additional regulation, particularly in what concern the exploration and exploitation of marine mineral and biological resources. Blue Growth options require navigating trade-offs between economic, social and environmental aspects.

Sustainable management of Australia’s coastal seascapes: a case for collecting and communicating quantitative evidence to inform decision-making

Wegscheidl CJ, Sheaves M, McLeod IM, Hedge PT, Gillies CL, Creighton C. Sustainable management of Australia’s coastal seascapes: a case for collecting and communicating quantitative evidence to inform decision-making. Wetlands Ecology and Management [Internet]. 2017 ;25(1):3 - 22. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11273-016-9515-x
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Australia’s developed coasts are a heavily competed space, subject to urban, industrial and agricultural development. A diversity of habitats, such as mangroves, saltmarshes and seagrasses, comprise Australia’s coastal seascape and provide numerous benefits including fish productivity, carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, coastal protection and recreation. Decision makers need to be able to weigh up the relative costs and benefits of coastal development, protection or repair and to do this they need robust, accessible and defensible data on the ecological function and economic value of Australia’s coastal seascapes. We reviewed the published literature, with a focus on saltmarsh as a vulnerable ecological community, to determine the availability of information on key ecological functions that could inform ecosystem service valuation. None of the publications we reviewed quantified nutrient cycling, coastal protection or recreation functions. Only 13 publications presented quantitative information on carbon sequestration and fish productivity. These were limited geographically, with the majority of studies on sub-tropical and temperate saltmarsh communities between south-east Queensland and Victoria. This demonstrates a lack of quantitative information needed to substantiate and communicate the value of Australia’s saltmarshes in different locations, scales and contexts. Research should focus on addressing these knowledge gaps and communicating evidence in a relevant form and context for decision-making. We discuss four principles for research funding organisations and researchers to consider when prioritising and undertaking research on key ecological functions of Australia’s saltmarshes, and coastal seascapes more broadly, to support sustainable coastal development, protection and repair for long-term economic and community benefit.

The role of interdisciplinary collaboration for stated preference methods to value marine environmental goods and ecosystem services

Börger T, Böhnke-Henrichs A, Hattam C, Piwowarczyk J, Schasfoort F, Austen MC. The role of interdisciplinary collaboration for stated preference methods to value marine environmental goods and ecosystem services. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272771417300100
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

With the increasing use of environmental valuation methods in coastal, marine and deep-sea settings, there is a growing need for the collaboration of natural scientists and environmental economists. Stated preference valuation methods in particular need to be based on sound natural science information and translate such information to be used in social surveys. This paper uses three applications to make explicit the flow of information between different disciplines in the preparation and implementation of stated preference studies. One approach for facilitating this flow is to increase knowledge and understanding of natural scientists on these methods. To address this, this paper highlights key opportunities and pitfalls and demonstrates those in the context of three case studies. It therefore provides guidance on stated preference valuation for natural scientists rather than for economists.

Assessing the sensitivity of ecosystem services to changing pressures

Hooper T, Beaumont N, Griffiths C, Langmead O, Somerfield PJ. Assessing the sensitivity of ecosystem services to changing pressures. Ecosystem Services [Internet]. 2017 ;24:160 - 169. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041616301607
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Journal Article

The ecosystem services approach is widely recognised as a concept, but more attention must be given to the development of tools to facilitate practical implementation if the approach is to become more widely used to support decision-making. A key component of natural resource management is understanding the implications of changing levels of pressures on ecosystem components, which is achieved through sensitivity assessment. This paper examines how sensitivity assessment could be applied to ecosystem services, as opposed to the underlying habitats and species, by considering the relationship between the sensitivity of a service to the sensitivity of the habitat responsible for its supply. The method is illustrated using a UK case study of supporting and regulating services provided by subtidal sedimentary habitats within the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in North Devon.

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - Ecosystem Services and Uses