Fisheries and Fisheries Management

Marine Forecasting and Fishing Safety: Improving the Fit between Forecasts and Harvester Needs

Finnis J, Shewmake JW, Neis B, Telford D. Marine Forecasting and Fishing Safety: Improving the Fit between Forecasts and Harvester Needs. Journal of Agromedicine [Internet]. 2019 :1 - 9. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1059924X.2019.1639576
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $50.00
Type: Journal Article

Objectives: Weather is a key source of marine risk, but relationships between fishing activity, safety, and weather remain poorly understood. Critically, the fit between available marine forecast products, fish harvesters’ needs, and harvester’s decision-making processes has not been rigorously assessed. This paper addresses these gaps by documenting a) weather-related decision-making by harvesters, and its relationship to forecasts across multiple regions and fisheries on Canada’s East coast (Newfoundland) and b) the dynamics of forecast production priorities.

Methods: A multi-disciplinary, community-engaged research approach, conducted in partnership with the Newfoundland and Labrador Fish Harvesting Safety Association (NL-FHSA). Data consist of semi-structured interviews with fish harvesters and weather forecasters, focused on marine forecast production and use.

Results: Results emphasize that there is a subjective “art” to both production and use of marine forecasts. Forecasters and harvesters share several common values regarding forecasts, but different emphases: forecasters favor some combination of accuracy, consistency, and utility, while harvesters are largely concerned with utility. Finally, harvesters’ decision-making is based on nuanced and contextual interpretations of a few key hazards (winds and, to a lesser extent, waves).

Conclusion: This community-engaged research has triggered experimentation with forecasts tailored to fisheries utility within Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC). It lays the groundwork for ongoing, mutually beneficial dialogue between forecasters and harvesters, engaging harvesters with the forecasting process while familiarizing forecasters with harvester’s decision-making processes. Ongoing industry partnerships (NL-FHSA) continue to sustain momentum from this study towards further enhancing the utility of future marine forecasts for small-scale harvesters.

An Interdisciplinary Insight Into the Human Dimension in Fisheries Models. A Systematic Literature Review in a European Union Context

Weber CTeresa, Borit M, Aschan M. An Interdisciplinary Insight Into the Human Dimension in Fisheries Models. A Systematic Literature Review in a European Union Context. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00369/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1040055_45_Marine_20190711_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Fisheries are complex adaptive social-ecological systems (SES) that consist of interlinked human and ecosystems. They have mainly been studied by the natural sciences and focused on the ecosystem. However, rising concerns about sustainability and increasing complexity of societal challenges often require an understanding of fisheries in a SES context. For this purpose, the study of the human system should be expanded within fisheries science. Models are currently the most common method used in the field and these need to include the human dimension, alongside the ecosystem, when addressing fisheries systems as SES. The human dimension is an umbrella term for the complex web of human processes and it is captured by disciplines from the social sciences and the humanities. Consequently, capturing and synthesizing the variety of disciplines involved in the human dimension, and integrating them into fisheries models, requires an interdisciplinary approach. This study attempts to assess the presence of the human dimension in fisheries models applied to a European Union context and to evaluate interdisciplinarity within modeled human dimension aspects through a systematic review and qualitative analysis. Within 31 modeling publications, 20 different human dimension aspects could be identified within the categories of social phenomena, social processes, and individual attributes. Most of the human dimension aspects were modeled in an interdisciplinary manner in mathematical, statistical, simulation, or conceptual models. Yet, predominantly through the use of economic and environmental variables. We conclude that there is potential for the expansion of the human dimension and interdisciplinarity in fisheries models. To reach this potential, one should consider early involvement of all relevant disciplines in the formulation of theories, identification of data, and in the model development. We provide recommendations for interdisciplinary model development, communication, and documentation to increase our understanding of fisheries as SES.

Catch Composition and Selectivity of Fishing Gears in a Multi-Species Indonesian Coral Reef Fishery

Humphries AT, Gorospe KD, Carvalho PG, Yulianto I, Kartawijaya T, Campbell SJ. Catch Composition and Selectivity of Fishing Gears in a Multi-Species Indonesian Coral Reef Fishery. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00378/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1040055_45_Marine_20190711_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

There are millions of small-scale fishers worldwide that rely on coral reefs for their livelihood. Yields from many of these coral reef fisheries, however, have been declining. In Indonesia and other coral reefs worldwide, management approaches are dominated by marine protected areas but other options including gear-restrictions may be feasible and more adaptive to local ecological and social conditions. Yet, there is little data on the impacts and selectivity of fishing gears for coral reef fisheries. In this paper, we present results from a case study on the island of Lombok, where we examine the selectivity and overlap in catch composition of the two main fishing gear types: spearguns and handlines. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) was greater in handlines than spearguns, 10.8 and 9.97 kg trip-1, respectively. The two gears targeted different fish communities with little overlap in dominant species, suggesting a partitioning of resources; handlines targeted piscivores, whereas spearguns targeted mostly herbivores. Mean trophic level was 3.6 for the handline catch and 2.8 for spearguns, where it was inversely related to CPUE. Spearguns captured more species overall and the number of species increased as the CPUE increased. Length parameters of maturity indicated that neither gear showed signs of (growth) overfishing and fishing grounds dominated by speargun fishers had catches associated with younger ages at first maturity than handlines. Our findings provide local baseline data on the potential utility of gear restrictions as a management tool. Specifically, managers could monitor reefs and reduce handlines when piscivorous fishes are low and on spearguns when species diversity is low or algal abundance is high. Should it become more desirable to implement ecosystem approaches to management that are adaptive to changing ecological and social conditions, these indicators may be used as starting points along with local management preferences of fishers.

Modelling long-term fisheries data to resolve the attraction versus production dilemma of artificial reefs

Roa-Ureta RH, Santos MN, Leitão F. Modelling long-term fisheries data to resolve the attraction versus production dilemma of artificial reefs. Ecological Modelling [Internet]. 2019 ;407:108727. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304380019302273?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The main role of artificial reefs (ARs) is to enhance the productivity and sustainability of coastal fisheries by creating new fish biomass. From a modelling point of view, the creation of new fish biomass would be realized by a shift to a state of higher carrying capacity of the environment (K) for aquatic populations and communities. However, it has not been possible to demonstrate unequivocally rising K as a result of AR deployment because of the difficulty in disentangling enhancements due to simple distributional changes (the attraction hypothesis) versus total abundance rise (the production hypothesis). Here we develop a modelling framework based on simple, inexpensive fisheries data to quantify the impact of ARs, disentangling attraction from production by assessing the rise in regional K. The rationale is that if attraction to ARs from the wider region was the main driver of increased abundance in the ARs then regional K would have remained constant before, during and after deployment of the ARs. Therefore an increase in regional K disproves the hypothesis of attraction. The study case is the fishery for the two-banded seabream Diplodus vulgaris in southern Portugal. Monthly time series of 27 years of landings, 20 years of fishing effort, were available from three small-scale fleets: one was the artisanal fleet operating on the ARs and the other two were semi-industrial fleets operating on the wider continental shelf. The model that we developed and applied incorporated the data from all fleets so it evaluated the change in regional K. We show that regional K for D. vulgaris increased by 35% after final deployment of the ARs and it did so in linear fashion during four years. From a fisheries perspective the result was more nuanced because although the deployment succeeded in raising regional K, stock biomass and thereby enhancing the artisanal fishery, it also led to a substantial rise in total fishing mortality and exploitation rate because the semi-industrial fleets operating offshore increased their harvest rate nearly 3-fold. Our modelling framework has wide applicability in other regions due to the elementary nature of the necessary fishing monitoring data.

Anthropogenic impacts in the nearshore fish community of the Yucatan Coastal Corridor. A comparison of protected and unprotected areas

Palacios-Sánchez SE, Vega-Cendejas ME, Hernández-de-Santillana JM, Aguilar-Medrano R. Anthropogenic impacts in the nearshore fish community of the Yucatan Coastal Corridor. A comparison of protected and unprotected areas. Journal for Nature Conservation [Internet]. In Press :125721. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1617138119300329
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

The establishment of protected areas is one of the few management tools available to combat the deleterious effect of anthropogenic impacts, however, studies of the fish community in both protected and disturbed environments are needed as evidence of the effectiveness of those protected areas. This study aims to characterize, evaluate, and compare the environment and fish community, through 24 localities in the Yucatan Coastal Corridor, within the Reserve El Palmar (REP) and the unprotected Yucatan coastal region (UYCR). During three years, physicochemical variables and community descriptors (diversity, abundance, and evenness) were calculated for each site. The 94 fish species registered were grouped in five trophic groups (TGs), the most abundant and conspicuous are the zoobenthos, zooplankton, and nekton feeders, while omnivorous and herbivorous are scarce. To determine the anthropogenic impacts, the population size, main activities, and infrastructure of each site were considered, resulting in four categories of disturbance: (WI) without impact, inside the REP; (LI) low impact; (MI) medium impact; and (HI) high impact, within the UYCR. Multivariate analyses combining physicochemical variables, community descriptors, and TGs by impact category segregated two groups, WI-LI, with high values of salinity, fish abundance, diversity of fish and TGs, and low values of nitrites, nitrates, and ammonia, from MI-HI with the contrary characteristics. In -conclusion, 1) the protection of the REP is helping to maintain high fish diversity and abundance within and around the area, 2) the anthropogenic activities constrain the fish diversity and abundance, and 3) nitrates, nitrites, and ammonia are important variables in the determination of the ecosystem health.

Effective co-management and long-term reef fish recovery from severe coral bleaching: Insights from Misali Island, PECCA, Tanzania

Jones ST, Levine A, Jiddawi NS. Effective co-management and long-term reef fish recovery from severe coral bleaching: Insights from Misali Island, PECCA, Tanzania. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2019 ;178:104843. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569118310251?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Misali, an uninhabited islet along the east coast of Pemba Island off the mainland Tanzanian coast, is a biodiversity hotspot and Marine Protected Area (MPA), consisting of a core non-extraction zone (NEZ) surrounded by a larger area where some artisanal fishing is allowed. Within a year of receiving official protection under a co-management agreement, the island underwent a catastrophic bleaching event in 1998, and funding and enforcement in the protected area have been inconsistent since a restructuring of management in 2006. In this study, we investigate current health of the island's fish community, and report 186 observed fish species. We estimate that, including unseen species and those outside the study area, the total species richness may be comparable to the historical baseline of 244 species; however, this represents a decline from the 270 species estimated in 2001 and the 350 species observed in 2004, after several years of successful protections. Patterns of species richness over time likely reflect changes in management effectiveness and engagement of Misali's fishing communities. Diversity of indicator (Chaetodontidae) and keystone (Scarinae) taxa were comparable to historical levels and greatest inside the NEZ, suggesting continued reef health and resilience. However, we found no other significant differences between fish communities inside and outside the NEZ, which observations indicate is poorly enforced, and the disproportionate loss of large predatory fish species may indicate overfishing. The case study of Misali suggests that a temporary reduction in fishing pressure while the island was recovering from a severe bleaching event may have had long-lasting benefits for reef health and resilience. For future management, we recommend consideration of species-specific protections, a possible re-designation of NEZ boundaries to include more unique habitat types, and reintegration of local fishing communities into MPA co-management.

Ecosystem-based reference points under varying plankton productivity states and fisheries management strategies

Guo C, Fu C, Forrest RE, Olsen N, Liu H, Verley P, Shin Y-J. Ecosystem-based reference points under varying plankton productivity states and fisheries management strategies Link J. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/advance-article/doi/10.1093/icesjms/fsz120/5525266
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In the context of ecosystem-based fisheries management, which should consider changing and uncertain environmental conditions, the development of ecosystem-based biological reference points (EBRPs) to account for important multi-species (MS) interactions, fishery operations, and climate change, is of paramount importance for sustainable fisheries management. However, EBRPs under varying plankton productivity states and fisheries management strategies are seldom developed, and the ecosystem effects of these changes are still largely unknown. In this study, ecosystem-based FMSY(fishing mortality rate at MSY) values were estimated within an end-to-end ecosystem model (OSMOSE) for three focused fish species (Pacific Herring, Clupea pallasii; Pacific Cod, Gadus macrocephalus; Lingcod, Ophiodon elongatus) under three plankton productivity states of differing plankton biomass at high, current, and low levels. In addition, ecosystem effects were compared across different plankton productivity and fisheries management strategies with the latter consisting of two fishery scenarios (i.e. single-species-focused (SS) and MS-focused), various fishing mortality rates, and two harvest policies (with and without harvest control rules, HCRs). Main findings of this study include: (i) plankton productivity change affected the values of ecosystem-based FMSY, which increased as plankton productivity states changed from low to high plankton biomass; (ii) ecosystem-based FMSY for Pacific Herring and Pacific Cod stocks increased when fishery scenarios shifted from SS-focused to MS-focused; (iii) fisheries management incorporating HCR yielded more stable system catch and system biomass; and (iv) high plankton biomass combined with fisheries management using HCR could maintain stable ecosystem production and sustainable fisheries. Based on our findings, we highlight possible adaptive fisheries management strategies in the face of future climate and ocean changes. Overall, EBRPs complement SS stock assessments by incorporating key ecological processes and ecosystem properties, thus providing supporting evidence for better incorporation of ecosystem considerations into scientific advice for sustainable fisheries management.

Historical changes (1905-present) in catch size and composition reflect altering fisheries practices on a small Caribbean island

Vermeij MJA, Latijnhouwers KRW, Dilrosun F, Chamberland VF, Dubé CE, Van Buurt G, Debrot AO. Historical changes (1905-present) in catch size and composition reflect altering fisheries practices on a small Caribbean island Patterson HM. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(6):e0217589. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0217589
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Effective assessments of the status of Caribbean fish communities require historical baselines to adequately understand how much fish communities have changed through time. To identify such changes and their causes, we compiled a historical overview using data collected at the beginning (1905–1908), middle (1958–1965) and end (1984–2016) of the 20th century, of the artisanal fishing practices and their effects on fish populations around Curaçao, a small island in the southern Caribbean. We documented historical trends in total catch, species composition, and catch sizes per fisher per month for different types of fisheries and related these to technological and environmental changes affecting the island’s fisheries and fish communities. We found that since 1905, fishers targeted species increasingly farther from shore after species occurring closer to shore had become rare. This resulted in surprisingly similar catches in terms of weight, but not composition. Large predatory reef fishes living close to shore (e.g., large Epinephelid species) had virtually disappeared from catches around the mid-20th century, questioning the use of data from this period as baseline data for modern day fish assessments. Secondly, we compared fish landings to in-situ counts from 1969 to estimate the relative contributions of habitat destruction and overfishing to the changes in fish abundance around Curaçao. The decline in coral dominated reef communities corresponded to a concurrent decrease in the abundance and diversity of smaller reef fish species not targeted by fishers, suggesting habitat loss, in addition to fishing, caused the observed declines in reef fish abundance around Curaçao.

Catch Uncertainty and Reward Schemes in a Commons Dilemma: An Experimental Study

Hopfensitz A, Mantilla C, Miquel-Florensa J. Catch Uncertainty and Reward Schemes in a Commons Dilemma: An Experimental Study. Environmental and Resource Economics [Internet]. 2019 ;72(4):1121 - 1153. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10640-018-0241-0
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

We design and conduct a laboratory experiment with students and a field experiment with fishermen to test how catch uncertainty and reward schemes affect extraction in an open access fishery. We find that uncertainty in the relationship between effort and catch increases extraction effort and accelerates resource depletion. Importantly, participants increase their extraction after a disadvantageous shock, but do not react to advantageous shocks. One possible explanation of this phenomenon is a self-serving bias. Price-responsive demand, relative to a fixed price setting, decreases extraction effort and increases efficiency. Price-responsive demand has a greater effect on students than on fishermen living inside a marine protected area, but fishermen outside this restricted area are very responsive to conditional pricing.

Relative Impacts of Simultaneous Stressors on a Pelagic Marine Ecosystem

Woodworth-Jefcoats PA, Blanchard JL, Drazen JC. Relative Impacts of Simultaneous Stressors on a Pelagic Marine Ecosystem. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00383/full?utm_source=F-NTF&utm_medium=EMLX&utm_campaign=PRD_FEOPS_20170000_ARTICLE
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Climate change and fishing are two of the greatest anthropogenic stressors on marine ecosystems. We investigate the effects of these stressors on Hawaii’s deep-set longline fishery for bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and the ecosystem which supports it using a size-based food web model that incorporates individual species and captures the metabolic effects of rising ocean temperatures. We find that when fishing and climate change are examined individually, fishing is the greater stressor. This suggests that proactive fisheries management could be a particularly effective tool for mitigating anthropogenic stressors either by balancing or outweighing climate effects. However, modeling these stressors jointly shows that even large management changes cannot completely offset climate effects. Our results suggest that a decline in Hawaii’s longline fishery yield may be inevitable. The effect of climate change on the ecosystem depends primarily upon the intensity of fishing mortality. Management measures which take this into account can both minimize fishery decline and support at least some level of ecosystem resilience.

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