Governance and Legal Frameworks

Boundary spanning among research and policy communities to address the emerging industrial revolution in the ocean

Posner SM, Fenichel EP, McCauley DJ, Biedenweg K, Brumbaugh RD, Costello C, Joyce FH, Goldman E, Mannix H. Boundary spanning among research and policy communities to address the emerging industrial revolution in the ocean. Environmental Science & Policy [Internet]. 2020 ;104:73 - 81. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S146290111930735X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Boundary spanning – the practice of facilitating knowledge exchange to address complex sustainability challenges – has the potential to align research and policymaking and increase the uptake of research in decision making. But the goals, methods, and outcomes of boundary-spanning activities in the environment sector can be difficult to describe, missing an opportunity to share lessons learned and improve as a community of practice. This paper describes boundary-spanning activities to integrate research about environmental sustainability with federal ocean policy dialogues in the U.S. We describe the process of organizing, facilitating, and learning from a series of meetings in which five interdisciplinary researchers engaged with federal ocean policy audiences. While the longer-term impacts of the activities associated with these meetings are subtle and remain difficult to detect, more immediate outcomes are observable. These include new professional relationships among researchers and policy staff, reported relevance of the research to general policy discourse, and a narrative that frames the opportunity for policymakers to learn from past industrialization on land as they manage an emerging industrial revolution in the ocean. By presenting the process and outcomes of our boundary-spanning activities, we aim to stimulate timely debate within ocean policy, management, and research communities about the importance of multiple benefits provided by healthy and intact ocean ecosystems and how to protect them in the face of the expanding industrialization of the ocean.

Building local support for a coastal protected area: Collaborative governance in the Bigi Pan Multiple Use Management Area of Suriname

Djosetro M, Behagel JHendrik. Building local support for a coastal protected area: Collaborative governance in the Bigi Pan Multiple Use Management Area of Suriname. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2020 ;112:103746. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18306286
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Bigi Pan Multiple Use Management Area (MUMA, IUCN category VI) is a coastal protected area situated in the Northwest Suriname between the Atlantic Ocean and the Nickerie River. The area is characterized by wetlands with mangrove forests, contains high biodiversity, and is of socio-economic, ecological and ornithological importance. However, the MUMA is overexploited and subject to competition between various income generating activities, including uncontrolled fisheries and unregulated tourism combined. Insufficient capacity of government agencies for enforcement and policy implementation and lack of communication between relevant government agencies has further contributed to unsustainable practices that diverge from ‘wise use’ and conservation. This article analyses the case of Bigi Pan MUMA from the perspective of collaborative governance. It explores how local communities address the conflicts, user pressure, and implementation gaps that lead to unsustainable practices in Bigi Pan MUMA. In addition, it explores the potential of stakeholder engagement with the local community and key user groups to provide meaningful and regular opportunities to actively participate in decision-making structures and to deliberate on management actions. The conclusion finally presents arguments on how collaborative governance can become more effective by including local communities and by strengthening local decision-making and management.

A Roadmap for Using the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development in Support of Science, Policy, and Action

Claudet J, Bopp L, Cheung WWL, Devillers R, Escobar-Briones E, Haugan P, Heymans JJ, Masson-Delmotte V, Matz-Lück N, Miloslavich P, et al. A Roadmap for Using the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development in Support of Science, Policy, and Action. One Earth [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590332219300934
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The health of the ocean, central to human well-being, has now reached a critical point. Most fish stocks are overexploited, climate change and increased dissolved carbon dioxide are changing ocean chemistry and disrupting species throughout food webs, and the fundamental capacity of the ocean to regulate the climate has been altered. However, key technical, organizational, and conceptual scientific barriers have prevented the identification of policy levers for sustainability and transformative action. Here, we recommend key strategies to address these challenges, including (1) stronger integration of sciences and (2) ocean-observing systems, (3) improved science-policy interfaces, (4) new partnerships supported by (5) a new ocean-climate finance system, and (6) improved ocean literacy and education to modify social norms and behaviors. Adopting these strategies could help establish ocean science as a key foundation of broader sustainability transformations.

Inclusive environmental performance through ‘beyond-farm’ aquaculture governance

Bush SR, Oosterveer P, Bottema M, Meuwissen M, de Mey Y, Chamsai S, Lien HHong, Chadag M. Inclusive environmental performance through ‘beyond-farm’ aquaculture governance. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability [Internet]. 2019 ;41:49 - 55. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877343519300247
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This paper examines the potential for improved environmental performance of smallholder aquaculture production through ‘beyond-farm’ governance. Smallholder aquaculture farmers face a range of systemic environmental risks related to disease and water quality that extend beyond the boundary of their farms. Yet most governance arrangements aimed at mitigating risks, such as certification, finance and insurance, are focused on the farm-level rather than the wider landscape within which farming takes place. In this paper we propose an integrated approach to area-based management of aquaculture risks that integrates collective action, risk assurance and transfer, and inclusive value chains. In doing so, we set a new research agenda for the integrated governance of mitigating production risks and producer vulnerability in global food production.

The game mechanism of stakeholders in comprehensive marine environmental governance

Jiang D, Chen Z, McNeil L, Dai G. The game mechanism of stakeholders in comprehensive marine environmental governance. Marine Policy [Internet]. In Press :103728. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18309485
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

In the process of marine resource development and marine environmental protection, the government supervises the production behavior of enterprises; enterprises accept government supervision; and non-profit organizations supervise the process. On this basis, a conceptual model of the relationship between government, enterprises, and non-profit organizations is established, and the internal mechanism governing their interactions is analyzed. Using game theory, a simulation model of government, enterprises, and non-profit organizations is constructed, and a Nash equilibrium solution and strategy selection analysis are carried out. The correlation between the game participants and strategy selection is simulated and analyzed with MATLAB 7 software. Lastly, relevant countermeasures and suggestions are put forward to engender effective supervision by government departments, continuous environmental development and effective environmental protection of enterprises, and effective supervision by non-profit organizations. Studying the regulatory strategies of the government, enterprises, and non-profit organizations can provide a foundation for marine resource development and marine environmental protection policy in accordance with the current situation.

The role of coral triangle initiative on coral reefs, fisheries, and food securities in Indonesia’s environmental conservation

Linggi PP, Burhanuddin A. The role of coral triangle initiative on coral reefs, fisheries, and food securities in Indonesia’s environmental conservation. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2019 ;343:012092. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/343/1/012092/meta
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This study aims to assess the role of CTI-CFF in handling marine ecosystem problems that include coral reef conservation, fisheries, and food security in Indonesia. To achieve the objective, the research method used is a qualitative study using library research data collection techniques. The result of this study indicates that the role of CTI-CFF in environmental conservation in Indonesia can be divided into three aspects of CFF itself namely on coral reefs, fisheries and food security. A number of conservation efforts have been carried out with the implementation of national action plan and have significant impacts on the sustainability of society and the environment. On coral reefs issues, CTI-CFF runs particular programs namely CTI-COREMAP and Marine Protected Areas (MPA). On fisheries issues, CTI-CFF has a particular program called Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAFM). CTI-CFF in Indonesia plays an important role in implementing the strategic steps of the regional action plan which is later adopted into the national plan of actions. These plans are used as a parameter of the involvement of the CTI-CFF in efforts to save marine ecosystems in Indonesia.

Addressing the tangled web of governance mechanisms for land-sea interactions: Assessing implementation challenges across scales

O'Hagan AMarie, Paterson S, Le Tissier M. Addressing the tangled web of governance mechanisms for land-sea interactions: Assessing implementation challenges across scales. Marine Policy [Internet]. In Press :103715. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18309163
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The coastal zone is a locus where many activities of society intersect with natural processes that shape the coastal zone and the resource base available. In the EU, regional legislation exists to specifically manage the coastal and inshore marine space and resources (e.g. Marine Strategy Framework Directive) whilst policy areas such as land-use planning, property rights and key aspects of consenting processes remain under the authority of Member States. Interactions exist between these different policy drivers at multiple scales, but the overall landscape is characterised by tensions or weak links between drivers originating from the EU and national priorities leading to a complex, non-linear and confusing policyscape. This paper reviews how legislation, and implementing organisations, in Ireland have evolved in the context of EU environmental perspectives that have progressed from conservation-centric to addressing modern day challenges such as regional development for Blue Growth and aspirations of international agreements (e.g. Convention on Biological Diversity, UN Agenda 2030). Through an analysis employing principles of Evolutionary Governance Theory, the way different governance institutions have co-evolved to understand how dependencies between current actors and objectives influence each other is examined. The study explores appropriate governance approaches to land-sea interactions utilising examples from implementation of the EU Maritime Spatial Planning Directive in selected EU Member States, and how they take land-sea interactions into account. This is contrasted with examples from other EU legislation and policies such as those relating to river basin management, the marine environment, and integrated coastal management. The paper concludes with tentative recommendations on how policies addressing land-sea interactions need to evolve to better deliver on global policy drivers.

Taiwan's progress towards becoming an ocean country

Shih Y-C. Taiwan's progress towards becoming an ocean country. Marine Policy [Internet]. In Press :103725. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19302180
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The Ocean Affairs Council (OAC) is a central administrative agency under the Executive Yuan (cabinet) that was established by the government on April 28, 2018, in southern Taiwan. Taiwan has accomplished several important breakthroughs in ocean affairs and governance aiming to integrate and coordinate all ocean-related affairs through the establishment of the OAC. The OAC includes three agencies: the Coast Guard Administration (CGA), the Ocean Conservation Administration (OCA) and the National Academy of Marine Research (NAMR). Establishing the OAC allows Taiwan's government to focus more attention on ocean affairs, ocean governance and ocean countries. In addition, Taiwan now has its own specific marine agency and the capacity to establish future marine policy, maritime security, coastal management, marine resource conservation and sustainable development, marine science and technology research, and marine cultural and educational policy. Academics and legislators have worked with the Legislative Yuan for more than 20 years before the four ocean affairs-related organization acts were passed in 2015. However, the Legislative Yuan's proposal was suspended in 2016, and its unveiling ceremony was not held until April 2018. This paper seeks to introduce the missions of the OAC, CGA, OCA, and NAMR to provide a full overview of the new accomplishments and legal measures in the implementation of a national marine policy in Taiwan. Moreover, experiences will be shared with readers to provide an understanding of the reasons behind establishing Taiwan as an ocean country, and Taiwan's organizational blueprint will be outlined. Finally, we provide a reference for those who want to establish an ocean management agency.

Non-state legal systems and their role in governance of small-scale marine fisheries along the south west coast of India

Baiju KK, Parappurathu S, Ramachandran C, Kaleekal T. Non-state legal systems and their role in governance of small-scale marine fisheries along the south west coast of India. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. In Press :105020. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0964569119305460
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Highlights

• Non-state community actors play a proactive role in discharging the fishery management functions.

• The fishers in South Kerala, India make collective decisions through a Church-mediated community fishery management system.

• Kadakkody, a non-state system prevalent in North Kerala serves several parallel legal functions within the fishing community.

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - Governance and Legal Frameworks