Governance and Legal Frameworks

The Law of the Seabed

Banet C ed. The Law of the Seabed. Brill | Nijhoff; 2020. Available from: https://brill.com/view/title/54208
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book

The Law of the Seabed reviews the most pressing legal questions raised by the use and protection of natural resources on and underneath the world’s seabeds.

While barely accessible, the seabed plays a major role in the Earth’s ecological balance. It is both a medium and a resource, and is central to the blue economy. New uses and new knowledge about seabed ecosystems, and the risks of disputes due to competing interests, urge reflection on which regulatory approaches to pursue.

The regulation of ocean activities is essentially sector-based, and the book puts in parallel the international and national regimes for seabed mining, oil and gas, energy generation, bottom fisheries, marine genetic resources, carbon sequestration and maritime security operations, both within and beyond the national jurisdiction.

The book contains seven parts respectively addressing the definition of the seabed from a multidisciplinary perspective, the principles of jurisdiction delimitation under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the regimes for use of non-living, living and marine biodiversity resources, the role of state and non-state actors, the laying and removal of installations, the principles for sustainable and equitable use (common heritage of mankind, precaution, benefit sharing), and management tools to ensure coexistence between activities as well as the protection of the marine environment.

Geopolitical Implication on Contested Waters; Comparison Between Indonesia and the Philippines Strategy to Overlapping South China Sea Waters

Pramono WTyas, Darmawan A, Deffinika I, Soelistijo D. Geopolitical Implication on Contested Waters; Comparison Between Indonesia and the Philippines Strategy to Overlapping South China Sea Waters. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;412:012034. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/412/1/012034
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Both Indonesia and the Philippines are located in the same region of Southeast Asia. These countries are facing significant threat related to nation's sovereignty due to overlapping waters to the biggest claimant of PRC (People's Republic of China) by using Nine-dash line claim. After some failure agreements between region organization of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) through DOC (Declaration on the Conduct) in 2002, several strategies are undertaking in soft politics, renaming several portions of waters under political reasons. West Philippines Sea has been used by the Philippines to enhance sense of belonging and nationalism, meanwhile in Indonesia even though was not active claimant in South China Sea conflict, strategies done quietly recent in 2017 by using North Natuna Sea terms to call Indonesian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in northern part of Natuna Island which overlapped to China's claim. Descriptive method through literature study have been used in this research to answer research questions. Some findings in research were even though renaming areas are close related to the political reasons, these actions could uplift capacity in terms of national marine protection, yet Chinese marine surveillance not automatically disappear after renaming those areas respectively. Unending confrontation could hamper bilateral negotiation in the region, meanwhile environmental degradation related to coral ecosystem remain high.

Is the Whole Greater than the Sum of its Parts? Strengthening Caribbean Regional Integration

Hassan AAl, Burfisher M, Chow JTS, Ding D, Di Vittorio F, Kovtun D, McIntyre A, Ötker I, Santoro M, Shui L, et al. Is the Whole Greater than the Sum of its Parts? Strengthening Caribbean Regional Integration. International Monetary Fund; 2020.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Deeper economic integration within the Caribbean has been a regional policy priority since the establishment of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the decision to create the Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME). Implementation of integration initiatives has, however, been slow, despite the stated commitment of political leaders. The “implementation deficit” has led to skepticism about completing the CSME and controversy regarding its benefits. This paper analyzes how Caribbean integration has evolved, discusses the obstacles to progress, and explores the potential benefits from greater integration. It argues that further economic integration through liberalization of trade and labor mobility can generate significant macroeconomic benefits, but slow progress in completing the institutional arrangements has hindered implementation of the essential components of the CSME and progress in economic integration. Advancing institutional integration through harmonization and rationalization of key institutions and processes can reduce the fixed costs of institutions, providing the needed scale and boost to regional integration. Greater cooperation in several functional policy areas where the region is facing common challenges can also provide low-hanging fruit, creating momentum toward full integration as the Community continues to address the obstacles to full economic integration.

Boundary spanning among research and policy communities to address the emerging industrial revolution in the ocean

Posner SM, Fenichel EP, McCauley DJ, Biedenweg K, Brumbaugh RD, Costello C, Joyce FH, Goldman E, Mannix H. Boundary spanning among research and policy communities to address the emerging industrial revolution in the ocean. Environmental Science & Policy [Internet]. 2020 ;104:73 - 81. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S146290111930735X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Boundary spanning – the practice of facilitating knowledge exchange to address complex sustainability challenges – has the potential to align research and policymaking and increase the uptake of research in decision making. But the goals, methods, and outcomes of boundary-spanning activities in the environment sector can be difficult to describe, missing an opportunity to share lessons learned and improve as a community of practice. This paper describes boundary-spanning activities to integrate research about environmental sustainability with federal ocean policy dialogues in the U.S. We describe the process of organizing, facilitating, and learning from a series of meetings in which five interdisciplinary researchers engaged with federal ocean policy audiences. While the longer-term impacts of the activities associated with these meetings are subtle and remain difficult to detect, more immediate outcomes are observable. These include new professional relationships among researchers and policy staff, reported relevance of the research to general policy discourse, and a narrative that frames the opportunity for policymakers to learn from past industrialization on land as they manage an emerging industrial revolution in the ocean. By presenting the process and outcomes of our boundary-spanning activities, we aim to stimulate timely debate within ocean policy, management, and research communities about the importance of multiple benefits provided by healthy and intact ocean ecosystems and how to protect them in the face of the expanding industrialization of the ocean.

Building local support for a coastal protected area: Collaborative governance in the Bigi Pan Multiple Use Management Area of Suriname

Djosetro M, Behagel JHendrik. Building local support for a coastal protected area: Collaborative governance in the Bigi Pan Multiple Use Management Area of Suriname. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2020 ;112:103746. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18306286
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Bigi Pan Multiple Use Management Area (MUMA, IUCN category VI) is a coastal protected area situated in the Northwest Suriname between the Atlantic Ocean and the Nickerie River. The area is characterized by wetlands with mangrove forests, contains high biodiversity, and is of socio-economic, ecological and ornithological importance. However, the MUMA is overexploited and subject to competition between various income generating activities, including uncontrolled fisheries and unregulated tourism combined. Insufficient capacity of government agencies for enforcement and policy implementation and lack of communication between relevant government agencies has further contributed to unsustainable practices that diverge from ‘wise use’ and conservation. This article analyses the case of Bigi Pan MUMA from the perspective of collaborative governance. It explores how local communities address the conflicts, user pressure, and implementation gaps that lead to unsustainable practices in Bigi Pan MUMA. In addition, it explores the potential of stakeholder engagement with the local community and key user groups to provide meaningful and regular opportunities to actively participate in decision-making structures and to deliberate on management actions. The conclusion finally presents arguments on how collaborative governance can become more effective by including local communities and by strengthening local decision-making and management.

A Roadmap for Using the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development in Support of Science, Policy, and Action

Claudet J, Bopp L, Cheung WWL, Devillers R, Escobar-Briones E, Haugan P, Heymans JJ, Masson-Delmotte V, Matz-Lück N, Miloslavich P, et al. A Roadmap for Using the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development in Support of Science, Policy, and Action. One Earth [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590332219300934
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The health of the ocean, central to human well-being, has now reached a critical point. Most fish stocks are overexploited, climate change and increased dissolved carbon dioxide are changing ocean chemistry and disrupting species throughout food webs, and the fundamental capacity of the ocean to regulate the climate has been altered. However, key technical, organizational, and conceptual scientific barriers have prevented the identification of policy levers for sustainability and transformative action. Here, we recommend key strategies to address these challenges, including (1) stronger integration of sciences and (2) ocean-observing systems, (3) improved science-policy interfaces, (4) new partnerships supported by (5) a new ocean-climate finance system, and (6) improved ocean literacy and education to modify social norms and behaviors. Adopting these strategies could help establish ocean science as a key foundation of broader sustainability transformations.

Inclusive environmental performance through ‘beyond-farm’ aquaculture governance

Bush SR, Oosterveer P, Bottema M, Meuwissen M, de Mey Y, Chamsai S, Lien HHong, Chadag M. Inclusive environmental performance through ‘beyond-farm’ aquaculture governance. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability [Internet]. 2019 ;41:49 - 55. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877343519300247
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This paper examines the potential for improved environmental performance of smallholder aquaculture production through ‘beyond-farm’ governance. Smallholder aquaculture farmers face a range of systemic environmental risks related to disease and water quality that extend beyond the boundary of their farms. Yet most governance arrangements aimed at mitigating risks, such as certification, finance and insurance, are focused on the farm-level rather than the wider landscape within which farming takes place. In this paper we propose an integrated approach to area-based management of aquaculture risks that integrates collective action, risk assurance and transfer, and inclusive value chains. In doing so, we set a new research agenda for the integrated governance of mitigating production risks and producer vulnerability in global food production.

The game mechanism of stakeholders in comprehensive marine environmental governance

Jiang D, Chen Z, McNeil L, Dai G. The game mechanism of stakeholders in comprehensive marine environmental governance. Marine Policy [Internet]. In Press :103728. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18309485
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

In the process of marine resource development and marine environmental protection, the government supervises the production behavior of enterprises; enterprises accept government supervision; and non-profit organizations supervise the process. On this basis, a conceptual model of the relationship between government, enterprises, and non-profit organizations is established, and the internal mechanism governing their interactions is analyzed. Using game theory, a simulation model of government, enterprises, and non-profit organizations is constructed, and a Nash equilibrium solution and strategy selection analysis are carried out. The correlation between the game participants and strategy selection is simulated and analyzed with MATLAB 7 software. Lastly, relevant countermeasures and suggestions are put forward to engender effective supervision by government departments, continuous environmental development and effective environmental protection of enterprises, and effective supervision by non-profit organizations. Studying the regulatory strategies of the government, enterprises, and non-profit organizations can provide a foundation for marine resource development and marine environmental protection policy in accordance with the current situation.

The role of coral triangle initiative on coral reefs, fisheries, and food securities in Indonesia’s environmental conservation

Linggi PP, Burhanuddin A. The role of coral triangle initiative on coral reefs, fisheries, and food securities in Indonesia’s environmental conservation. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2019 ;343:012092. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/343/1/012092/meta
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This study aims to assess the role of CTI-CFF in handling marine ecosystem problems that include coral reef conservation, fisheries, and food security in Indonesia. To achieve the objective, the research method used is a qualitative study using library research data collection techniques. The result of this study indicates that the role of CTI-CFF in environmental conservation in Indonesia can be divided into three aspects of CFF itself namely on coral reefs, fisheries and food security. A number of conservation efforts have been carried out with the implementation of national action plan and have significant impacts on the sustainability of society and the environment. On coral reefs issues, CTI-CFF runs particular programs namely CTI-COREMAP and Marine Protected Areas (MPA). On fisheries issues, CTI-CFF has a particular program called Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAFM). CTI-CFF in Indonesia plays an important role in implementing the strategic steps of the regional action plan which is later adopted into the national plan of actions. These plans are used as a parameter of the involvement of the CTI-CFF in efforts to save marine ecosystems in Indonesia.

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