This article analyses the legal adaptive capacity for increasing sustainable fish aquaculture production in EU-Finland. Currently, fish aquaculture is driven by increasing global demand of fish, declining natural fisheries, food security and blue growth policies. At the same time, environmental policies such as the EU Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive set tightening legal-ecological requirements for the industry's nutrient emissions. Against this background, the success of blue growth policies related to aquaculture – and the hope of reconciling competing interests at sea – boil down to measures available for dealing with excess nutrients. In line with the mitigation hierarchy, the article establishes four alternative pathways for the fish aquaculture industry to grow without increasing its environmental nutrient footprint significantly, and evaluates the legal adaptive capacity and the legal risks attached to these pathways.
Governance and Legal Frameworks
As 2020 approaches, countries are accelerating their commitments to protect 10% of the ocean by establishing and expanding marine protected areas (MPAs) and other area-based protections. Since it began in 2014, the Our Ocean Conference (OOC) has become a high-profile platform to announce ocean commitments. To evaluate the impact of these promises, this analysis asked: (1) What are the MPA commitments? (2) Who is making them? (3) Have these announcements been followed by action? and (4) Have they contributed significantly to ocean protection? A systematic review of the 143 MPA announcements made at the four OOCs between 2014 and 2017 (and the 202 individual actions they encompassed) concluded that the numbers and sectors of announcers, as well as the types of actions, increased over time. Fifty-two countries and 52 other organizations made OOC commitments, 46% of which have been completed and 56% of which are still incomplete. Thirteen countries and 17 organizations have completed all of their actions. All organizations and 48 out of 52 countries have made some progress on their actions, but no evidence of progress could be found for actions from four countries. OOC announcements have promised to protect 3.4% of the ocean (12,279,931 km2). To date, 43% of that promised area has been implemented, with another 57% yet to be implemented. Based on these findings, a number of actions are recommended to improve the clarity and traceability of OOC announcements, facilitate the monitoring of outcomes, and deliver on the promise of accountability emphasized at the OOCs.
Coastal areas in the eastern sub-region of Thailand, a popular destination in Southeast Asia, are facing rapid tourism-related urbanization and associated consequences of environment and climate change (CC). Thus, this study aims to analyze the relationships between tourism, coastal areas, the environment, and CC in the context of tourism urbanization; and recommend strategies for enhancing the governance of coastal areas. Three popular destinations were selected as study areas, Koh Chang, Pattaya, and Koh Mak. Group discussions, questionnaire surveys, interviews, and observation were used for primary data collection together with secondary data. The results show that the development of these destinations has been incompatible with the coastal environment and CC patterns. Rapid urbanization from tourism development is the main driver of environmental changes and makes the areas vulnerable to CC-related risks. While water scarcity and pollution are found the most critical environmental issues of the destinations, coastal areas are negatively affected in terms of increased air and water pollution and resource degradation. They have also been exposed to different CC-related problems while the risks of accumulative impacts of both environment and CC have not been adequately recognized or addressed. Although some measures have provided synergies of improved environment and increased climate resilience, possible conflicts and gaps were also found. Public infrastructure integration and optimization to enhance coastal areas’ environment and climate resilience are suggested.
The protection of marine biodiversity is considered a global priority, as exemplified in the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi targets and in Sustainable Development Goal 14. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered to be effective conservation and fisheries management tools that generate various ecological and social-economic benefits. MPAs come in all types and sizes, and are managed following different principles, users' needs, and preferences. Madagascar's unique marine biodiversity is currently protected under a range of MPA regimes that emerged comparatively recently, long after the terrestrial protected areas. This study describes the historical outline of the MPA development process in Madagascar, and proposes inputs for the future management of MPAs. A policy arrangement approach to structure an iterative Delphi survey was used to analyse how discourse, actors, rules and resources have shaped MPA development in Madagascar. The findings suggest that international initiatives and funding have played a key role in the early days of MPA emergence, while currently co-management between governmental and non-governmental actors shows mixed results regarding conservation effectiveness. Challenges include a better coordination of efforts among various stakeholders, granting a large responsibility to local communities, e.g. in the successful locally managed marine areas (LMMAs), and integrating customary law into the set of regulations for marine conservation and sustainable management in Madagascar.
This paper compares the perceptions of various actors who come from Maio island's (Cape Verde) small-scale fishing community or are working on or studying its marine management. The research analyses environmental governance perceptions (desired governance) in relation to official (de jure) governance and effective (de facto) governance. It uses the Actor in 4 Dimensions method (including adapted individual interviews on Maio's social-ecological system) to produce graphical environmental footprints that portray a diversity of actors' and groups' perceptions. Footprint results show a clear general tendency for a strong prominence of the “cooperation” (social profile) and “cohabitation” (environmental profile) dimensions, compared with the much lighter stamps of their opposite “conflict” and “domination” dimensions. It appears that although most actors wish to preserve Maio's marine environment, some hope for more economic development while others wish to preserve their island's renowned quiet. Also, many actors feel that despite being included in some territorial discussions, they are not in a position to decide on policies that strongly affect them such as fishing agreements and tourism development. This perceived inability to influence island and community development combined with larger-scale policies that override local interests to various extents are both influenced by path dependence. A redirection of policies and actions in favor of island communities' subsistence and autonomy (empowerment and extensive participative governance) could reverse the harmful “external forces cascade” effects solely if power delegation is accompanied by sufficient economic and human means and is not impaired by larger-scale policies and activities.
The UN General Assembly has made a unanimous decision to start negotiations to establish an international, legally-binding instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity within Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ). However, there has of yet been little discussion on the importance of this move to the ecosystem services provided by coastal zones in their downstream zone of influence. Here, we identify the ecological connectivity between ABNJ and coastal zones as critically important in the negotiation process and apply several approaches to identify some priority areas for protection from the perspective of coastal populations of Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Initially, we review the scientific evidence that demonstrates ecological connectivity between ABNJ and the coastal zones with a focus on the LDCs. We then use ocean modelling to develop a number of metrics and spatial maps that serve to quantify the connectivity of the ABNJ to the coastal zone. We find that the level of exposure to the ABNJ influences varies strongly between countries. Similarly, not all areas of the ABNJ are equal in their impacts on the coastline. Using this method, we identify the areas of the ABNJ that are in the most urgent need of protection on the grounds of the strength of their potential downstream impacts on the coastal populations of LDCs. We argue that indirect negative impacts of the ABNJ fishing, industrialisation and pollution, communicated via oceanographic, cultural and ecological connectivity to the coastal waters of the developing countries should be of concern.
Marine aquaculture is a rapidly growing industry that presents both opportunities and risks for the environment and society. Whether aquatic farming (bivalves and finfish) in the ocean can mitigate food security concerns and be done without significant ecological impact depends in large part on the governance infrastructure of the sector. This study assesses the relationships at the nation-state level between existing aquaculture policy determined by survey and literature review, indicators of the quality of governance, and assessments of the ecological potential for highly productive aquaculture. The possible socio-ecological implications of Blue Growth for nations around the world are then discussed. There are numerous unexploited opportunities for countries, like those in the Pacific and Caribbean, with good governance and growth potential to pursue marine aquaculture, particularly to potentially alleviate local food security concerns. In comparison, countries already producing marine aquaculture do not have the most biologically suitable waters (e.g., China), but are more closely aligned with private capital – showing production is clearly possible, but may be less sustainable or optimal. Notably, many countries active in the marine aquaculture space appear to have some level of associated regulation and environmental oversight, but appear to lack clear frameworks for emerging growth in the sector, particularly offshore production. This study provides one of the first global evaluations of sustainable aquaculture potential under current governance, policy, and capital patterns.
This article explores the prospects for adaptive governance in a proposed marine transboundary conservation initiative in East Africa. Adaptive governance that involves interdependent state and non-state actors learning and taking action on joint environmental problems is suggested for effective transboundary resource governance. Using the concept of adaptive co-management, the current multi-stakeholder marine governance systems in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania are compared to illuminate opportunities and constraints for adaptive marine transboundary conservation governance between Kenya and Tanzania. The concept of networks and the formal method of social network analysis (SNA) are applied as the main methodological device. Using questionnaire and semi-structured interviews, social network data of 70 organizations (local resources users, government agencies and NGOs) was generated from Kenya (n = 33) and Tanzania (n = 37). Results show the existence of strong collaboration networks for marine resource governance in both Kenya and Tanzania. Social proximity is the common driver of network formation. Collaboration networks in Kenya and Tanzania have contributed to enhanced learning among marine resource managers. Conclusions point to the need to focus on common challenges relating to low levels of rule-compliance, limited access to information on the state of resources and poor integration of science into marine management decisions. Finally, differences in views regarding the state of marine ecosystems need to be addressed to improve prospects for joint problem-solving in marine transboundary conservation.
The modern-day reinvigoration of individual Indigenous nations around the world is connected to broader simultaneous movements of Indigenous nationhood worldwide. The origins, implications, philosophies, and diversities of Indigenous resurgences and resistances continue to be discussed in the growing body of literature on Indigenous governance. This article builds on these discussions by focusing on the applied tools and strategies of Indigenous resurgence. In the context of the Pacific herring fishery in British Columbia, Canada, this research explores the strategies and tools used by three Indigenous coastal nations to apply pressure on the colonial government to abdicate its asserted authority over herring governance. Motivated by a time-honored relationship to herring, we discuss how these Indigenous nations have strategized to try to regain authority over herring governance to protect species and Indigenous access to the fishery. We then discuss this ocean-based resurgence in the context of global Indigenous movements for the reassertion of self-determining authority.
Ocean acidification (OA) is a major emergent stressor of marine ecosystems with global implications for biodiversity conservation, sustainable development and economic prosperity. International action is imperative for addressing it. This paper builds a science-based governing framework, identifying three overarching policy objectives and six areas for action that should be pursued so as to minimise this global problem. No unifying OA treaty or legal instrument with the explicit task of addressing OA currently exists and it looks highly unlikely that any will eventuate. A more pragmatic approach is to use existing multilateral agreements. However, taking on OA as a unified problem seems to be beyond the scope of existing agreements, due to structural limitations and the willingness of Parties. Given this, it is more likely that OA will be addressed by a network of agreements, each responding to discrete elements of the problem of OA within their capabilities. However, it is unclear how existing MEA capabilities extend to addressing OA. This paper therefore offers an analytical framework through existing governance structures can be explored for their capabilities to respond to OA.