Management and Management Effectiveness

From Science to Evidence – How Biodiversity Indicators Can Be Used for Effective Marine Conservation Policy and Management

McQuatters-Gollop A, Mitchell I, Vina-Herbon C, Bedford J, Addison PFE, Lynam CP, Geetha PN, Vermeulan EAnn, Smit K, Bayley DTI, et al. From Science to Evidence – How Biodiversity Indicators Can Be Used for Effective Marine Conservation Policy and Management. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00109/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Indicators are effective tools for summarizing and communicating key aspects of ecosystem state and have a long record of use in marine pollution and fisheries management. The application of biodiversity indicators to assess the status of species, habitats, and functional diversity in marine conservation and policy, however, is still developing and multiple indicator roles and features are emerging. For example, some operational biodiversity indicators trigger management action when a threshold is reached, while others play an interpretive, or surveillance, role in informing management. Links between biodiversity indicators and the pressures affecting them are frequently unclear as links can be obscured by environmental change, data limitations, food web dynamics, or the cumulative effects of multiple pressures. In practice, the application of biodiversity indicators to meet marine conservation policy and management demands is developing rapidly in the management realm, with a lag before academic publication detailing indicator development. Making best use of biodiversity indicators depends on sharing and synthesizing cutting-edge knowledge and experience. Using lessons learned from the application of biodiversity indicators in policy and management from around the globe, we define the concept of ‘biodiversity indicators,’ explore barriers to their use and potential solutions, and outline strategies for their effective communication to decision-makers.

Building Coral Reef Resilience Through Spatial Herbivore Management

Chung AE, Wedding LM, Green AL, Friedlander AM, Goldberg G, Meadows A, Hixon MA. Building Coral Reef Resilience Through Spatial Herbivore Management. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00098/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Coral reef managers currently face the challenge of mitigating global stressors by enhancing local ecological resilience in a changing climate. Effective herbivore management is one tool that managers can use in order to maintain resilience in the midst of severe and frequent bleaching events. One recommended approach is to establish networks of herbivore management areas (HMAs), which prohibit the take of herbivorous reef fishes. However, there is a need to develop design principles to guide planning and implementation of these HMAs as a resilience-building tool. We refine available guidance from fully protected marine protected area (MPA) networks and developed a set of 11 biophysical design principles specifically for HMAs. We then provide a case study of how to apply these principles using the main Hawaiian Islands. We address site-specific considerations in terms of protecting habitats, including ecologically critical areas, incorporating connectivity, and addressing climate and local threats. This synthesis integrates core marine spatial planning concepts with resilience-based management and provides actionable guidance on the design of HMAs. When combined with social considerations, these principles will support spatial planning in Hawai‘i and could guide the future design of HMA networks globally.

From Science to Evidence – How Biodiversity Indicators Can Be Used for Effective Marine Conservation Policy and Management

McQuatters-Gollop A, Mitchell I, Vina-Herbon C, Bedford J, Addison PFE, Lynam CP, Geetha PN, Vermeulan EAnn, Smit K, Bayley DTI, et al. From Science to Evidence – How Biodiversity Indicators Can Be Used for Effective Marine Conservation Policy and Management. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00109/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Indicators are effective tools for summarizing and communicating key aspects of ecosystem state and have a long record of use in marine pollution and fisheries management. The application of biodiversity indicators to assess the status of species, habitats, and functional diversity in marine conservation and policy, however, is still developing and multiple indicator roles and features are emerging. For example, some operational biodiversity indicators trigger management action when a threshold is reached, while others play an interpretive, or surveillance, role in informing management. Links between biodiversity indicators and the pressures affecting them are frequently unclear as links can be obscured by environmental change, data limitations, food web dynamics, or the cumulative effects of multiple pressures. In practice, the application of biodiversity indicators to meet marine conservation policy and management demands is developing rapidly in the management realm, with a lag before academic publication detailing indicator development. Making best use of biodiversity indicators depends on sharing and synthesizing cutting-edge knowledge and experience. Using lessons learned from the application of biodiversity indicators in policy and management from around the globe, we define the concept of ‘biodiversity indicators,’ explore barriers to their use and potential solutions, and outline strategies for their effective communication to decision-makers.

Challenges Ahead of Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Environmentally Sensitive Islands: A Case Study

Zarifsanayei AR, Sanayei HRZarif, S. Zand M. Challenges Ahead of Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Environmentally Sensitive Islands: A Case Study. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution [Internet]. 2018 ;15(4):69 - 80. Available from: https://content.iospress.com/articles/asian-journal-of-water-environment-and-pollution/ajw180059
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $27.50
Type: Journal Article

Small islands around the world encounter special challenges due to vulnerability to acute climates, human-induced activities and pollution. The challenges even become more intricate where the island is located in environmentally sensitive regions. In order to address the problems in coastal areas, Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) whose concept was born in 1992 during the Earth Summit of Rio de Janeiro, has been recommended by United Nations. This paper focuses on challenges ahead of ICZM in environmentally sensitive islands through Interaction-Stakeholder and Option Matrices. Kish Island is a beautiful small island located in Persian Gulf. With regard to environmental sensitivities and susceptibilities of the island, its ICZM plan requires special attention. The method utilized in this article combines the perception of stakeholders’ need and coastal issues with the effects of management interventions. The method developed for Kish’s ICZM plan can provide comprehensible tools for decision makers in order to find the sources of conflicts and problems. According to the results, most of the interactions belong to “coastal environment” and “tourism” and also many groups of primary stakeholders are involved by many changes. The results of Option Matrix imply that “environmental legislation and mandatory EIA for any project and any discharge” and also “allocation of some regions to national park” interact with various components of the matrix and many primary stakeholders engage. Finally, some of the obstacles are scrutinized in this study such as: environmental legislation, lack of local environmental standards, lack of enough incentive among primary and secondary stakeholders, etc.

A conceptual model to improve links between science, policy and practice in coastal management

Dale P, Sporne I, Knight J, Sheaves M, Eslami-Andergoli L, Dwyer P. A conceptual model to improve links between science, policy and practice in coastal management. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;103:42 - 49. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X1830383X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The literature has identified significant barriers to sustainable management of coastal resources due to lack of integration between science, policy and practice. The social and biophysical sciences are an important information source but are often neglected in policy and practice. The literature has identified the science, policy practice gaps as significant barriers to sustainable management of coastal resources. However, there is lack of research specifically covering the interactions between the three domains. This paper aims to: a) review the literature to identify gaps and related factors or themes contributing to the science-policy-practice disconnect; and b) propose a conceptual integrated model to address those gaps and to increase the uptake of science into policy and practice in coastal systems. The results confirm that there are gaps in the two way-links between science and policy and practice. Most research (64%) is published in the science to policy area, 32% in the policy and practice area, and only four % of the research is published in the science-policy-practice area. Effective integration is inhibited by issues of knowledge, uncertainty, communication, political and cultural issues and institutions or rules and a clear mechanism for linking science, policy and practice is needed. Frameworks may help alleviate the problem but may not be holistic or flexible enough to facilitate interactions across science-policy-practice. There needs to be a clear mechanism for integrating science, policy and practice. To address this a conceptual model of the interactions between science and policy and practice is proposed. The model includes two-way connections between science-policy-practice, mediated by both internal and external factors including key drivers, facilitators, inhibitors and barriers. The model is applied to three case studies, namely: implementing international level blue carbon policy at a local level; an historical perspective on mangrove damage and restoration at an Australian state level; and an Australian example of long-term interactions between science, policy and practice, illustrating how multiple connections and interactions can occur as projects proceed.

Seascape Ecology

Pittman SJ. Seascape Ecology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2017. Available from: https://www.wiley.com/en-us/Seascape+Ecology-p-9781119084433
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $120.00
Type: Book

Seascape Ecology provides a comprehensive look at the state-of-the-science in the application of landscape ecology to the seas and provides guidance for future research priorities. The first book devoted exclusively to this rapidly emerging and increasingly important discipline, it is comprised of contributions from researchers at the forefront of seascape ecology working around the world. It presents the principles, concepts, methodology, and techniques informing seascape ecology and reports on the latest developments in the application of the approach to marine ecology and management.

Existing environmental management approaches relevant to deep-sea mining

Jones DOB, Durden JM, Murphy K, Gjerde KM, Gebicka A, Colaço A, Morato T, Cuvelier D, Billett DSM. Existing environmental management approaches relevant to deep-sea mining. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18303956
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Deep-sea mining (DSM) may become a significant stressor on the marine environment. The DSM industry should demonstrate transparently its commitment to preventing serious harm to the environment by complying with legal requirements, using environmental good practice, and minimizing environmental impacts. Here existing environmental management approaches relevant to DSM that can be used to improve performance are identified and detailed. DSM is still predominantly in the planning stage and will face some unique challenges but there is considerable environmental management experience in existing related industries. International good practice has been suggested for DSM by bodies such as the Pacific Community and the International Marine Minerals Society. The inherent uncertainty in DSM presents challenges, but it can be addressed by collection of environmental information, area-based/spatial management, the precautionary approach and adaptive management. Tools exist for regional and strategic management, which have already begun to be introduced by the International Seabed Authority, for example in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone. Project specific environmental management, through environmental impact assessment, baseline assessment, monitoring, mitigation and environmental management planning, will be critical to identify and reduce potential impacts. In addition, extractive companies’ internal management may be optimised to improve performance by emphasising sustainability at a high level in the company, improving transparency and reporting and introducing environmental management systems. The DSM industry and its regulators have the potential to select and optimize recognised and documented effective practices and adapt them, greatly improving the environmental performance of this new industry.

A simulation-based multi-agent particle swarm optimization approach for supporting dynamic decision making in marine oil spill responses

Ye X, Chen B, Li P, Jing L, Zeng G. A simulation-based multi-agent particle swarm optimization approach for supporting dynamic decision making in marine oil spill responses. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2019 ;172:128 - 136. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569118308329
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

How to improve marine oil spill response efficiency to minimize environmental and socioeconomic impacts has been recognized as a growing, critical need worldwide in both scientific and practical fields. The efficiency much depends on how sound the response decisions can be made simultaneously at both systematic (or holistic) (e.g., best use of resources for the entire response system) and individual levels (e.g., optimal operation of skimmers on a spill site). This study proposed a new simulation-based multi-agent particle swarm optimization (SA-PSO) approach for supporting marine spill decision-making through the integrated simulation and optimization of response device allocation and process control. Agent-based modeling as an emerging simulation method was first applied for simulating oil spill fate and response. Particle swarm optimization method was further adopted to optimize response device/vessel allocation and performance with a minimal cost and time. Multi-agent system finally controlled and transmitted the results from agent-based modeling and particle swarm optimization as a dynamic and interactive system. The proposed method was tested by a hypothetical case study in the North Atlantic Ocean with consideration of oil weathering and non-weathering scenarios based on simplified conditions. Through the developed approach, the response time was reduced by 11.7% and 5.9% respectively under the two scenarios for vessel allocation and recovery operations with about 90% decrement of fuel consumption. The results showed the strong capability of the approach for decision makings in oil spill responses by recommending optimal management of resources and efficient response operation in a dynamic manner.

Stakeholder dynamics, perceptions and representation in a regional coastal partnership

Buchan PM, Yates KL. Stakeholder dynamics, perceptions and representation in a regional coastal partnership. Marine Policy [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17308254
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Effective stakeholder participation is increasingly seen as an essential part of improving marine and coastal management. Coastal partnerships are a well-established informal method for enabling stakeholder participation in coastal management. However, how well they perform this role has been little explored. The North West Coastal Forum is a UK regional coastal partnership, interacting with stakeholders from across local, regional, national and international spatial scales. At the time of this research, the Forum had been in place for 14 years and, with its excellent record keeping, provided a valuable case study of the effectiveness of coastal partnerships to engage with and represent stakeholders over time. This study both analysed Forum records and conducted an electronic survey of Forum members. The diversity of stakeholders that participate in the Forum and how that has changed over time was examined. Forum members’ perception of the purpose of the Forum and their level of satisfaction with Forum performance was also investigated. In addition, we explored members’ values and how they aligned with the organisations they were representing. Results indicated that, whilst many sectors have been represented on the Management Board and at Forum events, there are some which dominated, particularly Local Authorities, and others, such as extractive industries, which were under-represented. Overall, survey respondents’ perceptions of the Forum purpose aligned with its stated purpose very well. Respondents were also supportive of the performance of the Forum: 56% considered the Forum to have delivered on initial expectations “well” or “very well” and only 4% “poorly”. Respondents’ personal values tended towards pro-environmentalism and were broadly in line with the perceived values of their own host organisations, suggesting that stakeholder representatives can be effective conduits. This study indicates that coastal partnerships can be viewed by stakeholders as an effective means for facilitating stakeholder engagement. As such, coastal management efforts should encourage the development and ideally provide long term support for coastal partnership initiatives. However, this study also suggests that active recruitment is needed to encourage a full range of stakeholders to participate and thus enable coastal partnerships to more fully contribute to integrated coastal zone management.

Human-Nature Relations in Flux: Two Decades of Research in Coastal and Ocean Management

Glaeser B. Human-Nature Relations in Flux: Two Decades of Research in Coastal and Ocean Management. In: Elsevier; 2019. pp. 641 - 659. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012814003100037X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Book Chapter

The chapter departs from human-nature relations and interlinks changing approaches to integrated and sustainable coastal and ocean management. This paper reviews two decades of interdisciplinary research, 1996–2016. In hindsight, the review discovered an amazing change of focus, adapting to changing societal needs and scientific outlooks: from conflict resolution to governance issues, disaster management, eventually to linking social and ecological factors via typologies of coastal and marine social-ecological systems. Theoretical aspects are embedded and grounded in empirical case studies, taken from economically developed areas [high per capita gross domestic product (GDP) level] in temperate zones (Sweden and Germany) and from economically developing areas (intermediate per capita GDP level with significant incidence of poverty) in tropical zones (Indonesia). Eventually, the maturation of a field may be witnessed.

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