Portugal is located in the southwest of Europe. From economic, cultural, social and environmental point of views, Portuguese coastal areas face multiple challenges related to the coastal management policy, the functionality of the governmental services and the responses to the society, in particular, to the affected citizens. Qualitative and quantitative understanding of the coastal morphological processes is necessary, as it is a precondition for a successful coastal management approach. This paper aims to provide a general overview of the recent morphological coastal development in Portugal, summarize some past experiences on coastal protection and identify potential problems and challenges as an attempt to support an integrated coastal management policy that can be applied in Portugal and other countries facing the same difficulties to mitigate and manage coastal erosion. Special focus is given to the legal status and policy on coastal monitoring, by analyzing the administration responsibilities concerning coastal management, legislation and regulations, as well as policy tools schemes, built into the legal structure with different levels of hierarchy. The manuscript ends with a brief analysis of some future coastal protection measures that are part of a national coastal adaptation strategy proposed to fulfill a set of goals to be established by 2050.
Management and Management Effectiveness
The assessment of management effectiveness is essential to measure how well marine protected areas (MPAs) are achieving their goals and objectives. Incorporating the view of multiple stakeholders is an important component of MPA planning and management as it may simultaneously help reduce conflicts and increase adherence to rules and compliance. However, the most assessments of MPA management effectiveness is undertaken solely based on managers' perceptions. Here, we compared the perceptions of management effectiveness among managers and the management council members of three Brazilian marine reserves. Council members include stakeholders from the public and private sectors with different backgrounds. Overall, the marine reserves were classified as having medium management effectiveness, with managers perceiving higher levels of effectiveness than the council members. The main differences were related to poor communication among managers and council members and the perception of lack of participation on management decisions by council members. Assessing different perspectives on management effectiveness gives a more comprehensive understanding of the situation. Communication between managers and stakeholders is essential to guarantee that management challenges are more equally recognized. We recommend that further evaluations consider the diversity of stakeholders involved in the management to get a more realistic assessment on management effectiveness. The gap between managers and stakeholders’ views is an important indicator because it is related to the level of alignment between MPA goals and society expectations.
Seasonal fisheries emerge due to a variety of mechanisms: ontogenetic shifts of fish life stages, regulatory initiatives (e. g., fishing seasons) and/or biomass dynamics where there can be a strong seasonal reduction in stock biomass as fisheries harvest a single or double recruiting cohorts each year. The latter mechanism involves targeting species with biological traits including fast growth, high natural mortality and short lifespans; these fisheries have been expanding rapidly over the last 40 years, gaining social and economic importance. In this paper, we underscore the biological and economic dynamics of these fisheries by developing an intraseasonal bioeconomic model to examine the profitability under two situations: open-access and limited entry. We also incorporate the opportunity cost—the earnings that would result from pursuing other lines of work—in our modeling framework. We show that under limited entry situation, profitability is maximized over a given season—when income just balances operating cost per effort. Under open-access, however, net profit per vessel is driven down until it equals the opportunity cost. Biologically, our approach suggests that higher income from alternatives to fishing leads to less biomass depletion than would occur if there were no alternative income sources. To conclude, we discuss several traditional regulatory options and their effects on the distribution of fishing effort and season length.
The world's coral reefs are rapidly transforming, with decreasing coral cover and new species configurations. These new Anthropocene reefs pose a challenge for conservation; we can no longer rely on established management plans and actions designed to maintain the status quo when coral reef habitats, and the challenges they faced, were very different. The key questions now are: what do we want to conserve on Anthropocene reefs, why, and how? Trends in reef management over recent decades reveal rapid shifts in perceived threats, goals and solutions. Future reefs will be unlike anything previously seen by humans, and while their ability to support tourism or fisheries may be relatively resilient, our capacity to manage them may be constrained by their new species configurations. Furthermore, there is a growing spatial mismatch between the escalating scale of threats and current or planned responses. We present a blueprint for future reef conservation that recognizes the need to better understand the processes that maintain Anthropocene reefs, and the growing imperative to reform conservation efforts to address both specific local issues and larger-scale threats. The future of coral reef conservation is no longer one solely of localized action and stewardship; it requires practices and institutions operating at far larger scales than today.
Renewable energy and sustainable food production are high on the international agenda, as is the prospect of expanding activity northwards to Arctic waters. In this article, we review core elements of the marine governance systems for aquaculture facilities and offshore wind farms in Norway and Scotland. Management of these sectors through strategic planning, marine spatial planning and licensing systems furthers rule of law values such as stability and predictability, making investment less risky. The review illustrates how the governance systems also facilitate flexibility and adaptability, balancing predictability considerations against the need to adapt management to natural and economic changes and innovative technologies, or even effective multi-use. This article discusses what endeavours have been made to strike a balance between predictability and adaptability in these sectors in Norway and Scotland. This study of marine management regimes in the Arctic and northern parts of the Temperate Northern Atlantic, and the values underpinning these regimes, provides lessons for the future of the Arctic.
Penguins face a wide range of threats. Most observed population changes have been negative and have happened over the last 60 years. Today, populations of 11 penguin species are decreasing. Here we present a review that synthesizes details of threats faced by the world’s 18 species of penguins. We discuss alterations to their environment at both breeding sites on land and at sea where they forage. The major drivers of change appear to be climate, and food web alterations by marine fisheries. In addition, we also consider other critical and/or emerging threats, namely human disturbance near nesting sites, pollution due to oil, plastics and chemicals such as mercury and persistent organic compounds. Finally, we assess the importance of emerging pathogens and diseases on the health of penguins. We suggest that in the context of climate change, habitat degradation, introduced exotic species and resource competition with fisheries, successful conservation outcomes will require new and unprecedented levels of science and advocacy. Successful conservation stories of penguin species across their geographical range have occurred where there has been concerted effort across local, national and international boundaries to implement effective conservation planning.
California's network of 124 marine protected areas (MPAs) is managed by state agencies with support from non-state partners. Partners include MPA Collaboratives, which were established through the California Collaborative Approach to provide a localized, comprehensive approach to ocean resource management by bringing together local experts and authorities in the areas of outreach and education, enforcement and compliance, and research and monitoring. Given their role in MPA management in California, there is a need to understand the contributions that MPA Collaboratives are making to MPA management activities. In this case study, Blue Earth Consultants, a Division of ERG, conducted a valuation of in-kind contributions made by non-state members of one Collaborative, the Orange County Marine Protected Area Council (OCMPAC), to MPA management activities in Orange County. We performed research and worked collaboratively with OCMPAC to develop a definition of in-kind contributions and a contribution reporting framework that asked respondents to report contributions by type (Labor Services; Goods, Equipment, and Supplies; Travel; Facilities; and Other) as well as by category (Outreach, Education, and Compliance Building; Research and Monitoring; Partnership Coordination and Fundraising Support; and Other). We distributed the reporting framework to each member organization of OCMPAC and performed data analysis to quantify the total values of the contributions they reported. We found that non-state members of OCMPAC contributed support worth over US $4 million to Orange County MPA management during a two-year time frame between 2013 and 2015. In both years, the contribution type with the greatest value was Labor Services, and the category with the greatest value was Outreach, Education, and Compliance Building. Member organizations also noted that their future contributions to OCMPAC, particularly volunteer hours and pro bono work, may be vulnerable to changes in funding, staff time, and organizational priorities. To help ensuring ongoing support for MPA management, OCMPAC and member organizations would benefit from dedicated staff time for MPA-related work, coordinating OCMPAC activities, and education and science programs, among other needs. The approach developed for this case study provides a replicable methodology for quantifying the value of in-kind contributions made through local partnerships to the management of natural resources in California and beyond.
Despite frequent calls for Integrated Management (IM) of coastal and marine activities, there is no consensus on the ‘recipe’ for successful adoption and implementation, and there has been insufficient evaluation of successes and failures of IM to date. The primary rationale for IM is to overcome four major deficiencies of sector-based management: a) management of diverse activities by different agencies using different approaches, b) management generally focused on a subset of primarily ecological objectives that do not properly articulate or evaluate social, cultural, economic and institutional objectives, c) no mechanisms to evaluate or advise on trade-offs among objectives of activities in relation to objectives and d) no mechanisms to evaluate the cumulative effects of all managed activities. To help overcome this gap in knowledge, here we draw on our collective experiences working in Australia and Canada to develop and articulate a framework to help guide the practical implementation and evaluation of IM, which we define as: ‘An approach that links (integrates) planning, decision-making and management arrangements across sectors in a unified framework, to enable a more comprehensive view of sustainability and the consideration of cumulative effects and trade-offs.’
We argue that IM will be most easily and effectively achieved by linking and modifying existing sector-based plans in an overarching IM initiative that has nine key features: 1) Recognition of need for IM, 2) A shared vision by stakeholders and decision-makers for IM, 3) Appropriate legal and institutional frameworks for coordinated decision-making, 4) Sufficient and effective processes for stakeholder engagement and participation, 5) A common and comprehensive set of operational objectives, 6) Explicit consideration of trade-offs and cumulative impacts, 7) Flexibility to adapt to changing conditions, 8) Processes for ongoing review and refinement, and 9) Effective resourcing, capacity, leadership and tools. Drawing on these features we then articulate a process for the implementation and evaluation of IM that recognises five phases: i) Preconditions and drivers of change, ii) Intentional design and institutional rearrangement, iii) Enablers and disablers iv) An implemented IM process, and v) Review of IM performance and modification. Combination of the nine features of IM with the five phases in IM development provides a framework for implementation and a lens for evaluation of IM processes. We suggest that this framework provides a guide to the appropriate design of practical IM, which will assist in overcoming the current management deficiencies and improve the sustainability of marine resources in the face of change.
Specific risks to offshore oil and gas operations manifest in the Arctic and other harsh environments. Such extreme operating conditions can disrupt the offshore infrastructure and cause major accidents, posing a great challenge to operators. A thorough investigation of past incidents helps to learn lessons to ensure that a recurrence of serious accidents affecting workers and the environment can be prevented.
The analysis of past incidents is divided into two parts. First, we offer a statistical analysis of offshore incidents triggered by natural events in the Arctic and in similar harsh environments. The analysis, organised by location, cause, and type of damage, failure mechanisms, and consequences, is based on data from the World Offshore Accident Database (WOAD). Second, we analyse a selection of accidents that occurred in the recent past in ice-prone seas, with particular attention to potential deficiencies in safety measures, design requirements and design methodologies, operations planning and component reliability.
Based on the analysis, important lessons were identified which stress the need for further efforts to ensure the safety of workers and of assets and to get all actors involved in offshore operations engaged towards achieving a safer future for the exploitation of oil and gas resources.
Management of coastal areas is necessary to maintain and protect existing permanent structures. Coastal erosion management falls into soft and hard shoreline stabilization options with the United States tending to favor hard. However, post-Hurricane Sandy 2012, soft dune and beach replenishment have become more favorable in the U.S. with support being necessarily contingent upon an understanding of the pros, cons, and concepts surrounding each management strategy. Misconceptions could thus lead to a halt in progress and poor decisions with implications for community safety. We sought to gain a better understanding of current knowledge surrounding best practices in coastal managementcommunities. Our assumption was that misconceptions in one coastal area, New Jersey, are likely echoed in other coastal areas in the U.S. and internationally. We employed a two-phase research design with an exploratory phase using semi-structured interview guidelines to collect data from a quota sample of 53 local residents and then tested the distribution of knowledge about coastal management facts by asking a convenience sample of 300 residents a structured set of 15 questions. Study participants identify differences in how beaches are managed and how protected they conversely consider an area to be. Dunes are generally preferred over hard engineering and replenishment. However, many key concepts regarding how dunes function naturally, with regards to the role of vegetation and fencing, are poorly understood suggesting a need for greater education surrounding these topics. Participants support continued tax investment in coastal areas to avoid retreat but recognize a tragedy of the commons in such actions for future generations. Learning who knows what, may contribute to more fruitful dialoguesamong stakeholders to pave the way for the adoption of suitable and sustainable management practices for better protected shorelines.