The main objectives of this study are to determine the potential for relative resilience, identify the drivers of potential resilience and priority locations for resilience-based coral reef management in Wakatobi. Data collection locations are spread across four major Wakatobi islands: Wangi Wangi, Kaledupa, Tomia, and Binongko at 5 m depth respectively. Coral reefs resilience assessment in Wakatobi consists of several stages: selecting indicators, collecting and compiling data, analyzing data, and identifying management targets. The highest potential for relative resilience in Wakatobi are station 15 with a value of 1.00 and the lowest is station 8 with a value of 0.69. Relative resilience in high category is 2 stations, med-high 7 stations, med-low 2 stations, and low 4 stations. Relative resilience in high category is able to be distinguished by the high values of bleaching resistant, herbivore biomass, coral cover, and supported by a high diversity of coral. The mid-high category is grouped by the contribution of indicator values coming from coral recruitment and coral diversity, as well as followed by two other indicators such as coral cover and alga cover. Last, the mid-low category and low category tend to be pushed by the low values of coral disease and followed by some other indicators like algae cover. Resilience approach to identify prioritizing stations for management actions is conservation (2 station), fishery management and enforcement (5 station), bleaching monitoring and supporting recovery (3 station), coral reef restoration (2 tation), tourism structuring (10 station), and Land-based sources of pollution reduction (5 station).
Management and Management Effectiveness
Threatened species are increasingly dependent on conservation investments for persistence and recovery. Information that resource managers could use to evaluate investments–such as the public benefits arising from alternative conservation designs–is typically scarce because conservation benefits arise outside of conventional markets. Moreover, existing studies that measure the public benefits of conserving threatened species often do not measure the benefits from partial gains in species abundance that fall short of official recovery, or the benefits from achieving gains in species abundance that happen earlier in time. We report on a stated preference choice experiment designed to quantify the non-market benefits for conservation investments aimed at threatened Pacific Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) along the Oregon Coast (OC). Our results show that a program aimed at increasing numbers of returning salmon can generate sizable benefits of up to $518 million/y for an extra 100,000 returning fish, even if the species is not officially declared recovered. Moreover, while conservation investment strategies expected to achieve relatively rapid results are likely to have higher up-front costs, our results show that the public attaches substantial additional value of up to $277 million/y for achieving conservation goals quickly. Our results and approach can be used to price natural capital investments that lead to gains in returning salmon, and as inputs to evaluations of the benefits and costs from alternative conservation strategies.
Beaches' development on small islands has become increasingly important due to touristic appeals on their unique landscapes and natural endowments. However, compared with large islands and continental areas, the natural conditions of these islands are quite poor, their degree of development is relatively low, and they are insufficiently managed. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to undertake comprehensive management activities for tourist beaches on small islands. Three small islands in China, i.e. Meizhou, Gulang, and Weizhou, were selected as case studies to develop a preliminary beach management strategy. On the basis of a literature search, field observation, interviews with relevant officers, visits to shopkeepers and residents, tourist questionnaires and internet comment collection, this study summarizes the status of tourist beach management on small islands, analyzes tourist perceptions, and establishes a SWOT framework. A comprehensive tourist beach management system is developed with natural environmental, facility-cultural, and management sub-systems that are highly interactive and interrelated. The development pathway of tourist beach management on small islands can be subdivided into three individual stages, namely, passive, positive, and balanced development stages. Management should focus on the island's unique advantages and infrastructure building in the stage of passive development, management facilities improvement, recreational activities, policies and regulations in the stage of positive development, and balance tourist numbers against the ecological environment, the needs of residents and the tourist experience in the stage of balanced development. Moreover, the beach management being appropriate for a small island is highly correlated with its natural and/or cultural landscapes.
Environmental degradation is a major obstacle to economic development, especially for coastal communities. Environmental degradation has an incremental adverse impact on the lives and livelihoods of marine park communities (MPCs), the development process of human societies, and the preservation of natural resources. Despite the obvious connection between ecological preservation and economic development, little effort has been devoted to ensure sustainable utilisation of coastal and marine resources. Marine protected areas (MPAs) suffer from poor socioeconomic conditions and environmental degradation; MPCs are most severely affected since they depend on marine and coastal resources. These are the main impediments to sustainable coastal community development. This chapter proposes an integrated management policy framework for the effective and sustainable management of MPAs, from the economic, social, and environmental perspectives. This policy framework will help policymakers to preserve, conserve, and protect marine resources as well as uplift the socioeconomic status of MPCs.
Without drastic efforts to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate globalized stressors, tropical coral reefs are in jeopardy. Strategic conservation and management requires identification of the environmental and socioeconomic factors driving the persistence of scleractinian coral assemblages—the foundation species of coral reef ecosystems. Here, we compiled coral abundance data from 2,584 Indo-Pacific reefs to evaluate the influence of 21 climate, social and environmental drivers on the ecology of reef coral assemblages. Higher abundances of framework-building corals were typically associated with: weaker thermal disturbances and longer intervals for potential recovery; slower human population growth; reduced access by human settlements and markets; and less nearby agriculture. We therefore propose a framework of three management strategies (protect, recover or transform) by considering: (1) if reefs were above or below a proposed threshold of >10% cover of the coral taxa important for structural complexity and carbonate production; and (2) reef exposure to severe thermal stress during the 2014–2017 global coral bleaching event. Our findings can guide urgent management efforts for coral reefs, by identifying key threats across multiple scales and strategic policy priorities that might sustain a network of functioning reefs in the Indo-Pacific to avoid ecosystem collapse.
Tidal habitats sustain fragile ecosystems, undergoing pressures from coastal artificialization and rising sea levels. Saltpans are a substitution habitat for birds that breed, winter or stop-over along coastlands where most pristine tidal habitats have been removed. Balancing the economical, patrimonial and biodiversity values of former saltpans is thus needed to mitigate the threats posed by global changes on waterbirds. In this study, we scrutinized the influence of management practices on waterbirds on two isolated saltpans located on the French Mediterranean shore, several tens of kilometres apart from other suitable habitats. We analysed three years of bird counts for nine protected species that breed, forage and roost on these saltpans. We used a multispecies hierarchical model to relate variations in bird counts to water levels, oxygenation and salinity, the three parameters targeted by the saltpans management plan to promote bird settlement. We showed that the hypersaline conditions that dominate in these saltpans are suboptimum to most species, suggesting that waterbird concentrations are dictated by the lack of alternatives in the surrounding landscape rather than by habitat suitability. Intraspecific variations in species' responses to these variables should orient towards the creation of a habitat mosaic within the saltpans. Eventually, between-site differences in bird responses to water conditions pointed the effects of disturbance, predation and other landscape-level features. Our results reveal that high waterbird numbers on isolated saltpans may be a misleading measure of their ecological suitability, and that management on these sites needs to incorporate conflicts and complementarity in species' habitat use.
Marine protected areas (MPAs) in Malaysia are greatly constrained by a host of problems and challenges such as ineffective management, poor institutional capacity, limited enforcement, absence of awareness, and poor socioeconomic status (SES) which influence the conservation of marine resources. Environmental degradation is another issue, including anthropogenic activities, overexploitation of marine resources, water quality deterioration, massive waste generation, and climate changes. These are the main impediments to sustainable economic growth, social development, and conservation of natural resources. This chapter details the major hurdles to sustainable community development within MPAs in Malaysia. It would help policymakers resolve the problems associated with marine park management and take appropriate steps to preserve, conserve, and protect marine resources for sustainable community development.
We present a general size- and age-structured demographic model of the continental phase of catadromous eels’ life cycle, allowing for the incorporation of (i) fluctuations of juvenile recruitment, (ii) density-dependent settlement and sex determination, (iii) plastic body growth and sexual dimorphism, and (iv) vital rates driven by body size rather than age. The model can be used to assess (i) standing stock, (ii) fishing yield, and (iii) spawner production under different recruitment and management scenarios. We demonstrate the model by applying it to a European eel stock (Camargue lagoons, southern France) that was continuously monitored for 17 years (1993–2009). Results indicate that the upper limit to settlement in the Camargue water system is ∼419 eels ha−1 per year. A balanced sex ratio occurs for a settlement of ∼94 eels ha−1, shifting towards males at higher densities. Catchability is higher in adult silver eels than in sub-adult yellow eels, possibly due to behavioural differences. Estimated standing stock ranged between 7 and 19 kg ha−1. Fishing yield was 5–7 kg ha−1 per year, while spawner escapement ranged between 0 and 13 kg ha−1per year (<30% of what would occur in the absence of fishing and obstacles to migration).
The populations most susceptible to environmental degradation are often the populations that rely most on the natural world for sustenance. Within the many isolated islands that are part of rural Indonesia, many communities are dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods, but paradoxically members of these communities often engage in practices that destroy their natural resources. The current research uses survey methodology to investigate determinants of sustainable behavioral intentions of participants (N = 104) living in coastal communities in Sulawesi, Indonesia—specifically through the lens of an adapted theory of planned behavior model. Results showed that participants with stronger intentions to use nets and lines to fish had more negative attitudes to destructive fishing, a greater sense that their behavior and that of their community affects marine life, and greater belief that other villages are responsible for degrading reefs. Participants with stronger intentions to prevent their waste from going into the ocean had more negative attitudes to throwing waste in the ocean, greater perceptions of control over the behavior, and more positive perceptions of change in the health of the reefs. Although some of the findings align with theory and past research, some were unexpected, highlighting the importance of conducting research to identify motivators of sustainable practices in developing world, low resource communities.
Portugal is located in the southwest of Europe. From economic, cultural, social and environmental point of views, Portuguese coastal areas face multiple challenges related to the coastal management policy, the functionality of the governmental services and the responses to the society, in particular, to the affected citizens. Qualitative and quantitative understanding of the coastal morphological processes is necessary, as it is a precondition for a successful coastal management approach. This paper aims to provide a general overview of the recent morphological coastal development in Portugal, summarize some past experiences on coastal protection and identify potential problems and challenges as an attempt to support an integrated coastal management policy that can be applied in Portugal and other countries facing the same difficulties to mitigate and manage coastal erosion. Special focus is given to the legal status and policy on coastal monitoring, by analyzing the administration responsibilities concerning coastal management, legislation and regulations, as well as policy tools schemes, built into the legal structure with different levels of hierarchy. The manuscript ends with a brief analysis of some future coastal protection measures that are part of a national coastal adaptation strategy proposed to fulfill a set of goals to be established by 2050.