This study evaluates the impacts of coral reef conservation and marine protected areas (MPAs) on the well-being of fishing communities in Central Vietnam. The Cu Lao Cham MPA is chosen as the case study. Coral reef health and four aspects of socioeconomic conditions (i.e., catch rate [also related to food security], access to the resource, employment, and income) are investigated. Data on the four different aspects were gathered from different sources. The results show that there is good evidence for how coral reef conservation can transfer the flow of benefits from the ecosystem to the local people. However, trade-offs also occur as a result of the development of tourism, including the degradation of fish resources and the environment. The managers of the MPA and the community should take into account trade-offs in resource management and should focus on appropriate MPA planning and fisheries management outside the MPA to achieve better outcomes for the local community from coral reef conservation
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
Resource monitoring is a key issue in ecosystem management especially for marine protected areas (MPAs), where information on the composition and structure of fish assemblages is crucial to design a suitable management process. Data on fish assemblage are usually collected using underwater visual censuses (UVC). However, fish assemblages monitoring in MPAs usually calls for considerable resources in terms of costs, time and technical/scientific skills. Financial resources and trained scientific divers may, however, not be available in certain geographical areas, that are thus understudied. Therefore, involving citizen volunteer divers in fish assemblage monitoring and adopting easy-to-use underwater visual census methods could be an effective way to collect crucial data. Citizen science can be used only if it can provide information that is consistent with that collected using standard scientific monitoring. Here, we aim: 1) to compare the consistency of results from a Standard scientific UVC (S-UVC) and an Easy-to-use UVC (E-UVC) method in assessing fish assemblage spatial variability, and 2) to test the consistency of data collected by Scientific Divers (SD) and Scientifically-Trained Volunteer divers (STV), using E-UVC. We used, in two consecutive years, three Tunisian future Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and adjacent areas as case studies. E-UVC and S-UVC data were consistent. Both methods reported the same spatial patterns for the three MPAs (between MPAs and, inside and outside each one), highlighting the consistency between S-UVC and E-UVC. No significant difference was recorded between data collected by SD or STV. Our results suggest that E-UVC can provide information representing simplified proxies for describing fish assemblages and can therefore be a valuable tool for fish monitoring by citizen divers in understudied areas. This evidence could foster citizen science as an effective tool to raise environmental awareness and involve stakeholders in resource management.
At the United Nations Ocean Conference in June 2017, Member States reaffirmed their obligation to conserve and responsibly use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development. Promoting the use of effective and appropriate area- based management tools, such as marine protected areas, was among the renewed pledges. Marine protected areas o er one of the best options for maintaining healthy oceans. In the last decade, countries around the world have progressively taken actions to designate new, or to enlarge existing, marine protected areas to safeguard natural resources and ecological functions. To date, around 14.4 per cent of the world’s coastal and marine areas under national jurisdictions are declared protected. This signals the commitment of the global community to safeguard these precious ecosystems. For marine protected areas to be truly effective, however, they also require strong governance that involves relevant users and stakeholders, influences their behaviour, and ultimately reduces the impacts that result from extractive practices. Effective sharing of costs and benefits of marine protected areas is an essential step to ensure genuine sustainable development.
The interconnectedness of ecosystems and the integration of policy and society are relevant aspects of integrated management grounded in knowledge exchange practices. Such processes may also promote social learning, the joint and collaborative knowledge to tackle environmental problems. Thus, understanding knowledge exchange is an additional strategy to promote and understand social learning. This article analyzed a knowledge exchange process related to the elaboration of a proposal for the spatial delimitation of a marine protected area in Brazil, a developing country. By combining process observation and geographical information system tools, proposed areas and criteria for delimitation elaborated by different groups of stakeholders (non-scientists and scientists), separately and in an integrated discussion, were compared and used to test the hypotheses that integration under a knowledge exchange process can bring substantive changes in the outcomes of a management process, and that knowledge exchange processes can promote social learning. Results showed that the integration of different knowledge led to results that none of the groups reached in separate discussions, such as the identification of new areas, delimitation of an area of influence and new criteria for delimitation. Changes in knowledge, the framing and reframing of the processes, understating system complexity and social context were observed, which indicates that knowledge exchange promoted social learning. Additionally, the criteria used to support the delimitation proposals in the studied area can be applied to other marine protected areas in other contexts, and the methods used to guide the discussion can be adapted to other issues.
Increasingly, natural resource managers see the marine protected areas that they are responsible for as linked social-ecological systems. This requires an equal focus on managing for both natural and human dimensions of the protected estate. Consequently, identification of indicators that represent the human dimensions of Large Scale Marine Protected Areas (LSMPAs) such as the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is critical if these values are to be properly considered as part of standard management practice. Assessment and monitoring of the human dimensions of LSMPAs requires a replicable, collaborative process, rolled out at local scales but comparable across vast, socially and geographically diverse areas. This paper explores the application of a process for the development, assessment, and monitoring of the GBR's human dimensions. The process includes (a) development of a conceptual framework that links indicator sets to the desired state of the GBR's human dimensions; and (b) a collaborative approach including ten practical steps to implement assessment, monitoring, and benchmarking of the human dimensions of an LSMPA. We conclude with examination of challenges and opportunities for implementing this process in the GBR context, specifically with respect to the targets and objectives of the Reef 2050 Long-Term Sustainability Plan.
Understanding how people are dependent on Large Scale Marine Protected Areas (LSMPAs) is important for understanding how people might be sensitive to changes that affect these seascapes. We review how resource dependency is conceptualized and propose that it be broadened to include cultural values such as pride in resource status, scientific heritage, appreciation of aesthetics, biodiversity, and lifestyle opportunities. We provide an overview of how local residents (n = 3,181 face-to-face surveys), commercial fishers (n = 210, telephone surveys), and tourism operators (n = 119 telephone surveys) are potentially dependent on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), a region currently experiencing significant environmental, social, and economic change. We found that commercial fishers and tourism operators were dependent not only financially on the GBR, but also because of their age, years in the industry and region, lack of education, and the number of dependents. These stakeholders lacked flexibility to secure alternative employment. All stakeholder groups, regardless of economic imperatives, were dependent on the GBR because of their cultural connections. We propose that resource dependency also provides an umbrella concept to describe the cultural services provided by an ecosystem, which can be described through place-based dependence and place-identity.
Establishing marine protected areas (MPAs) is one of the most significant measures governments can take to halt the degradation of marine ecosystems and fisheries overexploitation. Although MPAs can be created with the support of current stakeholders, mainly fishers, implementation of spatial restrictions and of no-take zones in particular, force adjustments to the existing fisheries in the area. The Llevant de Mallorca-Cala Rajada MPA (Spain, Western Mediterranean) was created in 2007 under the patronage of the artisanal fishermen association of Cala Rajada. This study uses onboard observer data of the existing artisanal fisheries practices (métiers), their seasonality and spatial distribution of effort in the area before (2003–2007) and after (2008–2012) MPA designation, to illustrate how fishing restrictions and regulations have changed the structure and dynamics of local fishery métiers, with inshore fishing effort partially reallocated to offshore fishing grounds farther from port. Unforeseen effects of MPA restrictions concerned coastal artisanal métiers – impinging on the smaller boats and the oldest and most knowledgeable fishers – and the expansion of métiers that use newer boats and manned by younger, less experienced fishermen. Studies like this are needed to inform the design of future fisheries spatial management measures for Mediterranean artisanal fisheries that take into account foreseeable socio-economic outcomes and loss of knowledge.
Over the past decades, a number of national policies and international conventions have been implemented to promote the expansion of the world’s protected area network, leading to a diversification of protected area strategies, types and designations. As a result, many areas are protected by more than one convention, legal instrument, or other effective means which may result in a lack of clarity around the governance and management regimes of particular locations. We assess the degree to which different designations overlap at global, regional and national levels to understand the extent of this phenomenon at different scales. We then compare the distribution and coverage of these multi-designated areas in the terrestrial and marine realms at the global level and among different regions, and we present the percentage of each county’s protected area extent that is under more than one designation. Our findings show that almost a quarter of the world’s protected area network is protected through more than one designation. In fact, we have documented up to eight overlapping designations. These overlaps in protected area designations occur in every region of the world, both in the terrestrial and marine realms, but are more common in the terrestrial realm and in some regions, notably Europe. In the terrestrial realm, the most common overlap is between one national and one international designation. In the marine realm, the most common overlap is between any two national designations. Multi-designations are therefore a widespread phenomenon but its implications are not well understood. This analysis identifies, for the first time, multi-designated areas across all designation types. This is a key step to understand how these areas are managed and governed to then move towards integrated and collaborative approaches that consider the different management and conservation objectives of each designation.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has set targets for the total area of marine protected areas (MPAs), as well as targets to encourage a participatory approach to governance with equitable sharing of benefits of these areas to multiple stakeholders. These targets have contributed to a considerable volume of research in MPA governance, and in the ecological effectiveness of MPAs. However, examining the literature demonstrates there is very little joined up research to show that any particular governance approach results in improved ecological indices of fish stocks or biodiversity. Indeed, some of the well-cited examples of participatory governance implying improved ecological metrics are either incorrect (as data do not relate to MPAs under participatory governance systems), or do not provide any ecological data other than opinions of fishers to back up the claims. Evidence suggests that participatory governance approaches with equitable sharing of benefits can help the establishment and management of MPAs, and as such, there should be urgent further work assessing the ecological benefits that arise as a result of the establishment of MPAs with participatory and equitable governance approaches.
Kei Islands located inside the coral triangle. Therefore, the biodiversity level on the sea in this area is considered high. United nation has proposed for water that included in the coral triangle has to apply marine protected area (MPA) to preserve the area. The main problem is most of the community especially in Kei Islands have depended on the sea as their sources of the economy even fisheries commodity like fish play a large part on the inflation rate and other prosperity indicators likes school and housing. Also, Kei Islands practice on form local wisdom for owning areal of the sea which calls "petuanan laut" by certain of villages or group of villages in one area. This study aimed to map the cluster of catching fisheries area based on the quantity of fish supply on a local market in Kei Islands and measure each cluster on their support and perspective on Marine Protected Area (MPA). We conducted a focus group discussion and collecting additional data by questionnaires with descriptive and quantitative analysis with logistic regression. The implication of this study can provide a clear view of coastal communities view on MPA program also to identify an area that has marine resources, human resources, and equipment to provide government an empirical view on catching fisheries in Kei Islands to issued better policy to develop fishing industry in Kei Islands.