Marine protected area (MPA) plays important roles to achieve biodiversity conservation and fisheries management goals, and as the main tool for ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). However, the goals of the local MPA in Indonesia is faced with the legal problems due to the enactment of Law No. 23/2014 on Local Government, regulate that the district or municipality government is no longer has authority to manage shoreline area within four miles as well as local MPA. The new law implies mismanagement of the MPA due to lack of capacity provincial government to manage the additional area of authority. There is no responsible institution focus to manage the MPA yet. This study aims to analyze the deregulation of Bontang City authority to manage the MPA. This research was conducted from January to April 2019 using normative juridical methods on the legal basis of MPA management. The results of this study suggested that based on Law No. 23/2014, actually the Bontang City Government still has opportunity to manage the MPA even though this area within the authority of Provincial Government. The authority of the Bontang City is still imbedded in several local government agencies, such as the Environment Agency, Community and Village Empowerment Service, and Fisheries Service. The institutional strengthening of the local MPA Bontang is proposed in two stages, in the short term through establishment of a Working Group involving the government of East Kalimantan Provinces and the City of Bontang, while in the long term to establish a new institution of the Technical Implementation Unit is under the Provincial Marine and Fisheries Agency.
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
The Natura 2000 Network is the world’s largest coordinated network of protected areas. The PNSACV is part of the 168 protected sites established under the Natura 2000 Network in Portugal. Direct interactions between large marine vertebrates, such as sea turtles, cetaceans and seabirds and the world fisheries are very common and can be a serious threat to many populations. Interviews were conducted between September and December of 2018 to gather information on the fishing fleet operating in the park, the presence of marine protected species (MPS) and the eventual conflicts between the marine life and the fisheries. The majority of the fishers interviewed operating in the park reported to use bottom set nets (38.7%), the rest operated pots and traps (18.7%), longlines (16%) and purse seine (6.7%). From all the fishermen interviewed (n=75), one fifth (20%) reported to operate polyvalent boats. The most sighted species in the PNSACV were the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and the northern gannet (Morus bassanus). All the fishermen interviewed reported to have some kind of interaction with the MPS studied, being the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) reported as the most interactive species. Although interactions do not seem to have a significant economic impact to the fishermen, some relevant bycatch events of some species in specific gears (e.g bottlenose dolphins and northern gannet in bottom set nets, common dolphins and yellow-legged gull in purse seine) were observed. This is a consequence of the obvious overlap between their distribution range and the more frequently used fishing grounds and arises some awareness on continuing efforts to monitor closely the impact of coastal fisheries on the mortality of marine protected species.
- Protected areas are central to biodiversity conservation. For marine fish, marine protected areas (MPAs) often harbour more individuals, especially of species targeted by fisheries. But precise pathways of biodiversity change remain unclear. For example, how local‐scale responses combine to affect regional biodiversity, important for managing spatial networks of MPAs, is not well known. Protection potentially influences three components of fish assemblages that determine how species accumulate with sampling effort and spatial scale: the total number of individuals, the relative abundance of species and within‐species aggregation. Here, we examined the contributions of each component to species richness changes inside MPAs as a function of spatial scale.
- Using standardized underwater visual survey data, we measured the abundance and species richness of reef fishes in 43 protected and 41 fished sites in the Mediterranean Sea.
- At both local and regional scales, increased species evenness caused by added common species in MPAs compared to fished sites was the most important proximate driver of higher diversity.
- Site‐to‐site variation in the composition (i.e. β‐diversity) of common species was also higher among protected sites, and depended on sensitivity to exploitation. There were more abundant exploited species at regional scales than at local scales, reflecting a tendency for different protected sites to harbour different exploited species. In contrast, fewer abundant unexploited species were found at the regional scale than at the local scale, meaning that relative abundances at the regional scale were less even than at the local scale.
- Synthesis and applications. Although marine protected areas (MPAs) are known to strongly influence fish community abundance and biomass, we found that changes to the relative abundance of species (i.e. increased evenness) dominated the biodiversity response to protection. MPAs had more relatively common species, which in turn led to higher diversity for a given sampling effort. Moreover, higher β‐diversity of common species meant that local‐scale responses were magnified at the regional scale due to site‐to‐site variation inside protected areas for exploited species. Regional conservation efforts can be strengthened by examining how multiple components of biodiversity respond to protection across spatial scales.
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a conservation tool designed to adequately manage and protect marine resources threatened by human activity by addressing both biological and socioeconomic needs. The Irish Sea is a busy waterway under the jurisdiction of six entities (Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, the Isle of Man, Scotland, England, and Wales). Within this body of water there are almost 200 conservation designations across 111 MPA sites, with many sites having multiple designations (national, EU, and international). Data is lacking on the effectiveness of these protected areas in reaching their conservation objectives due to sites being inadequately monitored. The race to meet the 10% marine protected area target set by the Conservation on Biological Diversity, however, may be compromising effective planning. Do multiple designations ensure better protection of the marine environment, or is the Irish Sea home to paper parks, offering little protection? Metadata compiled from the World Database on Protected Areas and conservation reports from MPA managers were used to investigate this question. The results show a positive correlation between the number of designations of a site and the existence of a publicly available management plan. The presence of a management plan was also linked to whether or not site assessments were conducted by the relevant authorities, and sites having multiple designations was weakly correlated with favourable assessment outcomes. The results of this study highlight the need to better understand the requirements of national, regional and international-level conservation designations and how they interact with each other.
This study provides a synthesis of current scientific evidence on the ecological and socio-economic effects of highly protected marine areas (HPMAs), primarily in temperate waters. The aim was to establish if HPMAs can provide benefits beyond those afforded by other types of marine protected area (MPA). We identify critical interactions within and between ecological and socio-economic effects to help marine planners and managers make informed decisions about the trade-offs of alternate management actions or measures for MPAs. Well-designed and enforced MPAs with high levels of protection (HPMAs) often provide conservation benefits within their boundaries beyond those afforded by other types of MPA. Much remains to be learned about the socio-economic effects of HPMAs. Empirical evidence to date suggests that potential benefits cannot all be maximised simultaneously because potentially conflicting trade-offs exist not only between but also within ecological and socio-economic effects. Marine planners and managers must be able to evaluate the impact and distribution of trade-offs for differing management regimes; to make informed decisions about levels of protection required in MPAs to ensure sustainable use of marine resources and meet conservation objectives. One of the main challenges remains providing evidence of the societal benefits from restricting use in these areas.
The specific objectives of this document are:
- To initiate a sustainable socio-economic approach applied to the context of Mediterranean MPAs.
- To strengthen the socio-economic role of Mediterranean MPAs.
- To guide MPA managers and stakeholders towards income generating activities in MPAs and surrounding territories.
- To change the perception of decision-makers on MPAs as a natural capital investment project.
- To guide integrated marine and coastal conservation policies in the Mediterranean.
To the extent, this document represents an interesting piece of work for MPAs programme staff, economists, scientists, decision-makers in charge of the management of marine and coastal natural resources in the Mediterranean countries that are Contracting Parties in the Barcelona Convention.
There has been a recent proliferation of large‐scale marine protected areas (MPAs) containing pelagic habitats. These contribute substantially toward meeting the area‐based goal of Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 and to managing pelagic ecosystem pressures, including fishing. We assessed theoretical and empirical evidence for the achievement of ecological objectives by static and dynamic spatial management of pelagic fisheries. Exceptionally few studies have assessed ecological responses to MPAs that constrain pelagic fisheries, leaving substantial uncertainty over their efficacy. Assessments have provided a limited basis for causal inferences and have not evaluated whether other management tools would be more effective. Pelagic MPAs have relatively high promise to mitigate fisheries bycatch of species of conservation concern with “slow” life history traits and that form temporally and spatially predictable hotspots, and for some species, to protect habitats important for critical life history stages. It would be challenging to design MPAs to maintain absolute biomass levels of target stocks near targets and above limits: MPAs would need to be extensive to account for broad and variable distributions, and account for catch risk outside of the MPA, including from displaced fishing effort and fishing‐the‐line. For non‐overexploited stocks, which is the status of most target pelagic species and their prey, there would likely be little response in absolute stock biomass to an MPA. While pelagic MPAs have a higher promise of increasing target stocks’ local abundance, evidence with a robust basis for inferring causality is needed. Reducing fishing mortality of prey species might not affect the biomass of their pelagic predators because prey species experience light fishing pressure and because there may be a weak correlation between the absolute abundance of forage fish and their predators. There is an especially limited basis for predicting the effects of MPAs on fisheries‐induced evolution (FIE) in pelagic species. We describe how pelagic MPAs could be designed to achieve five ecological objectives without causing cross‐taxa conflicts and exacerbating FIE. To fill substantial gaps in knowledge, we prescribe counterfactual‐based modeling of time series data of standardized catch records to infer causation in assessments of ecological responses to pelagic MPAs.
In partially protected marine areas, such as recreational fishing havens (RFHs), fishery‐independent surveys and recreational angler surveys represent two of the few available methods of collecting length‐frequency data to monitor population responses to protection from commercial fishing and the impacts of ongoing recreational fishing. Although length data plays an important role in facilitating stock assessment and monitoring within RFHs, little is known about the relative magnitude and direction of size‐selective biases introduced by fishery‐independent surveys and angler surveys. This study quantitatively compared length data derived from the two methods for three exploited species or taxa (bream species complex of Acanthopagrus spp. [hybrid complex of Black Bream A. butcheri × Yellowfin Bream A. australis], Dusky Flathead Platycephalus fuscus, and Sand Whiting Sillago ciliata) sampled from two estuarine RFHs in Australia. When all lengths sampled by each method were compared, the species‐specific length frequencies derived from angler surveys and fishery‐independent surveys differed significantly in all cases but for Dusky Flathead from one RFH. Following standardization for minimum‐legal‐length restrictions, the angler survey method captured a more representative spectrum of lengths for Acanthopagrus spp. For Dusky Flathead, angler surveys and fishery‐independent surveys performed equally in terms of the lengths captured. Although length frequencies for Sand Whiting above minimum legal length differed significantly between the methods in both RFHs, spatial inconsistencies precluded a clear conclusion for this species. The fact that neither method consistently outperformed the other across all species supports the idea that using both angler surveys and fishery‐independent surveys in a complimentary manner may enable a clearer understanding of size compositions across multiple species for monitoring and stock assessment purposes and thereby facilitate an ecosystem‐based approach to fishery assessment and management.
This study examined the effects of SCUBA bubbles on fish counts in underwater visual surveys conducted in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM). Specifically, paired fish surveys were conducted at each survey site, utilizing two different gear types: open-circuit SCUBA (OC) and closed-circuit rebreather (CCR). Bubble exhaust released from the OC equipment is a potential source of bias for in-situ fish observations, as the associated audio and visual disturbances could either attract or repel fishes depending on whether their behavior is more driven by curiosity or caution. The study area, is a large (~1.5 million km2) and extremely remote marine protected area in which the response of coral reef fishes to divers represent natural behavior of naive fishes with little or no previous contact with humans. Historically, surveys conducted on OC in this area have shown an abundance of large roving piscivores and this study set out to determine the extant, if any, the audible and visual disturbances of OC bubbles have. The species typically seen in these prior surveys were Caranx ignobilis, Caranx melampygus, Aprion virescens, and a couple of species of sharks. We found differences in counts for some roving piscivores, including significantly more jacks observed on OC than CCR (Caranx ignobilis 57% more, and Caranx melampygus 113% more). Instance of first encounter, i.e. the time when a fish was first observed during a survey, also varied for some species. Higher numbers of Aprion virescens (p = 0.04), and C. melampygus (p = <0.001) were observed in the first 5-minutes of counts by divers on OC (i.e. when they were using breathing apparatus that produced noises that could be heard over long distances). Although not the focus of the study, we also assessed differences between OC and CCR counts for other groups of fishes. Estimated abundance of benthic damselfish was higher on OC than CCR, and counts of butterflyfish were lower on OC; but there were no significant differences for the other groups considered. This is an important control study that documents the natural responses of coral reef fishes to SCUBA bubbles generated by in-situ surveys.
- Marine protected areas (MPAs) can be effective tools for marine resource management. However, despite evidence of the positive effects of MPAs, such as increases in body sizes of organisms targeted by fisheries, there is often heterogeneity in biological outcomes among them.
- Because fishing can drastically impact fish populations, the goal of this study was to determine if the levels of exploitation prior to protection could predict variation in the magnitude of MPA effects.
- Using a diver‐operated stereo–video camera system, we compared sizes of fishes targeted by anglers within seven MPAs spanning the Southern California Bight to nearby comparison areas (non‐MPAs). We used fine‐scale data on pre‐closure fishing pressure to test responses of fishes to protection along a gradient of exploitation.
- Fish size responded to protection in proportion to pre‐closure fishing pressure, with MPAs in areas with high pre‐closure fishing having greater responses in average lengths and size distributions than those in areas with low fishing pressure.
- This response was evident in species heavily targeted by recreational fishing, but not in species that were not targeted in fisheries.
- Synthesis and applications. Pre‐closure fishing pressure of an area can impact the efficacy of MPAs, and, when available, should be considered when predicting and evaluating MPA performance. Prioritizing heavily exploited areas for protection when implementing spatial management tools could maximize ecological outcomes.