Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

Human and climatic drivers affect spatial fishing patterns in a multiple-use marine protected area: The Galapagos Marine Reserve

Castrejon M, Charles A. Human and climatic drivers affect spatial fishing patterns in a multiple-use marine protected area: The Galapagos Marine Reserve. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0228094. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228094
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Assessments of the effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs) usually assume that fishing patterns change exclusively due to the implementation of an MPA. This assumption increases the risk of erroneous conclusions in assessing marine zoning, and consequently counter-productive management actions. Accordingly, it is important to understand how fishers respond to a combination of the implementation of no-take zones, and various climatic and human drivers of change. Those adaptive responses could influence the interpretation of assessment of no-take zone effectiveness, yet few studies have examined these aspects. Indeed, such analysis is often unfeasible in developing countries, due to the dominance of data-poor fisheries, which precludes full examination of the social-ecological outcomes of MPAs. In the Galapagos Marine Reserve (Ecuador), however, the availability of long-term spatially explicit fishery monitoring data (1997–2011) for the spiny lobster fishery allows such an analysis. Accordingly, we evaluated how the spatiotemporal allocation of fishing effort in this multiple-use MPA was affected by the interaction of diverse climatic and human drivers, before and after implementation of no-take zones. Geographic information system modelling techniques were used in combination with boosted regression models to identify how these drivers influenced fishers’ behavior. Our results show that the boom-and-bust exploitation of the sea cucumber fishery and the global financial crisis 2007–09, rather than no-take zone implementation, were the most important drivers affecting the distribution of fishing effort across the archipelago. Both drivers triggered substantial macro-scale changes in fishing effort dynamics, which in turn altered the micro-scale dynamics of fishing patterns. Fishers’ adaptive responses were identified, and their management implications analyzed. This leads to recommendations for more effective marine and fishery management in the Galapagos, based on improved assessment of the effectiveness of no-take zones.

Human and climatic drivers affect spatial fishing patterns in a multiple-use marine protected area: The Galapagos Marine Reserve

Castrejon M, Charles A. Human and climatic drivers affect spatial fishing patterns in a multiple-use marine protected area: The Galapagos Marine Reserve. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0228094. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228094
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Assessments of the effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs) usually assume that fishing patterns change exclusively due to the implementation of an MPA. This assumption increases the risk of erroneous conclusions in assessing marine zoning, and consequently counter-productive management actions. Accordingly, it is important to understand how fishers respond to a combination of the implementation of no-take zones, and various climatic and human drivers of change. Those adaptive responses could influence the interpretation of assessment of no-take zone effectiveness, yet few studies have examined these aspects. Indeed, such analysis is often unfeasible in developing countries, due to the dominance of data-poor fisheries, which precludes full examination of the social-ecological outcomes of MPAs. In the Galapagos Marine Reserve (Ecuador), however, the availability of long-term spatially explicit fishery monitoring data (1997–2011) for the spiny lobster fishery allows such an analysis. Accordingly, we evaluated how the spatiotemporal allocation of fishing effort in this multiple-use MPA was affected by the interaction of diverse climatic and human drivers, before and after implementation of no-take zones. Geographic information system modelling techniques were used in combination with boosted regression models to identify how these drivers influenced fishers’ behavior. Our results show that the boom-and-bust exploitation of the sea cucumber fishery and the global financial crisis 2007–09, rather than no-take zone implementation, were the most important drivers affecting the distribution of fishing effort across the archipelago. Both drivers triggered substantial macro-scale changes in fishing effort dynamics, which in turn altered the micro-scale dynamics of fishing patterns. Fishers’ adaptive responses were identified, and their management implications analyzed. This leads to recommendations for more effective marine and fishery management in the Galapagos, based on improved assessment of the effectiveness of no-take zones.

Individual and Population Benefits of Marine Reserves for Reef Sharks

Dwyer RG, Krueck NC, Udyawer V, Heupel MR, Chapman D, Pratt HL, Garla R, Simpfendorfer CA. Individual and Population Benefits of Marine Reserves for Reef Sharks. Current Biology [Internet]. 2020 . Available from: https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(19)31600-8
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

No-take marine protected areas (MPAs) are a commonly applied tool to reduce human fishing impacts on marine and coastal ecosystems. However, conservation outcomes of MPAs for mobile and long-lived predators such as sharks are highly variable. Here, we use empirical animal tracking data from 459 individual sharks and baited remote underwater video surveys undertaken in 36 countries to construct an empirically supported individual-based model that estimates the conservation effectiveness of MPAs for five species of coral reef-associated sharks (Triaenodon obesus, Carcharhinus melanopterus, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, Carcharhinus perezi, and Ginglymostoma cirratum). We demonstrate how species-specific individual movement traits can contribute to fishing mortality of sharks found within MPAs as they move outside to adjacent fishing grounds. We discovered that the world’s officially recorded coral reef-based managed areas (with a median width of 9.4 km) would need to be enforced as strict no-take MPAs and up to 5 times larger to expect protection of the majority of individuals of the five investigated reef shark species. The magnitude of this effect depended on local abundances and fishing pressure, with MPAs required to be 1.6–2.6 times larger to protect the same number of Atlantic and Caribbean species, which occur at lower abundances than similar species in the western Pacific. Furthermore, our model was used to quantify partially substantial reductions (>50%) in fishing mortality resulting from small increases in MPA size, allowing us to bridge a critical gap between traditional conservation planning and fisheries management. Overall, our results highlight the challenge of relying on abundance data alone to ensure that estimates of shark conservation impacts of MPAs follow the precautionary approach.

Mangrove ecosystem for sustainable tourism in Dampier Strait Marine Protected Area Raja Ampat

Yulianda F, Kaber Y, Bengen DG, Dahuri R. Mangrove ecosystem for sustainable tourism in Dampier Strait Marine Protected Area Raja Ampat. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;404:012086. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/404/1/012086
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Mangrove forests are considered very productive ecosystems in tropical coastal areas. They consist of valuable resources which provide services in terms of physical, biological and socio-economic functions. Human intervention and development have impacted the coastal ecosystems. The research was carried out to assess the biodiversity of mangrove ecosystem for sustainable tourism in Dampier strait, Raja Ampat. The data collected in Manswar islands, Gam islands, and the southern part of Waigeo island, and Batanta islands. Mangrove sampling was carried out at 7 (seven) stations which were selected randomly. The baseline data were used to develop the model of integrated and sustainable mangrove forest management in marine protected area Raja Ampat. The maximum number of visitors to each mangrove destination in Dampier Strait MPA ranged from 376 persons per year for Pandawa Resort to 39,486 person per year for the Nature Reserve Waringkabom. Two management areas were designed for mangrove ecotourism, namely Batanta management area and Gam island, Manswar islands, and South of Waigeo management area. These areas could be assigned as mangrove ecotourism based on resort management, based on property right of local community management and local customary management, and based on partnership and collaboration management.

Strengthening of local marine protected area (MPA) in local autonomy era: Case of Bontang City East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

Solihin A, Isdahartati , Damar A, Erwiantono . Strengthening of local marine protected area (MPA) in local autonomy era: Case of Bontang City East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;414:012024. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012024
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine protected area (MPA) plays important roles to achieve biodiversity conservation and fisheries management goals, and as the main tool for ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). However, the goals of the local MPA in Indonesia is faced with the legal problems due to the enactment of Law No. 23/2014 on Local Government, regulate that the district or municipality government is no longer has authority to manage shoreline area within four miles as well as local MPA. The new law implies mismanagement of the MPA due to lack of capacity provincial government to manage the additional area of authority. There is no responsible institution focus to manage the MPA yet. This study aims to analyze the deregulation of Bontang City authority to manage the MPA. This research was conducted from January to April 2019 using normative juridical methods on the legal basis of MPA management. The results of this study suggested that based on Law No. 23/2014, actually the Bontang City Government still has opportunity to manage the MPA even though this area within the authority of Provincial Government. The authority of the Bontang City is still imbedded in several local government agencies, such as the Environment Agency, Community and Village Empowerment Service, and Fisheries Service. The institutional strengthening of the local MPA Bontang is proposed in two stages, in the short term through establishment of a Working Group involving the government of East Kalimantan Provinces and the City of Bontang, while in the long term to establish a new institution of the Technical Implementation Unit is under the Provincial Marine and Fisheries Agency.

Early conservation benefits of a de facto marine protected area at San Clemente Island, California

Esgro MW, Lindholm J, Nickols KJ, Bredvik J. Early conservation benefits of a de facto marine protected area at San Clemente Island, California. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0224060. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0224060
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

De facto marine protected areas (DFMPAs) are regions of the ocean where human activity is restricted for reasons other than conservation. Although DFMPAs are widespread globally, their potential role in the protection of marine habitats, species, and ecosystems has not been well studied. In 2012 and 2013, we conducted remotely operated vehicle (ROV) surveys of marine communities at a military DFMPA closed to all civilian access since 2010 and an adjacent fished reference site at San Clemente Island, the southernmost of California’s Channel Islands. We used data extracted from ROV imagery to compare density and biomass of focal species, as well as biodiversity and community composition, between the two sites. Generalized linear modeling indicated that both density and biomass of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) were significantly higher inside the DFMPA. Biomass of ocean whitefish (Caulolatilus princeps) was also significantly higher inside the DFMPA. However, species richness and Shannon-Weaver diversity were not significantly higher inside the DFMPA, and overall fish community composition did not differ significantly between sites. Demonstrable differences between the DFMPA and fished site for two highly sought-after species hint at early potential benefits of protection, though the lack of differences in the broader community suggests that a longer trajectory of recovery may be required for other species. A more comprehensive understanding of the potential conservation benefits of DFMPAs is important in the context of marine spatial planning and global marine conservation objectives.

Ecological coherence of Marine Protected Areas: New tools applied to the Baltic Sea network

Jonsson PR, Moksnes P‐O, Corell H, Bonsdorff E, Jacobi MNilsson. Ecological coherence of Marine Protected Areas: New tools applied to the Baltic Sea network. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems [Internet]. 2020 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/aqc.3286
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article
  1. Spatial connectivity is an essential process to consider in the design and assessment of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). To help maintain and restore marine populations and communities MPAs should form ecologically coherent networks. How to estimate and implement connectivity in MPA design remains a challenge.
  2. Here a new theoretical framework is presented based on biophysical modelling of organism dispersal, combined with a suite of tools to assess different aspects of connectivity that can be integrated in MPA design. As a demonstration, these tools are applied to an MPA network in the Baltic Sea (HELCOM MPA).
  3. The tools are based on the connectivity matrix, which summarizes dispersal probabilities, averaged over many years, between all considered areas in the geographic target area. The biophysical model used to estimate connectivity included important biological traits that affect dispersal patterns where different trait combinations and habitat preferences will produce specific connectivity matrices representing different species.
  4. Modelled connectivity matrices were used to assess local retention within individual MPAs, which offers indications about the adequacy of size when MPAs are considered in isolation. The connectivity matrix also provides information about source areas to individual MPAs, e.g. sources of larvae or pressures such as contaminants. How well several MPAs act as a network was assessed within a framework of eigenvalue perturbation theory (EPT). With EPT, the optimal MPA network with respect to connectivity can be identified. In addition, EPT can suggest optimal extensions of existing MPA networks to enhance connectivity. Finally, dispersal barriers can be identified based on the connectivity matrix, which may suggest boundaries for management units.
  5. The assessment of connectivity for the HELCOM MPA are discussed in terms of possible improvements, but the tools presented here could be applied to any region.

Strengthening of local marine protected area (MPA) in local autonomy era: Case of Bontang City East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

Solihin A, Isdahartati , Damar A, Erwiantono . Strengthening of local marine protected area (MPA) in local autonomy era: Case of Bontang City East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;414:012024. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012024
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine protected area (MPA) plays important roles to achieve biodiversity conservation and fisheries management goals, and as the main tool for ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). However, the goals of the local MPA in Indonesia is faced with the legal problems due to the enactment of Law No. 23/2014 on Local Government, regulate that the district or municipality government is no longer has authority to manage shoreline area within four miles as well as local MPA. The new law implies mismanagement of the MPA due to lack of capacity provincial government to manage the additional area of authority. There is no responsible institution focus to manage the MPA yet. This study aims to analyze the deregulation of Bontang City authority to manage the MPA. This research was conducted from January to April 2019 using normative juridical methods on the legal basis of MPA management. The results of this study suggested that based on Law No. 23/2014, actually the Bontang City Government still has opportunity to manage the MPA even though this area within the authority of Provincial Government. The authority of the Bontang City is still imbedded in several local government agencies, such as the Environment Agency, Community and Village Empowerment Service, and Fisheries Service. The institutional strengthening of the local MPA Bontang is proposed in two stages, in the short term through establishment of a Working Group involving the government of East Kalimantan Provinces and the City of Bontang, while in the long term to establish a new institution of the Technical Implementation Unit is under the Provincial Marine and Fisheries Agency.

Interactions of Marine Protected Species with Artisinal Fishers in the Parque Natural do Sudoeste Aletejano e Costa Vicentina (PNSACV) and Adjacent Classified Areas (SPAs and SACs)

Alexandre TSofia Ferr. Interactions of Marine Protected Species with Artisinal Fishers in the Parque Natural do Sudoeste Aletejano e Costa Vicentina (PNSACV) and Adjacent Classified Areas (SPAs and SACs). UNIVERSIDADE DE LISBOA; 2019.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Thesis

The Natura 2000 Network is the world’s largest coordinated network of protected areas. The PNSACV is part of the 168 protected sites established under the Natura 2000 Network in Portugal. Direct interactions between large marine vertebrates, such as sea turtles, cetaceans and seabirds and the world fisheries are very common and can be a serious threat to many populations. Interviews were conducted between September and December of 2018 to gather information on the fishing fleet operating in the park, the presence of marine protected species (MPS) and the eventual conflicts between the marine life and the fisheries. The majority of the fishers interviewed operating in the park reported to use bottom set nets (38.7%), the rest operated pots and traps (18.7%), longlines (16%) and purse seine (6.7%). From all the fishermen interviewed (n=75), one fifth (20%) reported to operate polyvalent boats. The most sighted species in the PNSACV were the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and the northern gannet (Morus bassanus). All the fishermen interviewed reported to have some kind of interaction with the MPS studied, being the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) reported as the most interactive species. Although interactions do not seem to have a significant economic impact to the fishermen, some relevant bycatch events of some species in specific gears (e.g bottlenose dolphins and northern gannet in bottom set nets, common dolphins and yellow-legged gull in purse seine) were observed. This is a consequence of the obvious overlap between their distribution range and the more frequently used fishing grounds and arises some awareness on continuing efforts to monitor closely the impact of coastal fisheries on the mortality of marine protected species.

Mediterranean marine protected areas have higher biodiversity via increased evenness, not abundance

Blowes SA, Chase JM, Di Franco A, Frid O, Gotelli NJ, Guidetti P, Knight TM, May F, McGlinn DJ, Micheli F, et al. Mediterranean marine protected areas have higher biodiversity via increased evenness, not abundance. Journal of Applied Ecology [Internet]. 2020 . Available from: https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1365-2664.13549
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article
  1. Protected areas are central to biodiversity conservation. For marine fish, marine protected areas (MPAs) often harbour more individuals, especially of species targeted by fisheries. But precise pathways of biodiversity change remain unclear. For example, how local‐scale responses combine to affect regional biodiversity, important for managing spatial networks of MPAs, is not well known. Protection potentially influences three components of fish assemblages that determine how species accumulate with sampling effort and spatial scale: the total number of individuals, the relative abundance of species and within‐species aggregation. Here, we examined the contributions of each component to species richness changes inside MPAs as a function of spatial scale.
  2. Using standardized underwater visual survey data, we measured the abundance and species richness of reef fishes in 43 protected and 41 fished sites in the Mediterranean Sea.
  3. At both local and regional scales, increased species evenness caused by added common species in MPAs compared to fished sites was the most important proximate driver of higher diversity.
  4. Site‐to‐site variation in the composition (i.e. β‐diversity) of common species was also higher among protected sites, and depended on sensitivity to exploitation. There were more abundant exploited species at regional scales than at local scales, reflecting a tendency for different protected sites to harbour different exploited species. In contrast, fewer abundant unexploited species were found at the regional scale than at the local scale, meaning that relative abundances at the regional scale were less even than at the local scale.
  5. Synthesis and applications. Although marine protected areas (MPAs) are known to strongly influence fish community abundance and biomass, we found that changes to the relative abundance of species (i.e. increased evenness) dominated the biodiversity response to protection. MPAs had more relatively common species, which in turn led to higher diversity for a given sampling effort. Moreover, higher β‐diversity of common species meant that local‐scale responses were magnified at the regional scale due to site‐to‐site variation inside protected areas for exploited species. Regional conservation efforts can be strengthened by examining how multiple components of biodiversity respond to protection across spatial scales.

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