Marine/Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP)

Multi-scale multi-level marine spatial planning: A novel methodological approach applied in South Africa

Lagabrielle E, Lombard AT, Harris JM, Livingstone T-C. Multi-scale multi-level marine spatial planning: A novel methodological approach applied in South Africa Lepczyk CA. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2018 ;13(7):e0192582. Available from: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192582
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This study proposes and discusses a multi-scale spatial planning method implemented simultaneously at local and national level to prioritize ecosystem management actions across landscapes and seascapes. Mismatches in scale between the occurrence of biodiversity patterns and ecological processes, and the size and nature of the human footprint, and the different levels and scope of governance, are a significant challenge in conservation planning. These scale mismatches are further confounded by data resolution disparities across and amongst the different scales. To address this challenge, we developed a multi-resolution scale-linked marine spatial planning method. We tested this approach in the development of a Conservation Plan for a significant portion of South Africa’s exclusive economic zone, adjacent to the east coast province of KwaZulu-Natal (the SeaPlan project). The study’s dataset integrated the geographic distribution of 390 biodiversity elements (species, habitats, and oceanographic processes) and 38 human activities. A multi-resolution system of planning unit layers (PUL), with individual PUs ranging in resolution from 0.2 to 10 km, was designed to arrange and analyse these data. Spatial priorities for conservation were selected incrementally at different scales, contributing conservation targets from the fine-, medium- and large-scale analyses, and from the coast to the offshore. Compared to a basic single-resolution scale-unlinked plan, our multi-resolution scale-linked method selects 6% less conservation area to achieve the same targets. Compared to a multi-resolution scale-unlinked plan, our method requires only an additional 5% area. Overall, this method reflects the multi-scale nature of marine social-ecological systems more realistically, is relatively simple and replicable, and serves to better connect fine-scale and large-scale spatial management policies. We discuss the impacts of this study on protected area expansion planning processes in South Africa. This study showcases a methodological advance that has the potential to impact marine spatial planning practices and policies.

Using ecological modelling in marine spatial planning to enhance ecosystem-based management

Shabtay A, Portman ME, Ofir E, Carmel Y, Gal G. Using ecological modelling in marine spatial planning to enhance ecosystem-based management. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2018 ;95:14 - 23. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18300812
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Growing awareness of the role of marine spatial planning (MSP) in promoting sustainable development and ecosystem-based management highlights the need to use decision-support tools, and specifically ecological modelling tools, to consider the future impact of planning and management on the marine environment. However, how these tools can be incorporated into planning and their expected contribution is not always clear. Here, an Ecopath with Ecosim and Ecospace food-web model was used in a hypothetical planning process to examine the integration of food-web tools in specific stages of MSP. The model was used to examine spatial alternatives and management strategies for Orot Rabin coastal infrastructure facility in the Israeli Mediterranean coast, in an attempt to assess how such facilities might promote marine conservation. The results revealed the effect of different management protocols on the ecosystem, and provide the maximum allowable catch for sustaining the biomass of vulnerable fish species in the area, which can be used in MSP to address specific marine conservation goals. The model led to counterintuitive understandings regarding the management of the area. It demonstrated that intensive development under specific management strategies may promote conservation goals better than some management strategies directed towards ecological and recreational purposes. This study confirms the potential usefulness of food-web models for MSP; it specifies the stages and means by which planners can use models. Furthermore, it is suggested that tool's development should be planning-oriented and should include more applications to serve planners who aim to promote ecosystem-based management and marine conservation goals.

Multi-scale multi-level marine spatial planning: A novel methodological approach applied in South Africa

Lagabrielle E, Lombard AT, Harris JM, Livingstone T-C. Multi-scale multi-level marine spatial planning: A novel methodological approach applied in South Africa Lepczyk CA. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2018 ;13(7):e0192582. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0192582
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This study proposes and discusses a multi-scale spatial planning method implemented simultaneously at local and national level to prioritize ecosystem management actions across landscapes and seascapes. Mismatches in scale between the occurrence of biodiversity patterns and ecological processes, and the size and nature of the human footprint, and the different levels and scope of governance, are a significant challenge in conservation planning. These scale mismatches are further confounded by data resolution disparities across and amongst the different scales. To address this challenge, we developed a multi-resolution scale-linked marine spatial planning method. We tested this approach in the development of a Conservation Plan for a significant portion of South Africa’s exclusive economic zone, adjacent to the east coast province of KwaZulu-Natal (the SeaPlan project). The study’s dataset integrated the geographic distribution of 390 biodiversity elements (species, habitats, and oceanographic processes) and 38 human activities. A multi-resolution system of planning unit layers (PUL), with individual PUs ranging in resolution from 0.2 to 10 km, was designed to arrange and analyse these data. Spatial priorities for conservation were selected incrementally at different scales, contributing conservation targets from the fine-, medium- and large-scale analyses, and from the coast to the offshore. Compared to a basic single-resolution scale-unlinked plan, our multi-resolution scale-linked method selects 6% less conservation area to achieve the same targets. Compared to a multi-resolution scale-unlinked plan, our method requires only an additional 5% area. Overall, this method reflects the multi-scale nature of marine social-ecological systems more realistically, is relatively simple and replicable, and serves to better connect fine-scale and large-scale spatial management policies. We discuss the impacts of this study on protected area expansion planning processes in South Africa. This study showcases a methodological advance that has the potential to impact marine spatial planning practices and policies.

Contributions of marine infrastructures to marine planning and protected area networking

Shabtay A, Portman ME, Carmel Y. Contributions of marine infrastructures to marine planning and protected area networking. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/aqc.2916
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article
  1. Marine infrastructures are becoming ubiquitous as a result of the increasing exploitation of resources in the nearshore environment. These infrastructures are frequently linked with habitat degradation, pollution, and the establishment and spread of alien species. As marine infrastructures are perceived as threats to marine ecosystems, they are typically disregarded in conservation planning schemes.
  2. Here, the presence of invertebrates and fish was surveyed in infrastructure areas with prohibited public access, as well as in nearby rocky reef areas that had no infrastructure and were open to the public.
  3. It was found that species richness, Shannon diversity, and uniqueness of both fish and invertebrates were significantly higher in the infrastructure habitats than in the rocky reef habitats in most cases. Surprisingly, the findings show that the proportion of alien species was higher in the unprotected rocky reef habitats compared with that in the infrastructure habitats.
  4. These counterintuitive findings suggest that marine infrastructures that limit unauthorized access to the surrounding territory may contribute to conservation if they are acknowledged and managed, according to their potential to provide a habitat for marine species. This suggests that these areas should be considered by planners as opportunities to enhance the connectivity of populations and to supplement marine protected areas in heavily impacted marine environments.

Using best expert judgement to harmonise marine environmental status assessment and maritime spatial planning

Elliott M, Boyes SJ, Barnard S, Borja A. Using best expert judgement to harmonise marine environmental status assessment and maritime spatial planning. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2018 ;133:367 - 377. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X18303369
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

All maritime states have the challenge of maintaining the environmental quality of their seas while at the same time maximising their economic potential thus requiring appropriate science, governance and management measures. In Europe, directives and regulations are used to address the pressures affecting the health and sustainability of marine resources, and to promote Good Environmental Status (GES) (e.g. the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, MSFD), while having a coherent and integrated pattern of sea use (e.g. the Maritime Spatial Planning Directive, MSPD). Therefore, an approach is required to meet these challenges for all maritime states including, for Europe, the joint adoption of these two directives. As such an approach does not yet exist, one is proposed here based on a hypothetical example and a Best Expert Judgement (BEJ) methodology. Forty-two marine science, management and impact assessment specialists provided views on a hypothetical marine scenario to derive and interrogate a framework applicable to marine areas with multiple uses and users. The scenario allowed the severity of the activity effects-footprints to be determined on the 11 MSFD Descriptors of GES with that severity being weighted according to the area of each activity effect-footprint. In turn, this allowed the calculation of marine regional environmental status thereby indicating whether the adoption of quality assessment and spatial planning can be mutually beneficial, or are antagonistic in meeting environmental targets. This paper uses the proposed approach to discuss maximising the assimilative capacity of a marine area and minimising the environmental degradation due to new activities. It especially shows the role of BEJ in cases where marine adaptive management is still required despite their being an often paucity of information or data on which to base management decisions.

How can Automatic Identification System (AIS) data be used for maritime spatial planning?

Le Tixerant M, Le Guyader D, Gourmelon F, Queffelec B. How can Automatic Identification System (AIS) data be used for maritime spatial planning?. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117305999
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
Yes
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Although the importance of Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) as a concept is know acknowledged and the legal framework is in place, the task of applying it remains a delicate one. One of the keys to success is having pertinent data. Knowing how maritime uses unfold in a spatio-temporal context, and what conflicting or synergistic interactions exist between activities, is crucial. However, this information is especially hard to obtain in a marine environment. As a result this information has often been identified as the missing layer in information systems developed by maritime stakeholders. Since 2002, the Automatic Identification System (AIS) has been undergoing a major development. Allowing for real time geo-tracking and identification for equipped vessels, the data that issues from AIS data promises to map and describe certain marine human activities.

After recapitulating the main characteristics of AIS and the data it provides, this article proposes to evaluate how AIS is currently used in MSP at a European level, and to concisely present a series of methods and results obtained within the framework of several operational research projects. The objective is to illustrate how the AIS data processing and analysis can produce adequate information for MSP: maritime traffic density, shipping lanes and navigation flows, hierarchical network of maritime routes, alleged fishing zones, spatio-temporal interactions between activities (potential conflicting uses or synergies). The conclusion looks in particular at the legal questions concerning the use of AIS.

Imbalances in interaction for transboundary marine spatial planning: Insights from the Baltic Sea Region

Janßen H, Varjopuro R, Luttmann A, Morf A, Nieminen H. Imbalances in interaction for transboundary marine spatial planning: Insights from the Baltic Sea Region. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2018 ;161:201 - 210. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117307470
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) has evolved over many years and since its early beginnings there has been a growing urgency to develop transboundary planning. This is because the borders of marine ecosystems and the dynamics of some maritime activities, such as navigation, are not restricted to or bound by specific political and administrative borders. Cooperation across borders has been promoted by higher political levels for decades, and the implementation of cross-border consultation procedures is regulated by law. However, literature suggests that transboundary interaction is not an obvious step in the process of MSP and that today's practices have various weaknesses. This paper examines current practices and procedures of transboundary MSP interactions in the Baltic Sea Region to date. It brings together results from MSP process observations and interviews with marine planners in two recent research projects (Baltic SCOPE and BONUS BALTSPACE). Our results confirm the need for transboundary interaction and integration. The research also shows that there are differences in how MSP agencies interact with domestic and foreign stakeholders. Furthermore, formal transboundary consultations often seem to be limited to topics of the environment and health, and to the stakeholders responsible in these realms. The results include a variety of ways to overcome these challenges.

Identifying conservation priority areas to inform maritime spatial planning: A new approach

Fernandes Mda Luz, Quintela A, Alves FL. Identifying conservation priority areas to inform maritime spatial planning: A new approach. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2018 ;639:1088 - 1098. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969718317959
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Accommodating sea uses while protecting the ecosystems is a challenge of the marine planning and management process. The European Directive on Maritime Spatial Planning calls for Maritime Spatial Plans until 2021 developed within an Ecosystem Based Management approach. The main goal of this study is to support the Maritime Spatial Planning process with ecological meaningful information, namely identifying priority areas for conservation that are facing less anthropogenic impacts. We developed a new approach for selection of high priority areas for conservation using Marxan software and Cumulative Impacts decision support tools. We identified four main areas prone to conservation in Portuguese mainland subdivision, namely the areas of Figueira da Foz/Peniche, south Cabo Espichel/Sines, Cabo Sardão/Faro and Lagos/Faro. The outputs from this study show the valuable input when allocating space to activities and uses in the marine realm supporting the planning process in the development of management alternatives. This case study also illustrates how ecological goals can be better included to contribute to the Maritime Planning process in Portugal. Systematic planning can be applied to support the connection between Marine Strategy Framework and Maritime Spatial Planning European Directives. This is highly relevant in the time being for Portugal, as the 2nd cycles of both directives are ongoing.

Integrating climate change and human impacts into marine spatial planning: A case study of threatened starfish species in Brazil

Patrizzi NS, Dobrovolski R. Integrating climate change and human impacts into marine spatial planning: A case study of threatened starfish species in Brazil. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2018 ;161:177 - 188. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569118301200
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
Yes
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Network expansion of marine protected areas in a changing world is a difficult task for conservation planners. Brazil experiences a combination of low and uneven protection of marine environmets, increasing anthropogenic pressures, climate change, and gaps in information regarding the geographical distribution of many species (Wallacean shortfall). Here, we addressed these issues and present a strategy for identifying priority marine areas for conservation in Brazil that would contribute to increasing species representation and achievement of conservation targets. Within this strategy, we accounted for (i) species range shifts due to climate change and their influence on species distribution, (ii) the lack of species geographical distribution data, and (iii) anthropic pressures on oceans. First, we built ecological niche models (ENMs) for 12 threatened starfish species in both present and future (2100) times using Maxent. We also quantified and mapped species range shifts. Second, we developed three conservation spatial solutions and compared the 10% top-ranked areas. The results showed that ENMs had a good performance in representing the distribution of species, even those that had few occurrence records. Our models forecasted a significant range expansion for the majority of species (10 out 12) by 2100. We found that the priority sites covering the top-ranked 10% in the study area identified in ours conservation spatial solutions would protect between 10.41% and 15.88%, on average, of suitable areas for the starfish species. Our results indicated priority sites for conservation less affected by anthropic pressures (~2%) when data on human impacts on oceans were incorporated into the spatial prioritization process. We identified a network of priority marine sites for conservation that minimized human influence and considered the effects of climate change on species distribution. We used threatened starfish species as a case study for illustrating our approach; however, such an approach could be applied to any taxonomic group, which supports the development of more effective conservation actions that represent biodiversity under such threats.

Lessons learned in marine governance: Case studies of marine spatial planning practice in the U.S.

Smythe TC, McCann J. Lessons learned in marine governance: Case studies of marine spatial planning practice in the U.S. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2018 ;94:227 - 237. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17308990
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an approach to marine governance and the management of marine space requiring extensive stakeholder participation and interagency and inter-organizational cooperation. While a rich literature and set of practitioner guidance on MSP has developed, few studies include empirical research or identify lessons learned based on practitioner experience. The authors conducted three case studies of MSP in Washington, San Francisco Bay, and Rhode Island, U.S., including 50 practitioner and stakeholder interviews, to identify practitioners’ lessons learned regarding stakeholder participation and inter-organizational cooperation. Findings were then shared with 43 practitioners at an MSP workshop to ensure lessons resonated with a broader practitioner community. The authors found that practitioners had learned the importance of using both formal and informal stakeholder participation methods; leveraging pre-existing relationships as a foundation for MSP; and setting and managing the expectations of both stakeholders and agency partners. Results point to the effectiveness of using pre-existing stakeholder forums to build informal authentic dialogue between participants, rather than establishing new advisory bodies to support MSP. Further, pre-existing groups and other pre-existing relationships and communication networks are an important source of social capital for MSP. Last, clear communication and transparency are important in setting and managing stakeholders’ and agency partners’ expectations for MSP. This paper concludes with recommendations for further empirical research into practitioners’ MSP experience, particularly in the U.S., and for a new generation of practitioner guidance based on research and including practical strategies to help practitioners work within the real-world constraints of politics and budgets.

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