This thesis analyses the projects that are used to produce coherent transnational Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) by the EU, in accordance with the MSP directive. As the number of projects have increased, there are so many that there is a possibility that knowledge generated in the projects does not reach subsequent projects. The research was carried out by way of a qualitative content analysis, and used a framework based on planning theory, MSP theory, projectification theory, knowledge management and organisational learning. The coupling of theories allowed for identification of positive and negative consequences of using projects, and what mechanisms facilitate for knowledge management within temporary organisations such as projects. Basing the analysis on planning theory and MSP theory allowed the research to focus on what knowledge was relevant to the knowledge generating process. Together in the framework the theories made it possible to process the large amount of data in the analysis and produce comprehensible results. The findings indicate that when projects have a stable core of participating civil servants and organisations, it is easier to retain knowledge between projects. The results also point towards good knowledge retention in general between MSP projects that are designed to build on one another, but less so regarding the knowledge retention from the supporting research projects, suggesting that closer collaboration might be in order for the generated knowledge to come to good use.
Marine/Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP)
- Connectivity of marine populations and ecosystems is crucial to maintaining and enhancing their structure, distribution, persistence, resilience and productivity. Artificial hard substrate, such as that associated with oil and gas platforms, provides settlement opportunities for species adapted to hard substrates in areas of soft sediment. The contribution of artificial hard substrate and the consequences of its removal (e.g. through decommissioning) to marine connectivity is not clear, yet such information is vital to inform marine spatial planning and future policy decisions on the use and protection of marine resources.
- This study demonstrates the application of a social network analysis approach to quantify and describe the ecological connectivity, informed by particle tracking model outputs, of hard substrate marine communities in the North Sea. Through comparison of networks with and without artificial hard substrate, and based on hypothetical decommissioning scenarios, this study provides insight into the contribution of artificial hard substrate, and the consequence of decommissioning, to the structure and function of marine community connectivity.
- This study highlights that artificial hard substrate, despite providing only a small proportion of the total area of hard substrate, increases the geographic extent and connectivity of the hard substrate network, bridging gaps, thereby providing ‘stepping stones’ between otherwise disconnected areas of natural hard substrate. Compared to the baseline scenario, a decommissioning scenario with full removal of oil and gas platforms results in a nearly 60% reduction in connectivity. Such reduction in connectivity may have negative implications for species’ distribution, gene flow and resilience following disturbance or exploitation of marine hard substrate communities.
- Synthesis and applications. Social network analysis can provide valuable insight into connectivity between marine communities and enable the evaluation of impacts associated with changes to the marine environment. Providing standardized, transparent and robust outputs, such a tool is useful to facilitate understanding across different disciplines, including marine science, marine spatial planning and marine policy. Social network analysis therefore has great potential to address current knowledge gaps with respect to marine connectivity and crucially facilitate assessment of the impacts of changes in offshore substrate as part of the marine spatial planning process, thereby informing policy and marine management decisions.
Jor Bay Lombok is a marine protected area (MPA) which is initiated by local communities, which have a local-driven marine management regulation called Awiq-awiq. Unfortunately, the fisheries condition has continued to decline in the past decades, where the rate of exploitation of capture fisheries in Jor Bay shows an unbalanced condition because the harvest value is still higher than the recruitments and growth. Awiq-awiq regulates all existing utilization and protection of marine resources, but yet, has not included spatial aspects, leaving a situation that leads to unsustainability for fisheries resources and other resources. Balanced zoning of ecosystems and marine resources is needed in order to ensure the sustainability of the fisheries system in Jor Bay. This paper aims to illustrate how a marine spatial planning approach in a local MPA can be built with a community-based zoning system. The integration of local systems and formal-government systems is very effective and fast in the development of MPA zoning systems by considering the optimum allocation of the existence of ecosystems that guarantee the natural metabolic processes of the fisheries system in the Bay. The implementation of the MPA zoning system is expected to be able to support the guarantee of sustainable fisheries production for the surrounding region.
Marine spatial planning aims to create a framework for the oceans and seas that minimise conflicts between economic activities within the marine environment while maintaining good environmental status. Although reports by international – and national – organisations suggest there are economic benefits to marine spatial planning this analysis has, to date, been aspatial. Employing an explorative Q methodology approach with ten participants, this paper seeks to address this spatial and distributive gap by exploring stakeholders (marine renewable energy, fishing industry, aquaculture and marine tourism) perceptions of the economic impacts of marine spatial planning across varying (local to national) geographical scales in the U.K. The paper develops a typology of three different perspectives on the economic impacts of marine spatial planning: the optimistic ‘place-makers’; the sceptical ‘place-holders’; and the utilitarian ‘place-less’. Findings highlight that participants loading onto a specific ‘type’ cannot simply be explained by stakeholder categorisation. This research contributes to the coastal management literature by identifying differing perceptions on the ‘spatial economic impact’ of marine spatial planning by economic actors utilising marine and coastal areas in the U.K.
The success of Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) depends on the effective participation of small-scale fishers (SSFs), and the extent to which marine governance in general can address the problems they face. As Poland's MSP in areas that are key to small-scale fisheries are yet to begin, this paper explores tensions in the country's looming coastal MSP processes through clarifying both the risks faced by SSFs and their perspectives on MSP. Using semi-structured interviews with SSFs and analytical literature reviews on small-scale fisheries, it is found that Poland's MSP is cast against a contentious history of marine resource management that shapes negative perceptions of and attitudes towards both the European Union-mediated MSP and marine scientists. Notably, SSFs believe that (1) authorities often undervalue and underutilize their experiential knowledge, (2) MSP is intended primarily to facilitate the siting of offshore wind farms and, (3) scientific knowledge is either not effectively communicated or is at the service of investors. A discussion follows that proposes measures through which planners can ensure procedural fairness. The paper concludes by offering TURF-Reserves as a novel and integrated co-management system within MSP which has potentials for empowering SSFs and revitalizing Poland's small-scale fisheries, while ensuring effective marine protection.
The current arrangements for the management of the marine resources of Bangladesh are not adequate for sustainable management. Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) may be a tool to achieve sustainable management of marine resources. The Government of Bangladesh is planning for the development of MSP for sustainable management of the marine resources in the Bay of Bengal. However, a clear understanding of the current and required legal and institutional arrangements for the development of MSP in Bangladesh is essential for sustainable management of the marine resources. This article analyzes the current legal and institutional arrangements concerning the management of marine resources and explores potential inadequacies for the development of MSP for sustainable management. The article refers to the legal and institutional arrangements of other coastal states which have already developed MSP to find out the required arrangements for the development of MSP in Bangladesh.
Existing marine bioregions covering the Pacific Ocean are conceptualised at spatial scales that are too broad for national marine spatial planning. Here, we developed the first combined oceanic and coastal marine bioregionalisation at national scales, delineating 262 deep-water and 103 reef-associated bioregions across the southwest Pacific. The deep-water bioregions were informed by thirty biophysical environmental variables. For reef-associated environments, records for 806 taxa at 7369 sites were used to predict the probability of observing taxa based on environmental variables. Both deep-water and reef-associated bioregions were defined with cluster analysis applied to the environmental variables and predicted species observation probabilities, respectively to classify areas with high taxonomic similarity. Local experts further refined the delineation of the bioregions at national scales for four countries. This work provides marine bioregions that enable the design of ecologically representative national systems of marine protected areas within offshore and inshore environments in the Pacific.
Most fisheries management systems rely on a set of regulatory measures to achieve desired objectives. Controls on catch and effort are usually supplemented with gear restrictions, minimum landing sizes, and in the framework of the new common fisheries policy, limitation of discards and by-catch. However, the increasing use of spatial management measures such as conservation areas or spatial and temporal area closures faces new challenges for fishery managers. Here we present an integrated spatial framework to identify areas in which undersized commercial species are more abundant. Once these areas are identified they could be avoided by fishers, minimizing the fishing impact over the immature fraction of the stocks. In particular we applied this methodology to two species of megrim, Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis and L. boscii, in North Atlantic Iberian waters (ICES Divisions 8c and 9a), analyzing fishery-independent data provided by bottom-trawl surveys and environmental data through Bayesian spatial models. Results show that species exhibit species-specific spatial patterns, and we identified sensitive areas that could be used for conservation purposes. We discuss integrating technical measures together (e.g. Minimum Conservation Reference Size and spatial closures) could be a more effective approach for fishery management and this case study could be extended to other species.
Tracking data have led to evidence-based conservation of marine megafauna, but a disconnect remains between the many 1000s of individual animals that have been tracked and the use of these data in conservation and management actions. Furthermore, the focus of most conservation efforts is within Exclusive Economic Zones despite the ability of these species to move 1000s of kilometers across multiple national jurisdictions. To assist the goal of the United Nations General Assembly’s recent effort to negotiate a global treaty to conserve biodiversity on the high seas, we propose the development of a new frontier in dynamic marine spatial management. We argue that a global approach combining tracked movements of marine megafauna and human activities at-sea, and using existing and emerging technologies (e.g., through new tracking devices and big data approaches) can be applied to deliver near real-time diagnostics on existing risks and threats to mitigate global risks for marine megafauna. With technology developments over the next decade expected to catalyze the potential to survey marine animals and human activities in ever more detail and at global scales, the development of dynamic predictive tools based on near real-time tracking and environmental data will become crucial to address increasing risks. Such global tools for dynamic spatial and temporal management will, however, require extensive synoptic data updates and will be dependent on a shift to a culture of data sharing and open access. We propose a global mechanism to store and make such data available in near real-time, enabling a holistic view of space use by marine megafauna and humans that would significantly accelerate efforts to mitigate impacts and improve conservation and management of marine megafauna.
This study explores how geographic information technologies – or geo-technologies – are used in spatial planning processes, and more specifically, marine spatial planning (MSP) processes. MSP has the double advantage of being both fertile ground for a lively epistemological debate on positivism and associated with a unique space (maritime space) that is frequently reduced to a simple planar space. We investigate the role of geo-technologies in MSP processes and in particular, their capacity to reinforce power relationships by aligning spatial representation norms with dominant interests, which are then expressed through zoning. To do this, we have decided to look at the different cases involving fishing activities, given that they are resistant to zoning and infrequently regarded as a priority in MSP. This has required us to propose a method which draws on the actor-network theory and the field of critical cartography. On this basis, we perform an initial analysis of the fishery “inscriptions” produced by geo-technologies, by examining the content of 43 current marine spatial plans from around the globe. We conclude that fisheries are generally not inscribed, or incorrectly inscribed (i.e., data and representation methods are unsuitable), and as a result, fisheries align themselves more often than not “by default”. We go on to discuss the results and suggest a few ways in which dominated interests, including fisheries, can be taken into account more effectively. Aside from fisheries, dominated interests more generally include interests that are either not inscribed or incorrectly inscribed, such as non-commercial “uses” of maritime space, non-use, itinerant activities, or elements not considered as a priority for conservation objectives.