Marine/Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP)

Losing our way with mapping: Thinking critically about marine spatial planning in Scotland

Smith G, Brennan RE. Losing our way with mapping: Thinking critically about marine spatial planning in Scotland. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2012 ;69:210 - 216. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569112002335
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Marine spatial planning (MSP) is the dominant management tool for marine environments around the world and is an attempt to move beyond the sectoral governance of marine spaces. Scotland is no exception and MSP is central to its management plans. The interpretation and use of spatial data informs these plans and maps provide the backbone of the decision-making process. Whilst not refuting MSP as a governance tool, this paper examines more closely some of the inherent problems with representing marine environments spatially and how the practice of map-making inevitably interacts with social-ecological networks. Borrowing from critical cartography and Actor-Network Theory (ANT), four observations are made: 1) due to the necessary procedure of categorising and simplifying data, maps do not always accurately represent changeable marine environments and situations; 2) maps can produce reality as much as represent it; 3) mapping has become the point through which all actors and stakeholders must pass; 4) as they are obliged to pass through this point, the roles and definition of certain actors can change. This discussion of marine spatial planning in Scotland demonstrates what can be learnt from viewing marine spaces as a tightly coupled social-ecological environment.

Marine conservation of multispecies and multi-use areas with various conservation objectives and targets

Schmiing M, Diogo H, R. Santos S, Afonso P. Marine conservation of multispecies and multi-use areas with various conservation objectives and targets. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2015 ;72(3):851 - 862. Available from: http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/72/3/851.abstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine spatial management is an important step in regulating the sustainable use of marine resources and preserving habitats and species. The systematic conservation planning software “Marxan” was used to analyse the effect of different conservation objectives and targets on the design of a network of marine protected areas around two islands of the Azores archipelago, Northeast Atlantic. The analyses integrated spatial patterns of the abundance and reproductive potential of multispecies, the vulnerability of fish to fishing, habitat type, algae biotopes, and socio-economic costs and benefits (including fishing effort and recreational activities). Three scenarios focused on fisheries-related objectives (“fisheries scenarios”, FSs) and three on multiple-use and biodiversity conservation objectives (“biodiversity scenarios”, BSs), respectively. Three different protection targets were compared for each set, the existing, minimum, and maximum levels of protection, whereas conservation features were weighted according to their biologically/ecologically functioning. Results provided contrasting solutions for site selection and identified potential gaps in the existing design. The influence of the conservation objective on site selection was most evident when minimum target levels were applied. Otherwise, solutions for FSs and BSs were very similar and mostly shaped by the protection level. More important, BSs that considered opportunity cost and benefits achieved conservation targets more cost-efficiently. The presented systematic approach ensures that targets for habitats with high fish abundance, fecundity, and vulnerability are achieved efficiently. It should be of high applicability for adaptive management processes to improve the effectiveness of existing spatial management practices, in particular when fishing and leisure activities coexist, and suggest that decision-makers should account for multiple users’ costs and benefits when designing and implementing marine reserve networks.

Can we interpret the evolution of coastal land use conflicts? Using Artificial Neural Networks to model the effects of alternative development policies

Montanari A, Londei A, Staniscia B. Can we interpret the evolution of coastal land use conflicts? Using Artificial Neural Networks to model the effects of alternative development policies. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2014 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569114003020
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Environmental conflicts in coastal areas are determined by the interaction of global and local phenomena. Identifying the factors characterising the evolution of conflicts in relation to spatial dynamics is complex. Analysing related data and interpreting the results necessitate the use of methods that take this complexity into account. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been used to accomplish this task. Although ANN have been widely implemented in physics, natural science and engineering, their application in spatial and social science is still in an early stage.

We present the results of a study concerning land use conflict in the area of Civitavecchia, the main harbour of the Rome metropolitan area. Local environmental issues are air pollution from a large thermal power plant, the movement of ferries, cruise ships, and increased individual commuting. We simulate alternative policy scenarios for the conflict under study in a wider context involving 27 cases. Results indicate that only an environment-led policy is capable of reducing the intensity of the conflict. The other two proposed development tracks focussing on economic efficiency and social equity would slightly aggravate the conflict.

A state of the art review on High Water Mark (HWM) determination

Liu X, Xia J(C), Wright G, Arnold L. A state of the art review on High Water Mark (HWM) determination. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2014 ;102, Part A:178 - 190. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569114003081
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The High Water Mark (HWM) is an important cadastral boundary that separates land and water. It is also used as a baseline to facilitate coastal hazard management from which land and infrastructure development is offset to ensure the protection of property from storm surge and sea level rise. The determination of the HWM has a long history. Its definition, the mean and even the corresponding determination methods have changed through time. In addition, the location of the HWM is difficult to define accurately due to the ambulatory nature of water and coastal morphology variations.

To better understand the HWM determination, this paper reviews the development of the definition of HWM, including ordinary high water mark (OHWM), mean high water mark (MHWM), mean high water spring (MHWS) and mean higher high water (MHHW), and the existing HWM indicators, such as vegetation line and beach morphological features. Two common methods of HWM determination, field survey and remote sensing, are discussed in this paper. This is followed by the investigation of the possible factors that influence the variation of the HWM position. Furthermore, an overview of the ambulatory nature of both water and coastal morphology, which contributes to the difficulties in HWM determination, is provided. Finally, the limitations of previous determination methods and future direction in HWM determination studies are also discussed. This study concludes that it is necessary to develop a robust analytical system to identify, evaluate and integrate various factors into the process of determining the HWM.

Sensitivity assessment as a tool for spatial and temporal gear-based fisheries management

Depestele J, Courtens W, Degraer S, Haelters J, Hostens K, Leopold M, Pinn E, Merckx B, Polet H, Rabaut M, et al. Sensitivity assessment as a tool for spatial and temporal gear-based fisheries management. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2014 ;102, Part A:149 - 160. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569114003056
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an important aspect of the current European, UK and Scottish environmental agenda. The European Commission's recently published draft directive to create a common framework for MSP and integrated coastal management in EU waters and coastal areas is an indication that the sustainable management of marine and coastal waters is a pressing issue. The development of the Shetland Islands' Marine Spatial Plan (SMSP) was initiated by the Scottish Government in 2006 and is an example of a progressive regional marine spatial plan. The SMSP has successfully provided a policy framework and baseline spatial data to guide the placement of marine developments. Through policy, it provides suggestions, proposes directions and highlights opportunity for development. A model which maps cumulative pressures around the Shetland Islands, based on an ecosystem-based risk assessment and extensive knowledge of existing marine activities and uses, is the next step in identifying areas for action and marine policy formulation. This model may be used in comparable marine plan regions with access to comprehensive mapped activity data and local expertise to develop their own methodologies in addressing cumulative impacts. This research also aligns with the Marine Strategy Framework Directive which requires an analysis of the predominant pressures and impacts, including human activity, on the environmental status of marine waters which inter alia covers the main cumulative and synergetic effects.

Investigating options on how to address cumulative impacts in marine spatial planning

Kelly C, Gray L, Shucksmith RJ, Tweddle JF. Investigating options on how to address cumulative impacts in marine spatial planning. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2014 ;102, Part A:139 - 148. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569114003007
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an important aspect of the current European, UK and Scottish environmental agenda. The European Commission's recently published draft directive to create a common framework for MSP and integrated coastal management in EU waters and coastal areas is an indication that the sustainable management of marine and coastal waters is a pressing issue. The development of the Shetland Islands' Marine Spatial Plan (SMSP) was initiated by the Scottish Government in 2006 and is an example of a progressive regional marine spatial plan. The SMSP has successfully provided a policy framework and baseline spatial data to guide the placement of marine developments. Through policy, it provides suggestions, proposes directions and highlights opportunity for development. A model which maps cumulative pressures around the Shetland Islands, based on an ecosystem-based risk assessment and extensive knowledge of existing marine activities and uses, is the next step in identifying areas for action and marine policy formulation. This model may be used in comparable marine plan regions with access to comprehensive mapped activity data and local expertise to develop their own methodologies in addressing cumulative impacts. This research also aligns with the Marine Strategy Framework Directive which requires an analysis of the predominant pressures and impacts, including human activity, on the environmental status of marine waters which inter alia covers the main cumulative and synergetic effects.

Biodiversity data requirements for systematic conservation planning in the Mediterranean Sea

Levin N, Coll M, Fraschetti S, Gal G, Giakoumi S, Göke C, Heymans JJacomina, Katsanevakis S, Mazor T, Öztür B, et al. Biodiversity data requirements for systematic conservation planning in the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series [Internet]. 2014 ;508:261 - 281. Available from: http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v508/p261-281/
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Mediterranean Sea’s biodiversity and ecosystems face many threats due to anthropogenic pressures. Some of these include human population growth, coastal urbanization, accelerated human activities, and climate change. To enhance the formation of a science-based system of marine protected areas in the Mediterranean Sea, data on the spatial distribution of ecological features (abiotic variables, species, communities, habitats, and ecosystems) is required to inform conservation scientists and planners. However, the spatial data required is often lacking. In this review, we aimed to address the status of our knowledge for 3 major types of spatial information: bathymetry, classification of marine habitats, and species distributions. To exemplify the data gaps and approaches to bridge them, we examined case studies that systematically prioritize conservation in the Mediterranean Sea. We found that at present the data required for conservation planning is generally more readily available and of better quality for the European countries located in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Additionally, the Mediterranean Sea is lagging behind other marine regions where rigorous criteria for conservation planning has been applied in the past 20 yr. Therefore, we call upon scientists, governments, and international governmental and non-governmental organizations to harmonize current approaches in marine mapping and to develop a framework that is applicable throughout the Mediterranean region. Such coordination between stakeholders is urgently needed before more countries undertake further extensive habitat mapping, so that future conservation planning can use integrated spatial datasets.

Are marine protected areas and priority areas for conservation representative of humpback whale breeding habitats in the western South Atlantic?

de Castro FR, Mamede N, Danilewicz D, Geyer Y, Pizzorno JLuis A, Zerbini AN, Andriolo A. Are marine protected areas and priority areas for conservation representative of humpback whale breeding habitats in the western South Atlantic?. Biological Conservation [Internet]. 2014 ;179:106 - 114. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320714003309
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) is an important component of conservation strategies for large marine vertebrates. Thus, quantitative evaluations are necessary to assess whether their habitats are protected by these areas. In this study, the representativeness of government-established MPAs and identified priority areas for conservation (PACs) relative to the Brazilian wintering habitat of humpback whales was assessed using satellite telemetry data (n = 74 individuals). Argos-derived location data were filtered and modeled using a switching state space model (SSSM) and overlaid on shapefiles for MPAs and PACs. Humpback whales occurred in only 18.31% of the 71 MPAs observed within the species range. A lower frequency of locations was recorder inside rather than outside these areas. MPAs of Integral Protection used by humpback whales correspond to only 0.64% of the species wintering habitat. In contrast, a total of 40% of the 55 PACs observed within the same area was occupied by the whales, with a higher frequency of locations documented inside the PACs. Our results suggest that PACs encompass the species habitat in a more representative manner than MPAs. Because the former do not provide legal protection, they do not effectively contribute to the species conservation. We suggest PACs used by the species, especially Abrolhos Bank PAC, can be used as basis to refine conservation efforts of humpback whales in their breeding grounds in light of increased anthropogenic stressors. We also demonstrate that animal movement data obtained from satellite telemetry studies are useful for assessing the representativeness of MPAs and to improve management of whales.

Seychelles Marine Spatial Planning Initiative Workshop #2

Anon. Seychelles Marine Spatial Planning Initiative Workshop #2. Seychelles Marine Spatial Planning Initiative; 2014 p. 26.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

The Seychelles Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) Initiative is a public process focused on planning for, and management of, the sustainable and long-term use and health of the Seychelles Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), a marine area covering 1,374,000 km2 and 115 islands. The MSP Initiative is a government-led process, with planning and facilitation managed by a partnership between The Nature Conservancy, the Government of Seychelles, and the United Nations Development Programme - Global Environment Facility Programme Coordinating Unit. Funding for the Initiative is being provided by UNDP-GEF grants to the Government of Seychelles, and an Oceans 5 grant to The Nature Conservancy.

Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) provides a participatory and transparent way to focus on sustainable uses for the Seychelles marine environment and minimise spatial conflicts between uses. The Seychelles MSP Initiative takes an integrated, multi-sector approach and will balance ecological, social, cultural and economic objectives. The participatory nature of MSP encourages communities and private sector partners to provide advice, information and input to the Seychelles Initiative.

Article 38 of the Constitution of Seychelles provides the authority for planning and the guiding principles, vision and goals of the Seychelles Sustainable Development Strategy (SSDS) helps provide the framework for the MSP Initiative. The Initiative will develop an integrated, multi-use marine zoning and climate change adaptation plan to optimise the sustainable use and effective management of the Seychelles marine environment while ensuring and improving the social, cultural and economic wellbeing of its people. This marine plan will serve as the basis for guiding the strategies and decisions of the Seychelles Conservation & Climate Adaptation Trust (SeyCCAT) that was established by the Government of Seychelles for a Debt-for-Climate-Change-Adaptation swap. Phase I of the MSP Initiative (February 2014 – June 2015) will produce a suite of design options, tools and management strategies as a basis for further development and implementation of the national multi-use plan.

The Seychelles MSP Initiative was launched at a workshop on 4-5 February 2014 in Victoria. The key objectives of that workshop were to introduce the MSP Initiative being facilitated by The Nature Conservancy, and identify the key components that will support the Seychelles Blue Economy. People at the workshop identified seven sectors important to the scope of the planning process (in no particular order): biodiversity conservation, cultural heritage, fisheries, marine transportation, petroleum (mineral & aggregate) extraction, renewable energy, and tourism. Focusing on the seven sectors, participants were led through a 10-20 year visioning exercise to describe what they did and did not want to see for these sectors over this time scale. The results of the visioning exercise were refined into general goals by the workshop participants and ranked in order of low, medium, and high priority.

A website is currently being developed for the MSP Initiative (www.seychellesmarinespatialplanning.com) that will host all the relevant background documents, reports and presentations. The website will be used to keep all stakeholders updated on progress of the process and should be accessible by early July. In the interim, all related handouts and documents are included in the annex section.

A Guide to Evaluating Marine Spatial Plans

Ehler C. A Guide to Evaluating Marine Spatial Plans. Paris: UNESCO; 2014 p. 98.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

This guide on performance monitoring and evaluation (evaluation) is intended for practitioners responsible for planning and managing marine areas. Practitioners are the managers and stakeholders who are responsible for designing, planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating marine management plans. While its focus is on the performance monitoring and evaluation of MSP, planners and managers should know how to incorporate monitoring and evaluation considerations into the MSP process from its very beginning, and not wait until a plan is completed before thinking about how to measure “success”. Effective performance monitoring and evaluation is only possible when management objectives and expected outcomes are written in a way that is measurable, either quantitatively or qualitatively.

This guide builds on the general approach and structure of the previous UNESCO’s IOC guide, Marine Spatial Planning: a step-by-step approach toward ecosystem-based management (Ehler & Douvere 2009) available at: www.unesco-ioc-marinesp.be. Similar in organization to the first MSP guide, this one presents a logical sequence of eight steps to monitoring and evaluating the performance of management plans (and their related management actions) that are important outputs of any MSP process.

View the online Interactive Compendium to the guide here on OpenChannels at https://www.openchannels.org/msp-eval-guide.

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