Monitoring

Biomonitoring acidification using marine gastropods

Marshall DJ, Abdelhady AAwad, Wah DTing Teck, Mustapha N, Gӧdeke SH, De Silva LChandratil, Hall-Spencer JM. Biomonitoring acidification using marine gastropods. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719331547?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Ocean acidification is mainly being monitored using data loggers which currently offer limited coverage of marine ecosystems. Here, we trial the use of gastropod shells to monitor acidification on rocky shores. Animals living in areas with highly variable pH (8.6–5.9) were compared with those from sites with more stable pH (8.6–7.9). Differences in site pH were reflected in size, shape and erosion patterns in Nerita chamaeleon and Planaxis sulcatus. Shells from acidified sites were shorter, more globular and more eroded, with both of these species proving to be good biomonitors. After an assessment of baseline weathering, shell erosion can be used to indicate the level of exposure of organisms to corrosive water, providing a tool for biomonitoring acidification in heterogeneous intertidal systems. A shell erosion ranking system was found to clearly discriminate between acidified and reference sites. Being spatially-extensive, this approach can identify coastal areas of greater or lesser acidification. Cost-effective and simple shell erosion ranking is amenable to citizen science projects and could serve as an early-warning-signal for natural or anthropogenic acidification of coastal waters.

Toward a Coordinated Global Observing System for Seagrasses and Marine Macroalgae

J. Duffy E, Benedetti-Cecchi L, Trinanes J, Muller-Karger FE, Ambo-Rappe R, Boström C, Buschmann AH, Byrnes J, Coles RG, Creed J, et al. Toward a Coordinated Global Observing System for Seagrasses and Marine Macroalgae. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2019.00317/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In coastal waters around the world, the dominant primary producers are benthic macrophytes, including seagrasses and macroalgae, that provide habitat structure and food for diverse and abundant biological communities and drive ecosystem processes. Seagrass meadows and macroalgal forests play key roles for coastal societies, contributing to fishery yields, storm protection, biogeochemical cycling and storage, and important cultural values. These socio-economically valuable services are threatened worldwide by human activities, with substantial areas of seagrass and macroalgal forests lost over the last half-century. Tracking the status and trends in marine macrophyte cover and quality is an emerging priority for ocean and coastal management, but doing so has been challenged by limited coordination across the numerous efforts to monitor macrophytes, which vary widely in goals, methodologies, scales, capacity, governance approaches, and data availability. Here, we present a consensus assessment and recommendations on the current state of and opportunities for advancing global marine macrophyte observations, integrating contributions from a community of researchers with broad geographic and disciplinary expertise. With the increasing scale of human impacts, the time is ripe to harmonize marine macrophyte observations by building on existing networks and identifying a core set of common metrics and approaches in sampling design, field measurements, governance, capacity building, and data management. We recommend a tiered observation system, with improvement of remote sensing and remote underwater imaging to expand capacity to capture broad-scale extent at intervals of several years, coordinated with stratified in situ sampling annually to characterize the key variables of cover and taxonomic or functional group composition, and to provide ground-truth. A robust networked system of macrophyte observations will be facilitated by establishing best practices, including standard protocols, documentation, and sharing of resources at all stages of workflow, and secure archiving of open-access data. Because such a network is necessarily distributed, sustaining it depends on close engagement of local stakeholders and focusing on building and long-term maintenance of local capacity, particularly in the developing world. Realizing these recommendations will produce more effective, efficient, and responsive observing, a more accurate global picture of change in vegetated coastal systems, and stronger international capacity for sustaining observations.

The Importance of Connected Ocean Monitoring Knowledge Systems and Communities

Kaiser BA, Hoeberechts M, Maxwell KH, Eerkes-Medrano L, Hilmi N, Safa A, Horbel C, S. Juniper K, Roughan M, Lowen NTheux, et al. The Importance of Connected Ocean Monitoring Knowledge Systems and Communities. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00309/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1023338_45_Marine_20190625_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Ocean monitoring will improve outcomes if ways of knowing and priorities from a range of interest groups are successfully integrated. Coastal Indigenous communities hold unique knowledge of the ocean gathered through many generations of inter-dependent living with marine ecosystems. Experiences and observations from living within that system have generated ongoing local and traditional ecological knowledge (LEK and TEK) and Indigenous knowledge (IK) upon which localized sustainable management strategies have been based. Consequently, a comprehensive approach to ocean monitoring should connect academic practices (“science”) and local community and Indigenous practices, encompassing “TEK, LEK, and IK.” This paper recommends research approaches and methods for connecting scientists, local communities, and IK holders and their respective knowledge systems, and priorities, to help improve marine ecosystem management. Case studies from Canada and New Zealand (NZ) highlight the emerging recognition of IK systems in natural resource management, policy and economic development. The in-depth case studies from Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) and the new Moana Project, NZ highlight real-world experiences connecting IK with scientific monitoring programs. Trial-tested recommendations for successful collaboration include practices for two-way knowledge sharing between scientists and communities, co-development of funding proposals, project plans and educational resources, mutually agreed installation of monitoring equipment, and ongoing sharing of data and research results. We recommend that future ocean monitoring research be conducted using cross-cultural and/or transdisciplinary approaches. Vast oceans and relatively limited monitoring data coupled with the urgency of a changing climate emphasize the need for all eyes possible providing new data and insights. Community members and ocean monitoring scientists in joint research teams are essential for increasing ocean information using diverse methods compared with previous scientific research. Research partnerships can also ensure impactful outcomes through improved understanding of community needs and priorities.

A Global Plankton Diversity Monitoring Program

Batten SD, Abu-Alhaija R, Chiba S, Edwards M, Graham G, Jyothibabu R, Kitchener JA, Koubbi P, McQuatters-Gollop A, Muxagata E, et al. A Global Plankton Diversity Monitoring Program. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00321/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1023338_45_Marine_20190625_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Plankton are the base of marine food webs, essential to sustaining fisheries and other marine life. Continuous Plankton Recorders (CPRs) have sampled plankton for decades in both hemispheres and several regional seas. CPR research has been integral to advancing understanding of plankton dynamics and informing policy and management decisions. We describe how the CPR can contribute to global plankton diversity monitoring, being cost-effective over large scales and providing taxonomically resolved data. At OceanObs09 an integrated network of regional CPR surveys was envisaged and in 2011 the existing surveys formed the Global Alliance of CPR Surveys (GACS). GACS first focused on strengthening the dataset by identifying and documenting CPR best practices, delivering training workshops, and developing an integrated database. This resulted in the initiation of new surveys and manuals that enable regional surveys to be standardized and integrated. GACS is not yet global, but it could be expanded into the remaining oceans; tropical and Arctic regions are a priority for survey expansion. The capacity building groundwork is done, but funding is required to implement the GACS vision of a global plankton sampling program that supports decision-making for the scientific and policy communities. A key step is an analysis to optimize the global sampling design. Further developments include expanding the CPR for multidisciplinary measurements via additional sensors, thus maximizing the ship-of-opportunity platform. For example, defining pelagic ecoregions based on plankton and ancillary data could support high seas Marine Protected Area design. Fulfillment of Aichi Target 15, the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals, and delivering the Essential Ocean Variables and Essential Biodiversity Variables that the Global Ocean Observing System and Group on Earth Observation’s Biodiversity Observation Network have, respectively, defined requires the taxonomic resolution, spatial scale and time-series data that the CPR approach provides. Synergies with global networks exploiting satellite data and other plankton sensors could be explored, realizing the Survey’s capacity to validate earth observation data and to ground-truth emerging plankton observing platforms. This is required for a fully integrated ocean observing system that can understand global ocean dynamics to inform sustainable marine decision-making.

Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) migration in Australian waters using passive acoustic monitoring

Aulich MG, McCauley RD, Saunders BJ, Parsons MJG. Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) migration in Australian waters using passive acoustic monitoring. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2019 ;9(1). Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-45321-w
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The fin whale is a globally endangered species and is listed as threatened in Australia, however no peer-reviewed studies are available to indicate the migratory movements of the species in Australian waters. This study uses passive acoustic monitoring as a tool to identify the migratory movements of fin whales in Australian waters. Sampling was conducted from eight locations around Australia between 2009 and 2017, providing a total of 37 annual migratory records. Taken together, our observations provide evidence of fin whale migration through Australian waters, with earliest arrival of the animals recorded on the Western Australian coast, at Cape Leeuwin in April. The whales travel through Cape Leeuwin, migrating northward along the Western Australian coast to the Perth Canyon (May to October), which likely acts as a way-station for feeding. Some whales continue migrating as far north as Dampier (19°S). On Australia’s east coast, at Tuncurry, fin whale seasonal presence each year occurred later, from June to late September/October. A total of only 8,024 fin whale pulses were recorded on the east coast, compared to 177,328 pulses recorded at the Perth Canyon. We suggest these differences, as well as the spatial separation between coasts, provide preliminary evidence that the fin whales present on the east and west coasts constitute separate sub-populations.

Predicting coastal fishing community characteristics in Tanzania using local monitoring data

Robertson MD, Midway SR. Predicting coastal fishing community characteristics in Tanzania using local monitoring data. Journal of Environmental Management [Internet]. 2019 ;246:514 - 525. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479719307029
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Small-scale marine fisheries in Tanzania provide the main source of subsistence for coastal communities, yet due to poor management, they have been overexploited for decades. These coastal fisheries have historically been described as homogeneous in gear-use and fish community makeup. Yet, regional and local variability in the characteristics of these fishing communities was recently identified with community-based fisheries-dependent data. We proposed a flexible modeling approach that incorporated local monitoring data with spatial data to predict the spatial characteristics of the marine fisheries in Tanzania. The spatial models identified relationships between fishery landings and coral reef, seagrass, and mangrove habitat patch attributes, along with fisher density and a hydrologic index. Furthermore, the predicted spatial characteristics matched previously reported fishery characteristics in both districts. The maps developed by our modeling process provide a means for stakeholders and managers to understand the spatial distribution of their fisheries and in turn, focus on explicitly managing what, how, and where fishers operate. Overall, the flexible modeling approach developed here may act as a first step in incorporating local monitoring data into co-management frameworks, which may promote more sustainable fisheries management strategies in data-poor regions.

Effect of temporal and spatial resolution on identification of fishing activities in small-scale fisheries using pots and traps

Mendo T, Smout S, Russo T, D’Andrea L, James M. Effect of temporal and spatial resolution on identification of fishing activities in small-scale fisheries using pots and traps Maravelias C. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/icesjms/fsz073/5481178
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $45.00
Type: Journal Article

Analysis of data from vessel monitoring systems and automated identification systems in large-scale fisheries is used to describe the spatial distribution of effort, impact on habitats, and location of fishing grounds. To identify when and where fishing activities occur, analysis needs to take account of different fishing practices in different fleets. Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) vessels have generally been exempted from positional reporting requirements, but recent developments of compact low-cost systems offer the potential to monitor them effectively. To characterize the spatial distribution of fishing activities in SSFs, positions should be collected with sufficient frequency to allow detection of different fishing behaviours, while minimizing demands for data transmission, storage, and analysis. This study sought to suggest optimal rates of data collection to characterize fishing activities at appropriate spatial resolution. In a SSF case study, on-board observers collected Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) position and fishing activity every second during each trip. In analysis, data were re-sampled to lower temporal resolutions to evaluate the effect on the identification of number of hauls and area fished. The effect of estimation at different spatial resolutions was also explored. Consistent results were found for polling intervals <60 s in small vessels and <120 in medium and large vessels. Grid cell size of 100 × 100 m resulted in best estimations of area fished. Remote collection and analysis of GNSS or equivalent data at low cost and sufficient resolution to infer small-scale fisheries activities. This has significant implications globally for sustainable management of these fisheries, many of which are currently unregulated.

Global Observing Needs in the Deep Ocean

Levin LA, Bett BJ, Gates AR, Heimbach P, Howe BM, Janssen F, McCurdy A, Ruhl HA, Snelgrove P, Stocks KI, et al. Global Observing Needs in the Deep Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00241/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The deep ocean below 200 m water depth is the least observed, but largest habitat on our planet by volume and area. Over 150 years of exploration has revealed that this dynamic system provides critical climate regulation, houses a wealth of energy, mineral, and biological resources, and represents a vast repository of biological diversity. A long history of deep-ocean exploration and observation led to the initial concept for the Deep-Ocean Observing Strategy (DOOS), under the auspices of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Here we discuss the scientific need for globally integrated deep-ocean observing, its status, and the key scientific questions and societal mandates driving observing requirements over the next decade. We consider the Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) needed to address deep-ocean challenges within the physical, biogeochemical, and biological/ecosystem sciences according to the Framework for Ocean Observing (FOO), and map these onto scientific questions. Opportunities for new and expanded synergies among deep-ocean stakeholders are discussed, including academic-industry partnerships with the oil and gas, mining, cable and fishing industries, the ocean exploration and mapping community, and biodiversity conservation initiatives. Future deep-ocean observing will benefit from the greater integration across traditional disciplines and sectors, achieved through demonstration projects and facilitated reuse and repurposing of existing deep-sea data efforts. We highlight examples of existing and emerging deep-sea methods and technologies, noting key challenges associated with data volume, preservation, standardization, and accessibility. Emerging technologies relevant to deep-ocean sustainability and the blue economy include novel genomics approaches, imaging technologies, and ultra-deep hydrographic measurements. Capacity building will be necessary to integrate capabilities into programs and projects at a global scale. Progress can be facilitated by Open Science and Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable (FAIR) data principles and converge on agreed to data standards, practices, vocabularies, and registries. We envision expansion of the deep-ocean observing community to embrace the participation of academia, industry, NGOs, national governments, international governmental organizations, and the public at large in order to unlock critical knowledge contained in the deep ocean over coming decades, and to realize the mutual benefits of thoughtful deep-ocean observing for all elements of a sustainable ocean.

Monitoring Marine Habitats With Photogrammetry: A Cost-Effective, Accurate, Precise and High-Resolution Reconstruction Method

Marre G, Holon F, Luque S, Boissery P, Deter J. Monitoring Marine Habitats With Photogrammetry: A Cost-Effective, Accurate, Precise and High-Resolution Reconstruction Method. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00276/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1007416_45_Marine_20190606_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Underwater photogrammetry has been increasingly used to study and monitor the three-dimensional characteristics of marine habitats, despite a lack of knowledge on the quality and reliability of the reconstructions. More particularly, little attention has been paid to exploring and estimating the relative contribution of multiple acquisition parameters on the model resolution (distance between neighbor vertices), accuracy (closeness to true positions/measures) and precision (variability of positions/measures). On the other hand, some studies used expensive or cumbersome camera systems that can restrict the number of users of this technology for the monitoring of marine habitats. This study aimed at developing a simple and cost-effective protocol able to produce accurate and reproducible high-resolution models. Precisely, the effect of the camera system, flying elevation, camera orientation and number of images on the resolution and accuracy of marine habitat reconstructions was tested through two experiments. A first experiment allowed for testing all combinations of acquisition parameters through the building of 192 models of the same 36 m2study site. The flying elevation and camera system strongly affected the model resolution, while the photo density mostly affected bundle adjustment accuracy and total processing time. The camera orientation, in turn, mostly affected the reprojection error. The best combination of parameters was used in a second experiment to assess the accuracy and precision of the resulting reconstructions. The average model resolution was 3.4 mm, and despite a decreasing precision in the positioning of markers with distance to the model center (0.33, 0.27, and 1.2 mm/m Standard Deviation (SD) in X, Y, Z, respectively), the measures were very accurate and precise: 0.08% error ± 0.06 SD for bar lengths, 0.36% ± 0.51 SD for a rock model area and 0.92% ± 0.54 SD for its volume. The 3D geometry of the rock only differed by 1.2 mm ± 0.8 SD from the ultra-high resolution in-air reference. These results suggest that this simple and cost-effective protocol produces accurate and reproducible models that are suitable for the study and monitoring of marine habitats at a small reef scale.

Monitoring program design for data‐limited marine biogenic habitats: A structured approach

Loh T‐L, Archer SK, Dunham A. Monitoring program design for data‐limited marine biogenic habitats: A structured approach. Ecology and Evolution [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ece3.5261
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine biogenic habitats—habitats created by living organisms—provide essential ecosystem functions and services, such as physical structuring, nutrient cycling, biodiversity support, and increases in primary, secondary, and tertiary production. With the growing trend toward ecosystem approaches to marine conservation and fisheries management, there is greater emphasis on rigorously designed habitat monitoring programs. However, such programs are challenging to design for data‐limited habitats for which underlying ecosystem processes are poorly understood. To provide guidance in this area, we reviewed approaches to benthic assessments across well‐studied marine biogenic habitats and identified common themes related to indicator selection, sampling methods, and survey design. Biogenic habitat monitoring efforts largely focus on the characteristics, distribution, and ecological function of foundation species, but may target other habitat‐forming organisms, especially when community shifts are observed or expected, as well as proxies of habitat status, such as indicator species. Broad‐scale methods cover large spatial areas and are typically used to examine the spatial configuration of habitats, whereas fine‐scale methods tend to be laborious and thus restricted to small survey areas, but provide high‐resolution data. Recent, emerging methods enhance the capabilities of surveying large areas at high spatial resolution and improve data processing efficiency, bridging the gap between broad‐ and fine‐scale methods. Although sampling design selection may be limited by habitat characteristics and available resources, it is critically important to ensure appropriate matching of ecological, observational, and analytical scales. Drawing on these common themes, we propose a structured, iterative approach to designing monitoring programs for marine biogenic habitats that allows for rigorous data collection to inform management strategies, even when data and resource limitations are present. A practical application of this approach is illustrated using glass sponge reefs—a recently discovered and data‐limited habitat type—as a case study.

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