Monitoring

Assessing the impact of introduced infrastructure at sea with cameras: A case study for spatial scale, time and statistical power

Bicknell AWJ, Sheehan EV, Godley BJ, Doherty PD, Witt MJ. Assessing the impact of introduced infrastructure at sea with cameras: A case study for spatial scale, time and statistical power. Marine Environmental Research [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141113618308201
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Detecting the effects of introduced artificial structures on the marine environment relies upon research and monitoring programs that can provide baseline data and the necessary statistical power to detect biological and/or ecological change over relevant spatial and temporal scales. Here we report on, and assess the use of, Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) systems as a technique to monitor diversity, abundance and assemblage composition data to evaluate the effects of marine renewable energy infrastructure on mobile epi-benthic species. The results from our five-year study at a wave energy development facility demonstrate how annual natural variation (time) and survey design (spatial scale and power) are important factors in the ability to robustly detect change in common ecological metrics of benthic and bentho-pelagic ecosystems of the northeast Atlantic. BRUV systems demonstrate their capacity for use in temperate, high energy marine environments, but also how weather, logistical and technical issues require increased sampling effort to ensure statistical power to detect relevant change is achieved. These factors require consideration within environmental impact assessments if such survey methods are to identify and contribute towards the management of potential positive or negative effects on benthic systems.

Advancing barrier island habitat mapping using landscape position information

Enwright NM, Wang L, Borchert SM, Day RH, Feher LC, Osland MJ. Advancing barrier island habitat mapping using landscape position information. Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment [Internet]. 2019 :030913331983992. Available from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0309133319839922
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $36.00
Type: Journal Article

Barrier islands are dynamic ecosystems that change gradually from coastal processes, including currents and tides, and rapidly from episodic events, such as storms. These islands provide many important ecosystem services, including storm protection and erosion control to the mainland, habitat for fish and wildlife, and tourism. Habitat maps, developed by scientists, provide a critical tool for monitoring changes to these dynamic ecosystems. Barrier island monitoring often requires custom habitat maps due to several factors, including island size and the classification of unique geomorphology-based habitats, such as beach, dune, and barrier flats. In this study, we reviewed barrier-island-specific habitat mapping efforts and highlighted common habitat class types, source data, and mapping approaches. We also developed a framework for mapping geomorphology-based barrier island habitats using a rule-based, geographic object-based image analysis approach, which included the use of field data, tide data, high-resolution orthophotography, and lidar data. This framework integrates several barrier island mapping advancements with regard to the use of landscape position information for automated dune extraction and the use of Monte Carlo analyses for the treatment of elevation uncertainty for elevation-dependent habitats. Specifically, we used the uncertainty analyses to refine automated dune delineation based on elevation relative to extreme storm water levels and to increase the accuracy of intertidal and supratidal/upland habitat delineation. We found that dune extraction results were enhanced when elevation relative to storm water levels and visual interpretation were also applied. This framework could also be applied to beach–dune systems found along a mainland.

Proteomic profiling of ascidians as a tool for biomonitoring marine environments

Kuplik Z, Novak L, Shenkar N. Proteomic profiling of ascidians as a tool for biomonitoring marine environments Chiang T-Y. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(4):e0215005. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215005
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Applying a proteomic approach for biomonitoring marine environments offers a useful tool for identifying organisms’ stress responses, with benthic filter-feeders being ideal candidates for this practice. Here, we investigated the proteomic profile of two solitary ascidians (Chordata, Ascidiacea): Microcosmus exasperatus, collected from five sites along the Mediterranean coast of Israel; and Polycarpa mytiligera collected from four sites along the Red Sea coast. 193 and 13 proteins in Mexasperatus and Pmytiligera, respectively, demonstrated a significant differential expression. Significant differences were found between the proteomes from the northern and the southern sites along both the Mediterranean and the Red Sea coasts. Some of the significant proteins had previously been shown to be affected by environmental stressors, and thus have the potential to be further developed as biomarkers. Obtaining a proteomic profile of field-collected ascidians provides a useful tool for the early-detection of a stress response in ascidians worldwide.

A perception-based participatory monitoring and evaluation approach to foster effective co-management of the marine protected areas in Northwest Africa

Thiao D, Westlund L, Sambe B, Diadhiou HDiaw, Dème M, Mbenga A, Diop M. A perception-based participatory monitoring and evaluation approach to foster effective co-management of the marine protected areas in Northwest Africa. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2019 ;175:1 - 16. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569118309062
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

In Northwest Africa, the last two decades were characterized by the establishment of many marine protected areas (MPAs) that are considered to be major fisheries management tools. This politically motivated trend - to use for fisheries management a tool initially conceived for biodiversity conservation - emerged in a context of increasing degradation of the marine and coastal ecosystems combined with a generalized overexploitation of the main fish stocks in the Sub-Region. However, the commitment to promote MPAs neglected the necessity to regularly and effectively monitor and evaluate their effectiveness. Therefore, in 2013–2014 the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) project supported the development of an experimental participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) approach for the Northwest African MPAs. This perception-based approach, which was implemented in two pilot MPAs in Senegal and Gambia, was then widely shared and discussed through several local meetings as well as in two regional and international workshops. This article aims to document the principles and outcomes of this experimental PM&E approach and also discuss its opportunities and challenges regarding to its potential adoption and use by MPA managers.

First marlin archival tagging study suggests new direction for research

Domeier ML, Ortega-Garcia S, Nasby-Lucas N, Offield P. First marlin archival tagging study suggests new direction for research. Marine and Freshwater Research [Internet]. 2019 ;70(4):603. Available from: http://www.publish.csiro.au/MF/MF18160
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Decades of billfish tagging studies have been hindered by below-par conventional tag recovery rates and high rates of premature satellite pop-up tag shedding. With hopes of obtaining long-term tracking data, we performed the world’s first archival tagging study on an istiophorid, surgically implanting 99 archival tags into the peritoneal cavity of striped marlin (Kajikia audax) off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Marlin were also tagged externally with a conventional tag before release. Ten archival tags (10.1%) were recovered with days at liberty (DAL) ranging from 400 to 2795. Nine recoveries were from Mexican waters, whereas one marlin was recaptured off Ecuador. In total, 100% of the light stalks on the archival tags failed, with nine failing within the first 3 months of deployment; because the light data are used to estimate the geographic position of the tagged fish, tracking data were compromised. The absence of conventional tags on all recaptured marlin indicates that studies of marlin using conventional tags have been hindered by tag shedding rather than tagging-associated mortality or underreporting. Our high recapture rate and long DAL suggest istiophorid science could be greatly advanced by archival tagging if new tag designs or methods can eliminate tag failure.

A shipboard comparison of analytic methods for ballast water compliance monitoring

Bradie J, Broeg K, Gianoli C, He J, Heitmüller S, Curto ALo, Nakata A, Rolke M, Schillak L, Stehouwer P, et al. A shipboard comparison of analytic methods for ballast water compliance monitoring. Journal of Sea Research [Internet]. 2018 ;133:11 - 19. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1385110116302040
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Promising approaches for indicative analysis of ballast water samples have been developed that require study in the field to examine their utility for determining compliance with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments. To address this gap, a voyage was undertaken on board the RV Meteor, sailing the North Atlantic Ocean from Mindelo (Cape Verde) to Hamburg (Germany) during June 4–15, 2015. Trials were conducted on local sea water taken up by the ship's ballast system at multiple locations along the trip, including open ocean, North Sea, and coastal water, to evaluate a number of analytic methods that measure the numeric concentration or biomass of viable organisms according to two size categories (≥ 50 μm in minimum dimension: 7 techniques, ≥ 10 μm and < 50 μm: 9 techniques). Water samples were analyzed in parallel to determine whether results were similar between methods and whether rapid, indicative methods offer comparable results to standard, time- and labor-intensive detailed methods (e.g. microscopy) and high-end scientific approaches (e.g. flow cytometry). Several promising indicative methods were identified that showed high correlation with microscopy, but allow much quicker processing and require less expert knowledge. This study is the first to concurrently use a large number of analytic tools to examine a variety of ballast water samples on board an operational ship in the field. Results are useful to identify the merits of each method and can serve as a basis for further improvement and development of tools and methodologies for ballast water compliance monitoring.

Satellite-based indicator of zooplankton distribution for global monitoring

Druon J-N, Hélaouët P, Beaugrand G, Fromentin J-M, Palialexis A, Hoepffner N. Satellite-based indicator of zooplankton distribution for global monitoring. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2019 ;9(1). Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-41212-2
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This study investigates the association between an index of mesozooplankton biomass, derived from the Continuous Plankton Recorder survey and satellite-derived productivity fronts in the North Atlantic. While chlorophyll-a content (CHL) is commonly described as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass, the size of productivity fronts estimated from the horizontal gradient of CHL appears to be directly linked to mesozooplankton biomass. Our results suggest that the lifespan of productivity fronts, which ranges from weeks to months, meets the time requirement of mesozooplankton to develop. The proposed indicator describes the daily distribution of mesozooplankton’s suitable feeding habitat. It also provides a coherent interpretation of the productivity front development with respect to phytoplankton activity (CHL values) and potential predation by higher trophic levels. Since mesozooplankton are essential for feeding at higher trophic levels, this satellite-derived indicator delivers essential information for research and policy. An unanticipated positive trend of the indicator from 2003 to 2017 is observed at a basin scale under the current effects of climate change, with regional peaks in relatively poorly productive areas. Such monitoring indicator is potentially important to advances in marine food web modelling, fisheries science and the dynamic management of oceans towards sustainability.

A rapid in situ fluorescence census for coral reef monitoring

Ramesh CH, Koushik S, Shunmugaraj T, Murthy MVRamana. A rapid in situ fluorescence census for coral reef monitoring. Regional Studies in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;28:100575. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352485518305954?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Journal Article

Since the discovery of Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish, many GFP-like marine fluorescent proteins have been unveiled and implicated in myriad of biomedical and toxicological research applications. However, fluorescence trait has not been implemented in the field applications so far. In this study, using a UV-blue light, we induced fluorescence of corals to identify the diseased and damaged corals as well as newly recruiting and encrusting corals buried in sedimentation and algal covers. Healthy corals have displayed complete body fluorescence, whereas the dead, damaged and diseased corals are failed to display complete fluorescence. The development of pink line disease on Porites sp. was obvious under UV illumination than in visible light, revealing the hidden disease level propagation in Porites. Coral recruitment is well appreciated in both the study locations Burmanallah and Hare Island. Results of this study infer that this method is a highly reliable and rapid in field to study recruitment, disease propagation and health status of coral reefs.

Monitoring mosaic biotopes in a marine conservation zone by autonomous underwater vehicle

Benoist NMA, Morris KJ, Bett BJ, Durden JM, Huvenne VAI, Le Bas TP, Wynn RB, Ware SJ, Ruhl HA. Monitoring mosaic biotopes in a marine conservation zone by autonomous underwater vehicle. Conservation Biology [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/cobi.13312
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $42.00
Type: Journal Article

The extent of marine protected areas (MPAs) has increased dramatically in the last decade, and poses a major logistic challenge for conservation practitioners in terms of spatial extent and the multiplicity of habitats and biotopes that now require assessment. Here we demonstrate a single field method, photographic assessment by autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) that enables the consistent description of multiple habitats, in our case including mosaics of rock and sediment. We describe a case study in the Greater Haig Fras marine conservation zone (Celtic Sea, NE Atlantic) where we distinguished seven biotopes, detected statistically significant variations in standing stocks, species density, species diversity, and faunal composition, and identified significant indicator species for each habitat. Our results demonstrate that AUV‐based photography can produce robust data for ecological research and practical marine conservation. We note that standardizing to a minimum number of individuals per sampling unit, rather than to a fixed seafloor area, may be a valuable means of defining an ecologically appropriate sampling unit. Although representing a change in ‘standard practise’, we suggest that other users consider the potential benefits of this approach in their own conservation studies. The approach is broadly applicable in the marine environment, and has already been successfully implemented in deep‐sea conservation and impact studies. It is clear that without a cost‐effective methodology, applicable across habitats, it will be difficult to progress a coherent classification of biotopes, or to routinely assess their conservation status, in the rapidly expanding global extent of MPAs.

Spatio-temporal monitoring of coastal floating marine debris in the Balearic Islands from sea-cleaning boats

Compa M, March D, Deudero S. Spatio-temporal monitoring of coastal floating marine debris in the Balearic Islands from sea-cleaning boats. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2019 ;141:205 - 214. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X1930116X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Mismanaged waste is accumulating at an alarming rate in the marine environment. Its presence has caused local authorities in the Balearic Islands to develop a coastal sea-cleaning boat service covering the region, identifying the floating marine debris, and removing it from the coastal areas. This study considered daily monitoring from May to October spanning from 2005 to 2015. Plastic marine debris composed over 54% of all floating marine debris removed daily across the Balearic Islands. The spatio-temporal patterns indicate a heterogeneous distribution of plastic in the coastal areas, with higher concentrations in the north-western and south-eastern regions of the islands and debris peaking during the month of August. Furthermore, floating marine debris was more easily collected during calm seas as well as using an integrated monitoring approach to facilitate its removal. Overall, sea-cleaning boats are highly effective in removing coastal floating marine debris.

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