Pollution and Marine Debris

Littering dynamics in a coastal industrial setting: The influence of non-resident populations

Campbell ML, de Heer CPaterson, Kinslow A. Littering dynamics in a coastal industrial setting: The influence of non-resident populations. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2014 ;80(1-2):179 - 185. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X14000162
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

We examined if there is truth to the preconceptions that non-resident workers (including FIFO/DIDO’s) detract from communities. We used marine debris to test this, specifically focussing on littering behaviour and evidence of awareness of local environmental programs that focus on marine debris. Littering was most common at recreational areas, then beaches and whilst boating. Twenty-five percent of respondents that admit to littering, reported no associated guilt with their actions. Younger respondents litter more frequently. Thus, non-resident workers litter at the same rate as permanent residents, visitors and tourists in this region, within this study. Few respondents are aware of the environmental programs that operate in their local region. Awareness was influenced by a respondent’s residency (non-residents are less aware), age, and level of education. To address this failure we recommend that industries, that use non-resident workers, should develop inductions that expose new workers to the environmental programs in their region.

Legal and institutional tools to mitigate plastic pollution affecting marine species: Argentina as a case study

Carman VGonzález, Machain N, Campagna C. Legal and institutional tools to mitigate plastic pollution affecting marine species: Argentina as a case study. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2015 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X15000077
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Plastics are the most common form of debris found along the Argentine coastline. The Río de la Plata estuarine area is a relevant case study to describe a situation where ample policy exists against a backdrop of plastics disposed by populated coastal areas, industries, and vessels; with resultant high impacts of plastic pollution on marine turtles and mammals. Policy and institutions are in place but the impact remains due to ineffective waste management, limited public education and awareness, and weaknesses in enforcement of regulations. This context is frequently repeated all over the world. We list possible interventions to increase the effectiveness of policy that require integrating efforts among governments, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and the inhabitants of coastal cities to reduce the amount of plastics reaching the Río de la Plata and protect threatened marine species. What has been identified for Argentina applies to the region and globally.

Tragedy of the unwanted commons: Governing the marine debris in Taiwan’s oyster farming

Liu T-K, Kao J-C, Chen P. Tragedy of the unwanted commons: Governing the marine debris in Taiwan’s oyster farming. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2015 ;53:123 - 130. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X14003285
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine debris is a pollution problem on a global scale, which causes harm to marine ecosystems and consequently results in profoundly negative influences on mankind. This type of pollution can originate from various activities such as leisure and tourism, fishery, land-based sources, and vessels, etc. In this study, it was found that derelict fishing gear (DFG) produced by oyster farming activities is being dispersed along the southwestern coast of Taiwan, consequently reducing the leisure quality and coastal amenities. In order to understand the current problem of DFG, related stakeholders were invited to undergo qualitative interviews to observe the stakeholders’ perceptions pertaining to DFG pollution and their opinions on subsequent mitigation measures. The results of the interviews were then used to explore management issues pertaining to DFG, as well as the trans-boundary pollution problems caused by DFG based on the theory of environmental resource governance and scales of management jurisdiction. Finally, suggestions were provided to effectively reduce the DFG pollution from oyster farming, including the strengthening of environmental education and propagation, sustaining management and monitoring of marine debris by the government, using policy tools, and applying solid waste management principles.

Assessing the Economic Benefits of Reductions in Marine Debris: A Pilot Study of Beach Recreation in Orange County, California

Leggett C, Scherer N, Curry M, Bailey R, Haab T. Assessing the Economic Benefits of Reductions in Marine Debris: A Pilot Study of Beach Recreation in Orange County, California. Cambridge, MA: Industrial Economics, Incorporated; 2014. Available from: http://marinedebris.noaa.gov/research/new-economic-study-shows-marine-debris-costs-california-residents-millions-dollars
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Marine debris is preventable, and the benefits associated with preventing it appear to be quite large. For example, the study found that reducing marine debris by 50 percent at beaches in Orange County could generate $67 million in benefits to Orange County residents for a three-month period. Given the enormous popularity of beach recreation throughout the United States, the magnitude of recreational losses associated with marine debris has the potential to be substantial.

To estimate the potential economic losses associated with marine debris, we focused on Orange County, California. We selected this location because beach recreation is an important part of the local culture and residents have a wide variety of beaches from which to choose, some of which are likely to have high levels of marine debris.

We developed a travel cost model that economists commonly use to estimate the value people derive from recreation at beaches, lakes, and parks. We collected data on 31 beaches, including some sites in Los Angeles County and San Diego County, where Orange County residents could choose to visit during the summer of 2013. At each of the 31 beaches, we collected information on beach characteristics, including amenities and measurements of marine debris. Plastic debris and food wrappers were the most abundant debris types observed across all sites. Then, we surveyed residents on their beach activities and preferences through a general population mail survey.

The mail survey data, beach characteristics, and travel costs were then incorporated in the model, and we were able to estimate how various changes to marine debris levels could influence economic losses to this area. The model is flexible in that it allowed us to simulate various levels of debris along these beaches (a percent reduction), from 0-100 percent, and generate economic benefits associated with those different reductions.

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