Recreational Uses

U.S. Mid Atlantic Coastal and Ocean Recreation Study

Anon. U.S. Mid Atlantic Coastal and Ocean Recreation Study. Surfrider Foundation, Point 97, The Nature Conservancy, Monmouth University’s Urban Coast Institute; 2014.
Freely available?: 
Summary available?: 
Type: Report

Coastal and ocean recreation provides significant economic and social benefits to coastal communities of the Mid-Atlantic, encompassing New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. It is important to understand how and where people use the coast and ocean as a first step towards better management of the natural resources integral to coastal and ocean recreation.

To address this need, and to inform regional ocean planning efforts for the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO) and the Mid-Atlantic Regional Planning Body (RPB), the Surfrider Foundation (Surfrider), in partnership with Point 97 (a company of Ecotrust), The Nature Conservancy (TNC), and Monmouth University's Urban Coast Institute (Monmouth) (jointly, the Team), in collaboration with MARCO, engaged 'non-consumptive&' recreational users such as divers, surfers, kayakers, beach goers, and wildlife viewers to carry out the Mid-Atlantic Coastal and Ocean Recreation Study (Study) in 2013-2014.

The Team used a web-based survey to collect data from respondents on recreational use patterns, trip expenditures, and demographics. The survey included a series of questions and an easy-to-use interactive mapping tool. Respondents marked places on maps where they recreated over the last 12 months. The Team then analyzed the resulting spatial data to develop maps indicating intensity of use for 16 recreational activities in the region.

To promote participation in the Study, the Team engaged coastal and ocean recreational stakeholders and regional planning partners like MARCO to collaboratively develop the survey instrument, deploy targeted outreach strategies, and review the resulting spatial data on coastal and ocean recreation use patterns.

The Team implemented a variety of outreach strategies designed to promote stakeholder engagement in all phases of the Study. Outreach efforts targeted non-consumptive coastal and ocean users and leveraged the collaboration of a broad set of recreational businesses, groups, and associations, as well as environmental organizations in the region. The Team's outreach also incorporated information about the regional ocean planning process and opportunities for public engagement.

In total, Mid-Atlantic respondents completed nearly 1,500 surveys resulting in over 22,000 unique data points. The data show that coastal and ocean recreation encompasses a popular and diverse group of activities in the Mid-Atlantic, resulting in major economic and social benefits to coastal communities. The average respondent who visited the Mid-Atlantic coast spent an average of $71.06 per trip.

The Team, in coordination with other relevant recreational use studies in the region, has made the data and information from the Study available on the MARCO Mid-Atlantic Ocean Data Portal ( and to the Mid-Atlantic Regional Planning Body (, as it develops a Regional Ocean Action Plan for coastal and ocean uses in the Mid-Atlantic.

For the first time, regional scale maps showing coastal and ocean recreational use patterns are available to help planners and managers make better-informed decisions in consideration of maintaining and improving recreational uses and values. The Team expects this new baseline to serve as a credible first iteration, a foundation to be updated and improved as new information on coastal and ocean recreation becomes available.

Automatic assessment and analysis of beach attendance using video images at the Lido of Sète beach, France

Balouin Y, Rey-Valette H, Picand P-A. Automatic assessment and analysis of beach attendance using video images at the Lido of Sète beach, France. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2014 ;102, Part A:114 - 122. Available from:
Freely available?: 
Summary available?: 
Type: Journal Article

Along Mediterranean coastlines, beach tourism represents one of the main economic resources of coastal regions. In the context of increase of coastal hazards, large management projects are currently undertaken and the evaluation of beach use is an important parameter coastal managers have to take into account in their strategies to reduce risk and maintain the recreational capacity of the beach. This contribution proposes an automatic tool to evaluate beach attendance and beach users behavior. After validating the results, an analysis of the beach attendance at the Lido of Sete Beach, on the French Mediterranean coast, is performed. Both temporal and spatial patterns are obtained and analyzed together with environmental, meteorological, social parameters of the site. Results indicate that beach attendance and beach user locations are mostly driven by meteorological conditions, while the density indicates that most of the beach users are locals or excursionists, rather than tourists. The results of the total beach attendance during the year 2012 clearly evidence an important increase of the frequentation since the large costal management project that was implemented during the last years. Given the large number of images and video available at many coastlines, the developed methodology and tool would be useful in many coastal management applications around the world.


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