Ecological trade-offs due to different perturbations are here quantified by comparing direct impacts and net effects using fishing pressures on marine ecosystems as controlled perturbations. Results highlight that trade-offs emerge in majority of cases when evaluated through multispecies models and are independent from model complexity. Trade-offs showed a dome-shaped relationship with direct impact thus supporting the theory of positive effects of intermediate levels of disturbance. Moreover, trade-off intensity resulted to be related to the capability of the system to react to perturbation, i.e., to ecosystem resilience. Overall the work shows the benefit of complex system analysis that permits the emerging ecological trade-offs which are neglected in simpler single species analyses.
Resilience underpins the sustainability of both ecological and social systems. Extensive loss of reef corals following recent mass bleaching events have challenged the notion that support of system resilience is a viable reef management strategy. While resilience-based management (RBM) cannot prevent the damaging effects of major disturbances, such as mass bleaching events, it can support natural processes that promote resistance and recovery. Here, we review the potential of RBM to help sustain coral reefs in the 21st century. We explore the scope for supporting resilience through existing management approaches and emerging technologies and discuss their opportunities and limitations in a changing climate. We argue that for RBM to be effective in a changing world, reef management strategies need to involve both existing and new interventions that together reduce stress, support the fitness of populations and species, and help people and economies to adapt to a highly altered ecosystem.
To cope with fisheries unsustainability, the Mexican government has recently promoted strategies of public participation to support decision making. This type of strategy is important in the Huave Lagunar System (HLS) in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, where fishers have historically maintained close ethnobiological interactions with their natural resources. This chapter describes the pre-Hispanic fishery system of San Francisco del Mar Pueblo Viejo under the premise that self-government practices in HLS favor the pursuit of social resilience, the ability of a self-organizing system to return to its original state after being disturbed by extreme events. The design of a Fisheries and Climate Planning Agenda that includes strategies considering key aspects of social diversity presents itself as an opportunity to facilitate the reach of social support for decision making, an essential step toward supporting a realistic panorama of sustainability for the sector.
This chapter synthesizes more than two decades of interdisciplinary scholarship by the coauthors related to fishing families and coastal communities. Amid the contemporary narrative of increasing coastal storms, erosion, and other physical hazards associated with climate and related coastal hazards facing coastal communities, we find myriad ways that Oregon fishing families and communities adapt to changes and continually demonstrate cultural and community resilience. Fishing families have exhibited their resilience through transformations in family roles, changes in the makeup of the fleet (graying), and never-ending management and resource shifts. This process of adapting to change has been a thread in our research, from one of our first collaborative projects, Adapting to Change: Fishing Businesses, Families, Communities, and Regions (1995) to our current project, The Old(er) Men of the Sea: Graying of the Fishing Industry and Its Impact on Local Community Resiliency. Our work illustrates an ever-present culture of adaptation that serves as the anchor of resilience in coastal Oregon.
Resilience has become a key concept for addressing the vulnerability of small-scale fishing households in developing countries. While effort has gone into defining the concept of resilience in relation to fishing households; very little application of the concept exists in practice. An economic resiliency strategy was developed that builds resilience through improved household assets to reduce risks and vulnerabilities. A foundational conclusion of the strategy is the importance of linking household livelihood interventions to sustainable fishing behaviors. The conservation enterprise approach facilitated a mutually beneficial relationship between biodiversity conservation and livelihoods.
The existence and dilemmas of metropolitan fisheries have been overlooked in research on the resilience of coastal marine socio-ecological systems. Yet, they could produce a model of sustainable fisheries with significant global impact. To fill that research gap, this study investigates an inshore fishery population that has sustained itself within Hong Kong's rapid urban development, seeking to understand the reasons for its survival. The results indicate that the values of self-reliance and entrepreneurialism exacted by fishing enabled the fishers to make necessary adaptations and reposition themselves in mariculture and service industries. These new ventures, while retaining marine-based livelihoods, draw the fishers away from fishing activities. The paradox of this value-based resilience of a metropolitan fishery is discussed for its potential to generate policies to strengthen linkages among the fishers’ business activities and to create a sustainable fishery model useful in other contexts.
Between 2010 and 2016, the Orkney Islands Council, Highland Council and Marine Scotland have collaborated to develop a pilot Marine Spatial Plan for the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters in Scotland. This paper explores the challenges of marine spatial planning processes by looking at the possibilities for fisheries communities to mobilize their social capital – in the form of bonding, bridging or linking – in order to re-position and to empower themselves in these processes. This paper aims to uncover the resilience of local communities that deploy social capital in order to influence MSP processes and safeguard their own interests. For this article ten weeks of qualitative fieldwork in the form of in-depth interviews and participant observation with stakeholders of the pilot marine spatial plan were conducted on the Orkney Islands in Scotland. The strong bonding social capital among fishermen in Orkney has resulted in a resilient community identity which allows for collaboration and self-organization, but also creates a defensive mentality which does not favor linking. Furthermore, a lack of trust in governmental authorities inhibits the mobilization of linking social capital among fishermen, obstructing the ability to access power through cross-scale connections. In response the fisheries community uses bridging social capital outside governance arenas to access networks and mobilize resources to strengthen its socio-economic and political position in support of future linking social capital. Researching this complex interrelation and functioning of social capital uncovers some of the social dimensions and socio-institutional constraints for fisheries engagement with and power in marine spatial planning.
More frequent and severe coral bleaching events are prompting managers to seek practical interventions to promote ecosystem resilience. Although resilience-based management is now well established theoretically, there have been few examples of implementation. In Hawai‘i, back-to-back bleaching events in 2014 and 2015 caused significant damage motivating the state to seek guidance on next steps for recovery. Hawai‘i is a unique case study in distilling global recommendations to place-based action because of its ecological and social diversity. This study conducted a systematic review of literature using a weighted point system to evaluate and rank twelve potential Hawai‘i-specific interventions to promote coral recovery following a bleaching event. Papers were scored based on their ability to achieve their management objective as well as their ability to directly affect coral recovery. A total of 100 papers were included in the review which varied in their scale (multi-site or case study), location (inside or outside of Hawai‘i), and type of data collected (theoretical or empirical). Establishing a network of herbivore management areas ranked the highest followed by parrotfish size limits for action that could promote recovery in Hawai‘i. Establishing a network of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) was the intervention with the most literature and ranked third. This method provided a systematic way to compare the effectiveness of management interventions, a system that could be adapted to other regions. This type of evidence-based approach can lead to more fair and transparent decision-making processes, assisting reef managers in navigating the translation of resilience-based management from theory to practice.
Small‐scale coastal fisheries (SSCF) in the Western region of Ghana are affected by a combination of climate and non‐climate stressors. Coastal communities are particularly vulnerable to these stressors because of their proximity to the sea and high dependence on small‐scale fisheries for their livelihoods. A better understanding of how fishing communities, particularly SSCF, respond to climate and non‐climate stressors is paramount to improve planning and implementation of effective adaptation action. Drawing on the capitals framework, this study examines the adaptive capacity of SSCF to the combined effects of climate‐related (increasing coastal erosion, and wave and storm frequency) and non‐climate‐related stressors (declining catches; scarcity and prohibitive cost of fuel; inconsiderate implementation of fisheries laws and policies; competition from the oil and gas industry; sand mining; and algal blooms). The findings show how fishers mobilise and use adaptive capacity through exploitation of various forms of capital, including cultural capital (e.g., local innovation); political capital (e.g., lobbying government and local authorities); social capital (e.g., collective action); human capital (e.g., local leadership); and natural capital (e.g., utilising beach sand) to respond to multiple stressors. Nevertheless, in many cases, fishers’ responses were reactive and led to negative (maladaptive) outcomes. Furthermore, this study underscores the importance of critically considering the interactive nature of capitals and how they collectively influence adaptive capacity in the planning and implementation of adaptation research, policy and practice.
This paper explores how people adapt to climate shocks, specifically coral bleaching, that have long-lasting impacts on income. Caused mainly by abnormally high sea surface temperature, coral bleaching has significant effects on marine resources. Using panel data from Indonesia and exogenous variations in bleaching, I observe that fishery households in affected areas experienced a decrease in income relative to other households. Although consumption expenditures did not decline significantly in response to these income shocks, these households reduced their protein consumption in the short and long runs. Regarding labor market outcomes, the affected households tended to substantially increase their labor supply and switch industries only in the long run.