Resilience

Quantifying patterns of resilience: What matters is the intensity, not the relevance, of contributing factors

Sanabria-Fernandez JA, Lazzari N, Becerro MA. Quantifying patterns of resilience: What matters is the intensity, not the relevance, of contributing factors. Ecological Indicators [Internet]. 2019 ;107:105565. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X19305576
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

 

Ecological resilience, broadly defined as the magnitude of the disturbance a system needs to shift to an alternative stable state, is becoming a critical trait in the Anthropocene era. However, we are far from having baseline resilience data to guide decision makers toward more resilient ecological systems. In the last decade, the resilience assessment framework has taken a sum of products approach to obtain a resilience indicator based on the relevance and the intensity of multiple factors. While factor intensity relies on quantitative data, estimates of factor relevance rely on ordinal data with a lesser understanding of their relative importance to resilience, which may have consequences in the value of the resilience indicator. Here, we computed three resilience indicators to test for the quantitative impact that changes in factor relevance might cause to the resilience indicator. We defined the Inclusive Resilience Indicator of a Site (IRIS) as a relevance-free indicator based exclusively on factor intensity. We also computed the Relative Resilience Potential (RRP) and an RRP with random relevance values (RRPrrv) as indicators based on both intensity and relevance. To calculate these three indicators in rocky reefs of the Alboran Sea, we quantified 17 biological, environmental, and human-related factors known to influence resilience. We used correlation analyses, Linear Mixed Models, and Generalized Additive Models to compare the three resilience indicators and to examine their spatial patterns. We found highly significant positive correlations between the RRPRRPrrv, and IRISindicators (r > 0.9, p < 0.001 for all comparisons). All three indicators had equivalent resilience values (p = 0.440), provided non-significant differences in their predictions (p = 0.097), and exposed the same resilience gradients in the Alboran Sea (p < 0.001 for all indicators). IRISaccounted for 94% and 99% of the variance associated with RRP and RRPrrv, respectively, suggesting that the intensity-based IRIS can estimate resilience without the uncertainties associated with factor relevance. The new IRIS indicator proposed in our study may facilitate the acquisition of baseline data needed to further advance in the ecological and management implications of marine resilience.

The Effect of Algal-Gardening Damselfish on the Resilience of the Mesoamerican Reef

Eisemann ÁRandazzo, Muñoz JLuis Monte, McField M, Myton J, Arias-González JErnesto. The Effect of Algal-Gardening Damselfish on the Resilience of the Mesoamerican Reef. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00414/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The structures, functions, and services provided by coral reef ecosystems are deteriorating worldwide. However, not all coral reefs are affected the same way, with some showing signs of resistance and/or recovery from disturbances. Understanding the drivers and feedbacks that contribute to shifts in community structure is valuable to support resilience-based management. In this study, key community variables that influence the resilience of coral reef ecosystems were examined in 64 sites of the Mesoamerican Reef (MAR) monitored in both 2006 and 2016, as part of the Healthy Reef Initiative (HRI), using the Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA) monitoring protocol. Based on benthic cover thresholds, sites were classified into three different states: coral state (CS) with >10% live coral and <5% fleshy macroalgae; stressed coral state (SCS) with >10% live coral and >5% fleshy macroalgae and; depauperate coral state (DCS) <10% live coral. The associations between site states and the density of different fish functional groups were analyzed to determine their effects on coral reef resilience. The results highlight that territorial herbivores (algal-gardening damselfish) may play a key role in maintaining feedbacks toward macroalgae-stressed states. This supports the recommendation of reinforcing Marine Replenishment Zones (MRZ) in order to promote healthy populations of resident predator fish (like groupers and snappers), which could potentially regulate algal-gardening damselfish populations and diminish negative cascade effects on coral reefs. Collaborative and resilience-based management will continue to be promoted by the HRI partners, supporting the establishment of additional MRZs along with ongoing efforts to directly protect herbivorous fish (surgeonfish and parrotfish) and to improve water quality, through better wastewater treatment, watershed management, and coastal development plans, with the purpose of continuing to build coral reef resilience in the MAR.

Building resilience through ecosystem restoration and community participation: Post-disaster recovery in coastal island communities

Lin P-SSonia. Building resilience through ecosystem restoration and community participation: Post-disaster recovery in coastal island communities. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction [Internet]. In Press :101249. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420919303759?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Journal Article

In post-disaster recovery phases, many communities reduce their vulnerabilities to future disasters by implementing community-based approaches. However, since these processes impact resource allocation, access to natural resources, and benefit distributions, these efforts have changed the environment and altered social relations. Therefore, this research explores how disaster empowers or disempowers stakeholders by investigating the interdependence of social relations in post-disaster natural resource management. After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, the island of Koh Klang demonstrated resilience in restoring its ecosystem. We have used this as a case study featuring a community-based project. Interviews and participant observations were conducted in the field in 2014 to collect firsthand information from local residents, NGOs, and the public sector. Text and discourse analyses were conducted based on interview data, government documents, and field notes. The findings show that after a disaster, natural resources and embedded social norms form the basis for a resilient community. Using community- and ecosystem-based methods fosters a community's environmental and social resilience and prepares it to respond to future disasters. However, such methods can also transform local politics, especially when residents' inequitable vulnerabilities and access to power are coupled with jurisdictional and land tenure issues. This research recommends that disaster recovery and mitigation policies are scaled to local levels.

Socio-ecological resilience and the law: Exploring the adaptive capacity of the BBNJ agreement

Blanchard C, Durussel C, Boteler B. Socio-ecological resilience and the law: Exploring the adaptive capacity of the BBNJ agreement. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;108:103612. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19303641?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

In search for sustainability of the oceans, the concept of resilience arises as a necessary perspective from which to analyse what course of action to take. Resilience refers to the capacity of a system to absorb change, but also to adapt and develop in face of those changes. Resilience thinking has recently permeated the sphere of legal studies, and the two fields have been interested in exploring the impact they have on one another. To explore this interaction further in the context of the management of the oceans, the present paper looks at areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) as a socio-ecological system. It argues that the law can be a tool for improving the resilience of a system, but that it must, for that purpose, be able to ensure at least some adaptive capacity. In light of the upcoming, consolidated regime for the sustainable management of biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ) through the development of an internationally legally binding agreement on the topic, and considering the uncertainty surrounding our knowledge of ABNJ, this paper suggests to look at the BBNJ agreement from the perspective of resilience thinking. The paper explores how this perspective could bring new insights to the development of the BBNJ agreement, as well as the emerging literature linking law and resilience.

Climate resilience in marine protected areas and the ‘Protection Paradox’

Bates AE, Cooke RSC, Duncan MI, Edgar GJ, Bruno JF, Benedetti-Cecchi L, Côté IM, Lefcheck JS, Costello MJohn, Barrett N, et al. Climate resilience in marine protected areas and the ‘Protection Paradox’. Biological Conservation [Internet]. 2019 ;236:305 - 314. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006320718308346
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Restricting human activities through Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is assumed to create more resilient biological communities with a greater capacity to resist and recover following climate events. Here we review the evidence linking protection from local pressures (e.g., fishing and habitat destruction) with increased resilience. Despite strong theoretical underpinnings, studies have only rarely attributed resilience responses to the recovery of food webs and habitats, and increases in the diversity of communities and populations. When detected, resistance to ocean warming and recovery after extreme events in MPAs have small effect sizes against a backdrop of natural variability. By contrast, large die-offs are well described from MPAs following climate stress events. This may be in part because protection from one set of pressures or drivers (such as fishing) can select for species that are highly sensitive to others (such as warming), creating a ‘Protection Paradox’. Given that climate change is overwhelming the resilience capacity of marine ecosystems, the only primary solution is to reduce carbon emissions. High-quality monitoring data in both space and time can also identify emergent resilience signals that do exist, in combination with adequate reference data to quantify the initial system state. This knowledge will allow networks of diverse protected areas to incorporate spatial refugiaagainst climate change, and identify resilient biological components of natural systems. Sufficient spatial replication further offers insurance against losses in any given MPA, and the possibility for many weak signals of resilience to accumulate.

Managing Recovery Resilience in Coral Reefs Against Climate-Induced Bleaching and Hurricanes: A 15 Year Case Study From Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean

Steneck RS, Arnold SN, Boenish R, de León R, Mumby PJ, Rasher DB, Wilson MW. Managing Recovery Resilience in Coral Reefs Against Climate-Induced Bleaching and Hurricanes: A 15 Year Case Study From Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00265/full?utm_source=F-NTF&utm_medium=EMLX&utm_campaign=PRD_FEOPS_20170000_ARTICLE
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Coral reefs are among the world’s most endangered ecosystems. Coral mortality can result from ocean warming or other climate-related events such as coral bleaching and intense hurricanes. While resilient coral reefs can recover from these impacts as has been documented in coral reefs throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific, no similar reef-wide recovery has ever been reported for the Caribbean. Climate change-related coral mortality is unavoidable, but local management actions can improve conditions for regrowth and for the establishment of juvenile corals thereby enhancing the recovery resilience of these ecosystems. Previous research has determined that coral reefs with sufficient herbivory limit macroalgae and improve conditions for coral recruitment and regrowth. Management that reduces algal abundance increases the recovery potential for both juvenile and adult corals on reefs. Every other year on the island of Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean, we quantified patterns of distribution and abundance of reef fish, coral, algae, and juvenile corals along replicate fixed transects at 10 m depth at multiple sites from 2003 to 2017. Beginning with our first exploratory study in 2002 until 2007 coral was abundant (45% cover) and macroalgae were rare (6% cover). Consecutive disturbances, beginning with Hurricane Omar in October 2008 and a coral bleaching event in October 2010, resulted in a 22% decline in coral cover and a sharp threefold increase in macroalgal cover to 18%. Juvenile coral densities declined to about half of their previous abundance. Herbivorous parrotfishes had been declining in abundance but stabilized around 2010, the year fish traps were phased out and fishing for parrotfish was banned. The average parrotfish biomass from 2010 to 2017 was more than twice that reported for coral reefs of the Eastern Caribbean. During this same period, macroalgae declined and both juvenile coral density and total adult coral cover returned to pre-hurricane and bleaching levels. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a resilient Caribbean coral reef ecosystem that fully recovered from severe climate-related mortality events.

Resilience of a commercial fishing fleet following emergency closures in the Gulf of Mexico

Cockrell ML, O’Farrell S, Sanchirico J, Murawski SA, Perruso L, Strelcheck A. Resilience of a commercial fishing fleet following emergency closures in the Gulf of Mexico. Fisheries Research [Internet]. 2019 ;218:69 - 82. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0165783619301146
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

We used high-resolution fisheries-dependent data and a quantitative modeling approach to examine resilience of a commercial reef fish fleet after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) emergency closures in 2010. Our results indicate that the fleet was largely resilient to the closures, although there were spatially-varying differences in attrition, and concomitant management changes and emergency payouts that likely influenced resilience. Five percent of previously active vessels exited the fleet after DWH (compared to the background annual attrition rate of ˜20%). The predicted probability of exiting after DWH was lower for vessels with a pre-closure history of high catch-per-unit-effort, low snapper revenue variability, or low grouper revenue. There was ˜80% overlap in pre- to post-DWH effort distribution, although vessels that exited concentrated effort in the north-central and eastern Gulf of Mexico. The Vessels of Opportunity program and other emergency compensation likely ameliorated some of the negative economic impactsfrom DWH, allowing more vessels to remain in the fleet than may have otherwise. Implementation of gear restrictions and individual fishing quotas leading up to DWH may have also ‘primed’ the fleet for resilience by removing marginal fishers. This work is novel in its use of high-resolution spatial data, coupled with trip logbooks, to construct quantitative models identifying drivers of fisher resilience after significant and sudden perturbations to fishery resources in the Gulf of Mexico. This work also highlights the need to better understand fisher response to disturbance for long-term fishery sustainability and management.

How quick was marine recovery after the end-Triassic mass extinction and what role did anoxia play?

Atkinson JW, Wignall PB. How quick was marine recovery after the end-Triassic mass extinction and what role did anoxia play?. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology [Internet]. 2019 ;528:99 - 119. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018219302330
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $37.95
Type: Journal Article

Oxygen restricted conditions were widespread in European shelf seas after the end-Triassic mass extinction event and they are reported to have hindered the recovery of marine benthos. Here we reconstruct the redox history of the Early Jurassic Blue Lias Formation of southwest Britain using pyrite framboid size analysis and compare this with the recovery of bivalves based on field and museum collections. Results suggest widespread dysoxia punctuated by periods of anoxia in the region, with the latter developing frequently in deeper water settings. Despite these harsh conditions, initial benthic recovery occurred rapidly in the British Jurassic, especially in shallowest settings, and shows no relationship with the intensity of dysoxia. A stable diversity was reached by the first recognised ammonite zone after the end-Triassic mass extinction. This contrasts with the deeper-water, more oxygen-poor sections where the diversity increase was still continuing in the earliest Sinemurian Stage, considerably longer than previously reported. Similar recovery rates are seen amongst other groups (brachiopods and ammonites). Oxygen-poor conditions have been suggested to delay recovery after the Permo-Triassic mass extinction, but this is not the case after the end-Triassic crisis. We suggest that this was because the European dysoxia was only a regional phenomenon and there were plenty of well-ventilated regions available to allow an untrammelled bounce back.

Key coastal landscape structures for resilient coastal green infrastructure to enhance the abundance of migratory birds on the Yellow Sea

Kim M, Choi YEui, Chon J. Key coastal landscape structures for resilient coastal green infrastructure to enhance the abundance of migratory birds on the Yellow Sea. Environmental Pollution [Internet]. 2018 ;243:1617 - 1628. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749118301659
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The aim of this study was to investigate the key landscape structures of migratory bird habitats that affect abundance of migratory birds to promote resilient coastal green infrastructure planning on the Yellow Sea coast. We classified coastal areas into four watersheds of South Korea and conducted multivariate regression analysis between migratory bird populations and landscape structures including total class area (CA), patch area distribution (MN), patch density (PD), and edge density (ED). At the national level, sandbank MN, sandbank CA, water ED, and grasslands were derived as key landscape structures affecting the abundance of migratory birds. At the watershed level, key landscape structures were determined as follows: Urban area_MN for the Han River watershed, rice paddy MN for the Asan watershed, rice paddy CA for Saemangeum, and grassland MN for the Youngsan River watershed. Considering the multifunctionality, redundancy, and connectivity of the resilience strategy, we provide specific coastal infrastructure planning recommendations at the national and watershed scales.

Towards climate resiliency in fisheries management

Holsman KK, Hazen ELee, Haynie A, Gourguet S, Hollowed A, Bograd SJ, Samhouri JF, Aydin K. Towards climate resiliency in fisheries management Anderson E. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/icesjms/fsz031/5420302
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $45.00
Type: Journal Article

It is increasingly evident that climate change is having significant impacts on marine ecosystems and dependent fisheries. Yet, translating climate science into management actions and policies is an ongoing challenge. In particular, four aspects have confounded implementation of climate-resilient management: (i) regional management tools may not be well-suited for managing the same systems under climate change, (ii) individual management policies and climate research studies are often implicitly focussed on spatio-temporal scales that are rarely aligned, (iii) management approaches seldom integrate across spatio-temporal scales and are, therefore, maladapted to unidirectional change and extreme events, and (iv) challenges to modelling socio-economic implications of climate change impede projections of cumulative costs to society, disguise adaptive limits, and ultimately impact climate risk and management trade-off assessments. We suggest that addressing environmental change favours adaptive and dynamic management approaches, while addressing shifting socio-economic and political conditions favours fixed long-term measures; considering both jointly requires a combination of dynamic-adaptive-fixed approaches. We outline a framework to integrate climate-responsive tools into a unified climate-resilient management approach using nested dynamic-adaptive-fixed management portfolios that improve management effectiveness and efficiency. This approach may help reduce future conflict between marine resource extractive and conservation goals through more explicit characterization of management trade-offs and identification of social and ecological tipping points.

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