Small-scale Fisheries

Evidence of Overfishing in Small-Scale Fisheries in Madagascar

Gough CLA, Dewar KM, Godley BJ, Zafindranosy E, Broderick AC. Evidence of Overfishing in Small-Scale Fisheries in Madagascar. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00317/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1348443_45_Marine_20200609_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Small-scale fisheries are an important source of food, income and cultural identity to millions of people worldwide. Despite many fisher people observing declining catches, a lack of data remains a barrier to understanding the status of small-scale fisheries and their effective management in many places. Where data exist, complex analyses and stock assessments are often beyond the capacity and budgets of local managers. Working with small-scale fisheries in western Madagascar, we analyze landings data to provide a description of the fishery and evaluate the top twenty most commonly caught species for evidence of overfishing. Using length composition data, we use Froese’s three simple rules: Let them spawn, let them grow and let the mega-spawners live, as well as Cope and Punt’s decision tree to infer if spawning biomass is less than target reference points. We then use length-based parameters to calculate fishing mortality and compare with published estimates of natural mortality to assess overfishing (F > M). Over 17,000 fishing trips were registered over a 2-year period (2010–2012), landing just short of 2 million individual fish. Length data were recorded for a sample of over 120,000 individuals. Fish comprised 95% of landings, with the remainder comprised of other groups including crustaceans (mostly shrimp, crab, and lobster), cephalopods, and holothurians. We provide some of the first evidence that fish species caught in the small-scale fisheries of the Menabe region of Madagascar are experiencing overfishing. The most notable result is that for 13 of the 20 most common species, fishing mortality exceeds natural mortality. Many species had a large proportion of individuals (in some cases 100%) being caught before they reached maturity. Very few species were fished at their optimal size, and there were low numbers of large individuals (mega-spawners) in catches. Overfishing in western Madagascar presents a serious threat to the income, food security and well-being of some of the most vulnerable people in the world. The results of this paper support the call for improved management. However, management approaches should take account of overlapping fisheries and be inclusive to ensure the impacts of management do not undermine the rights of small-scale fishers. Further data are needed to better understand the trends and to improve management but should not hinder pragmatic action.

Understanding Gender and Factors Affecting Fishing in an Artisanal Shellfish Fishery

Purcell SW, Tagliafico A, Cullis BR, Gogel BJ. Understanding Gender and Factors Affecting Fishing in an Artisanal Shellfish Fishery. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00297/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Fishing strategies, effort and harvests of small-scale fishers are important to understand for effective planning of regulatory measures and development programs. Gender differences in fishing can highlight inequities deserving transformative solutions, but might mask other important factors. We examined fishing modes, fishing frequency, catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE), resource preferences and perceptions of fishery stock among artisanal gastropod (trochus) fishers in Samoa using structured questionnaires and mixed effects models. The fishery has an extremely modest carbon footprint of 18–23 tons of CO2 p.a., as few fishers used motorized boats. Trochus (Rochia nilotica), an introduced gastropod, was the second-most harvested resource, after fish, despite populations only being established in the past decade. Daily catch volume varied according to gender and villages (n = 34), and was also affected by fishing effort, experience, assets (boat), and fishing costs of fishers. Boat users had much higher CPUE than fishers without a boat. Fishers who practised both gleaning and diving caught a greater diversity of marine resources; effects that explained otherwise seeming gender disparities. Trochus tended to be ranked more important (by catch volume) by women than men, and rank importance varied greatly among villages. Local ecological knowledge of fishers informed the historical colonization of trochus around Samoa and current trends in population abundance. Fishing efficiency, catch diversity and perspectives about stocks were similar between fishermen and fisherwomen, when accounting for other explanatory variables. Greater importance of these shellfish to women, and gender similarities in many of the fishing responses, underscore the need to ensure equal representation of women in the decision making in small-scale fisheries.

Addressing distribution equity in spatial conservation prioritization for small-scale fisheries

Kockel A, Ban NC, Costa M, Dearden P. Addressing distribution equity in spatial conservation prioritization for small-scale fisheries Kimirei IAaron. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(5):e0233339. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233339
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Spatial conservation prioritization is used worldwide for designing marine protected areas (MPA) that achieve set conservation objectives with minimal impacts to marine users. People involved in small-scale fisheries (SSF) may incur negative and disproportionate impacts from implementing MPAs, yet limited available data often restricts their representation in MPA planning. Using a Philippines case study, we focus here on the systematic design of a MPA network that aims to minimize and distribute costs equitably for SSF whilst achieving representation targets for biodiversity conservation. The objectives of the study are to: (1) document a participatory mapping approach for collecting SSF data for prioritization using the local knowledge of fishers; and (2) examine how the completeness and resolution of SSF data may affect prioritization outputs in terms of biodiversity representation, spatial efficiency, and distribution equity. In the data-poor region, we conducted participatory mapping workshops with fishers in 79 communities to collect data on the spatial distribution patterns of different SSF fisheries and communities, and employed remote sensing techniques to define coastal habitats, which were targeted for inclusion in MPAs. The datasets were integrated within the decision-support tool Marxan with Zones to develop three scenarios. The SSF data incorporated in each scenario varied based on their completeness (considered all fishing methods or only dominant methods) and resolution (fishing methods itemized by community or municipality). All scenarios derived MPA plans that met representation targets with similar area coverage. The outputs, however, varied in terms of distribution equity, measured by the distribution of opportunity costs (loss of fishing grounds) across different fisheries and communities. Scenarios that did not include minority fisheries or variations between communities, led to inequitable costs. These results highlight the need to incorporate detailed data on SSF at appropriate resolutions, and how this can be achieved through participatory approaches.

Towards sustainable small-scale fisheries in China: A case study of Hainan

Zhao X, Jia P. Towards sustainable small-scale fisheries in China: A case study of Hainan. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2020 :103935. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19305998
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

China is one of the most important marine fishery countries, yet little is known about its small-scale fisheries (SSFs). This paper uses Hainan Province of China as a case study to examine the present situation, predicaments, and future changes of the country's SSFs during a process of transition from extensive to green development. In doing so, we follow the social-ecological system (SES) framework to present Hainan's SSF-related settings, and study its resource systems, governance systems and actors through reviewing national and local policies, surveying and interviewing SSF stakeholders. Marine fisheries in Hainan is SSF-dominated, experienced dramatic increase in terms of yield and jobs since 1978, and became the main source of most fishermen's livelihood. Fish community structure and fishing targets have shifted from a mix of large-bodied demersals and pelagics to smaller-bodied pelagics with high growth rates and fecundity levels. This degradation puts stress on China's central and local governments to enhance the preservation of marine ecosystems. Effort controls failed to reduce fishing power due to subsidies, a series of measures were introduced in 2015 to correct these problems, including obligatory targets with accountability, subsidy reductions, buyback program, and further reductions of fishing vessels and allowable catch implemented in 2017. Hainan has explored different development directions for SSFs. First, providing policies and funds to reduce small fishing boats and construct larger vessels to support offshore and distant-water fisheries. Second, enhancing fishery value by integrating the development of fishery-related primary, secondary, and tertiary industries. Third, developing existing SSFs in a sustainable manner through standardizing SSF vessel types, delineating operating areas, developing fishing port economy, and building beautiful fishing villages. These practices illustrate that China's centralized government can likely command transformational changes in ecological and socio-economic outcomes according to policy objectives. Also, a broadened perspective that considers the ecological, social, and economic dimensions of SSFs as whole is also crucial. Moreover, the integration of fishery policies with other related socioeconomic policies, and the interdepartmental cooperation is needed to achieve policy consistency across local governments.

Short-term Estimate of Finfish Bycatch Discards in the Inshore Artisanal Shrimp Fishery of Guyana

Kalicharan L, Oxenford HA. Short-term Estimate of Finfish Bycatch Discards in the Inshore Artisanal Shrimp Fishery of Guyana. Gulf and Caribbean Research [Internet]. 2020 ;31(1):GCFI1 - GCFI9. Available from: https://aquila.usm.edu/gcr/vol31/iss1/1/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The artisanal shrimp fishery in Guyana is important for livelihood and food security, involving around 300 vessels owned and crewed exclusively by Guyanese nationals. This fishery uses Chinese seines and operates in major river estuaries. It targets penaeid shrimp, but also retains some finfish and is known to discard a significant but undocumented quantity of smaller finfish bycatch. The lack of knowledge regarding the bycatch is a concern for fishery management and biodiversity conservation. In this study, we quantify for the first time the finfish bycatch discards through onboard observations (July—August 2016) of a single typical vessel operating in the Demerara estuary. Wet weights of the total catch, retained catch, and finfish discards were recorded separately for each of 76 seine hauls, and subsequently presented as catch rates per trip, catch rates per seine haul (kg/haul), and catch rates standardized per hour of seine net soak—time (kg/hr). A sub—sample of finfish discards was taken from every haul to determine taxonomic composition and species—specific length frequencies. Examination of 2,012 discarded finfish distributed among 32 species revealed high taxonomic diversity, none of which were considered vulnerable by the IUCN Red List. Most finfish discards were small (modal size class 5—7 cm fork length) and included juveniles of 15 species of importance to other fisheries in Guyana. On average, a standardized total catch rate of 14.8 kg was taken per hour of seine net soak—time, yielding 3.9 kg retained catch (shrimp and a few selected finfish), 10.3 kg of finfish bycatch discards, and 0.6 kg of miscellaneous invertebrate discards. This demonstrates significant wastage (finfish discards represent about 69% of the total catch weight) and potential for negative impact on biodiversity and other commercial fisheries. The information provided here addresses an important knowledge gap in the artisanal fisheries of Guyana.

Sustainable Fishing? Ecological Footprint Analysis of an Artisanal Fishing Organization

Bravo-Olivas ML, Chávez-Dagostino RM. Sustainable Fishing? Ecological Footprint Analysis of an Artisanal Fishing Organization. The Open Environmental Research Journal [Internet]. 2020 ;13(1):1 - 10. Available from: https://benthamopen.com/FULLTEXT/TOECOLJ-13-1
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Background:

Small-scale fisheries are an important economic sector in terms of employment, national food security, enterprise development and foreign exchange earnings. Overfishing is one of the main impacts directly affecting fisheries. However, there are other kinds of global impacts not frequently considered. The ecological footprint indicator is not new but has been mostly overlooked by scholars in the artisanal fishing sector. The aim of this study was to evaluate the corporate ecological footprint of small-scale fisheries through a fishing cooperative at La Cruz de Loreto in Mexico, and determine its eco-efficiency as non-direct global impacts.

Methods:

The Compound Method Based on Financial Accounts (MC3.V.2 for its acronym in Spanish, version 2) was used. It includes the categories of emissions, materials, resources, services and contracts, land use and waste.

Results:

Eco-efficiency, determined by the organization´s ecological footprint, was 0.6 t/ha and its carbon footprint was 0.2 t/tCO2 per year, a low one when compared to others. The consumption category that contributed most to the footprint was indirect emissions and the ecosystem’s fossil energy, which could be explained by the characteristics of the fishing cooperative analyzed.

Conclusion:

The corporate ecological footprint for La Cruz de Loreto fishing cooperative is low when compared to others, but it indicates that they should improve in the category of indirect emission (reduce the consumption of electricity generated by fossil fuel and use of alternative energy) and should invest in the “forest” type of ecosystem to increase carbon sinks and mitigate the impacts.

A Mitigation Hierarchy Approach for Managing Sea Turtle Captures in Small-Scale Fisheries

Arlidge WNS, Squires D, Alfaro-Shigueto J, Booth H, Mangel JC, Milner-Gulland EJ. A Mitigation Hierarchy Approach for Managing Sea Turtle Captures in Small-Scale Fisheries. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2020.00049/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The mitigation hierarchy has been proposed as an overarching framework for managing fisheries and reducing marine megafauna bycatch, but requires empirical application to show its practical utility. Focusing on a small-scale fishing community in Peru as a case study system, we test how the mitigation hierarchy can support efforts to reduce captures of sea turtles in gillnets and link these actions to broader goals for biodiversity. We evaluate three management scenarios by drawing on ecological risk assessment (ERA) and qualitative management strategy evaluation to assess trade-offs between biological, economic, and social considerations. The turtle species of management focus include leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea, green turtle Chelonia mydas, and olive ridley turtle Lepidochelys olivacea. Adopting a mixed-methods iterative approach to data collection, we undertook a literature review to collate secondary data on the fishery and the species of turtles captured. We then collected primary data to fill the knowledge gaps identified, including establishing the spatial extent of the fishery and calculating turtle capture rates for the fishery. We identified and evaluated the potential risk that the fishery poses to each turtle species within Pacific East regional management units using a qualitative ERA. Finally, we evaluated potential management strategies to reduce turtle captures, incorporating stakeholder preference from questionnaire-based surveys and considering preliminary estimates of trends across a range of performance indicators. We illustrate how the proposed framework can integrate existing knowledge on an issue of marine megafauna captures, and incorporate established decision-making processes to help identify data gaps. This supports a holistic assessment of management strategies toward biodiversity goals standardized across fisheries and scales.

A Mitigation Hierarchy Approach for Managing Sea Turtle Captures in Small-Scale Fisheries

Arlidge WNS, Squires D, Alfaro-Shigueto J, Booth H, Mangel JC, Milner-Gulland EJ. A Mitigation Hierarchy Approach for Managing Sea Turtle Captures in Small-Scale Fisheries. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2020.00049/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The mitigation hierarchy has been proposed as an overarching framework for managing fisheries and reducing marine megafauna bycatch, but requires empirical application to show its practical utility. Focusing on a small-scale fishing community in Peru as a case study system, we test how the mitigation hierarchy can support efforts to reduce captures of sea turtles in gillnets and link these actions to broader goals for biodiversity. We evaluate three management scenarios by drawing on ecological risk assessment (ERA) and qualitative management strategy evaluation to assess trade-offs between biological, economic, and social considerations. The turtle species of management focus include leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea, green turtle Chelonia mydas, and olive ridley turtle Lepidochelys olivacea. Adopting a mixed-methods iterative approach to data collection, we undertook a literature review to collate secondary data on the fishery and the species of turtles captured. We then collected primary data to fill the knowledge gaps identified, including establishing the spatial extent of the fishery and calculating turtle capture rates for the fishery. We identified and evaluated the potential risk that the fishery poses to each turtle species within Pacific East regional management units using a qualitative ERA. Finally, we evaluated potential management strategies to reduce turtle captures, incorporating stakeholder preference from questionnaire-based surveys and considering preliminary estimates of trends across a range of performance indicators. We illustrate how the proposed framework can integrate existing knowledge on an issue of marine megafauna captures, and incorporate established decision-making processes to help identify data gaps. This supports a holistic assessment of management strategies toward biodiversity goals standardized across fisheries and scales.

Long-Term Fishing Catch and Effort Trends in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, With Emphasis on the Small-Scale Sectors

Vianna GMS, E. Hehre J, White R, Hood L, Derrick B, Zeller D. Long-Term Fishing Catch and Effort Trends in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, With Emphasis on the Small-Scale Sectors. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2019.00828/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Small-scale fishing has been an important element of the livelihood and food security in Pacific island countries throughout history; however, such catches have been under-reported in the official fisheries data. Here, we reconstruct the total domestic catches and fishing effort of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) by fishing sectors for 1950–2017. Reconstructed total catches were estimated to be 27% higher than the data officially reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations on behalf of the RMI. Catches of the truly domestic, but export-oriented, industrial tuna sector accounted for 84% of the total catch, dominating catches since the early 2000s. The subsistence component contributed 74% of total small-scale catches, of which 92% was deemed unreported. The remaining 26% of small-scale catches were artisanal, i.e., small-scale commercial, in nature, of which 45% was deemed unreported. Trends suggested steady growth in small-scale catches from 1,100 t⋅year–1in the early 1950s to a relatively stable level of 4,500 t⋅year–1 since the 1990s. However, over the 2009–2017 period, there was a gradual reduction of 2% per year in subsistence fishing, which was paralleled by a concomitant increase in artisanal catches of 3% per year. This gradual shift from predominantly non-commercial to commercial small-scale fisheries may be related to efforts to commercialize small-scale fisheries in the past decades. Small-scale fishing effort increased approximately 13-fold from the early 1980s to the late 2000s, stabilizing at around 401,000 kWdays since then, while catch-per-unit-of-effort (CPUE) displayed an inverse pattern, declining eightfold between the 1980s and 1990s, and stabilizing around 15 kg⋅kWdays–1 in recent decades. These findings may assist sustainable coastal fisheries management in the RMI, which is particularly important given the increasing impacts of climate change on local stocks.

Exploring the Link between Small Scale Fish Trade and Local Livelihoods in Developing Country Near Shore Marine Fishery

Wamukota A. Exploring the Link between Small Scale Fish Trade and Local Livelihoods in Developing Country Near Shore Marine Fishery. Journal of Economics, Management and Trade [Internet]. 2020 :1 - 6. Available from: http://www.journaljemt.com/index.php/JEMT/article/view/30210
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The paper reviews critical findings regarding the influence of fish marketing on local livelihoods and resources in a near shore African marine fishery. Literature search was conducted using search engines google scholar, scopus, and web of science using the key words: Fish, fish trade, global market, livelihood, marine/coastal, with the objectives of exploring the relationship between fish markets, livelihoods (at the household level) as well as the resource itself. In addition, country reports from research organizations (both published and unpublished) as well as FAO reports were consulted. The search was undertaken in November 2019. Results from literature search were analyzed thematically based on livelihood indicators including fish marketing channels, determinants of income, occupations and fish price transmission. Linkages vary with respect to fish type, species and usage type, highlighting the need for disaggregated analyses to respond to specific objectives and market factors. The review points out that not all fish types are exported/linked to the tourism industry and that even for those linked to the global market, the benefits do not trick down. A strong interaction between fish and local staple is evident, an indication that small scale fisheries are likely to have local benefits than benefits attributed to global market linkages.

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