Kenya’s small scale coral reef fisheries are extensively studied yet a practical understanding of the resilience and status of the main target species remains largely elusive to the manager. We combined a range of fishery and fish population descriptors to analyse Kenya’s coral reef fish and fisheries over a 20 year period from the 1980s, to determine the sustainability of current fishing levels and provide recommendations for management. Fishers reported over 13 different artisanal fishing gears of which there are data for only the five widely used gears. Average catch rates declined 4-fold from the mid 1980s (13.7 ± 1.6 kg/fisher/trip) to the 1990s (3.2 ± 0.1 kg/fisher/trip) and then stabilized. Species richness in catches of these historically multi-species fisheries declined dramatically and by 2007 only 2–3 species appeared in the top bracket (65–75% by number) with Siganus sutor (African whitespotted rabbitfish) and Leptoscarus vaigiensis(marbled parrotfish) consistently being in this bracket in beach seine, gill net and basket trap catches, contributing up to a maximum of 45% and 47% of the catch, respectively. Lethrinus borbonicus dominated handline catches (50%). Relatively stable catch rates are reported from the 1990s to the mid 2000s, likely maintained by shifting proportions of species in the catches. Patterns in fish population densities over time show National Parks have helped increase densities of Lethrinidae and Haemulidae and reduced the decline in densities of Scaridae and Acanthuridae, but that National Reserves have had no positive effect. We suggest that the National Parks, which are No Take Zones (NTZs), and the fisheries regulations inside and outside of Reserves are inadequate for maintaining or restoring reef fishery target families under current levels of fishery exploitation. We propose that recruitment overfishing of several species and insufficient areas under full protection, all exacerbated by climate change, are contributing to driving Kenya’s artisanal coral reef fisheries to a tipping point. We recommend species–specific management options, changes in and enforcement of gear regulations and many more effective NTZs are needed urgently if these fisheries are to continue to provide livelihoods and food security on the Kenyan coast.
The aim of this study is to assess the financial viability of small-scale fish farmers in central northern Namibia, namely Oshikoto Region, Oshana Region, Omusati Region and Ohangwena region; who receive fingerlings on a continuously basis from the Ministry of Fishery and Marine Resources Ongwediva extension office. Out of the 76 active farmers, two-third (37) farmers were randomly selected and interviewed for this research. The data was analysed using cost benefit analysis and situational analysis. The situational analysis was carried out to assess the farmer’s situation, (that parameters included training opportunity transport and marketing). The cost benefit for this study shows that aquaculture will not be sustainable if not managed and planned well. Therefore, this study is recommended to strengthen the technical and organisational aspect of farmers, and also what is required to support the farmers.
Marine fisheries in Costa Rica have become characterized by overexploitation, ineffective centralized management and increased conflict among fishing sectors. Despite high economic and socio-cultural importance of small-scale fisheries, no formal mechanisms existed until recently to facilitate the participation of fishers in management. Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (Áreas Marinas para la Pesca Responsable, AMPR) were legally recognized in 2009 as a co-management approach, enabling the designation of spatial management areas to be implemented collaboratively by artisanal fishers and government agencies. In this paper, we examine property and access relations shaping this emerging participatory management model using case studies primarily from the Gulf of Nicoya region. The policy demonstrably improves upon some aspects of management, for instance, by allowing artisanal fishers to determine gear restrictions within designated areas. However, the model lacks other attributes of more successful co-management scenarios, particularly exclusive access. The fugitive nature of resources further complicates property relations over these fisheries. The cases explored also illustrate broader institutional and systemic issues that preclude effective participatory management. Lessons from the region are used to propose significant shifts to the management of small-scale fisheries in Costa Rica.
It is estimated that more than 200 million people worldwide depend on small-scale fisheries for their livelihood, driving the need for fisheries reform to develop effective, local-level governance systems to protect food security and lessen reliance on common resources. However, our ability to impose new management relies on the assessment of vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and the lack of social-ecological data often stifles decision making. Here we test the use of simple fisheries attributes from 33 fishing communities in an understudied, and chronically poor region of the Colombian Pacific, to generate indicators of relative fisheries adaptive capacity, as a proxy for vulnerability to planned management changes. We demonstrate the strengths of this approach using four variables (species assemblage, spatial dependence, gear dependence and compliance), and illustrate how potential threats to livelihoods can be identified early, and with limited data, allowing for management to adapt decision-making accordingly. We show that in the absence of detailed socio-economic information, relatively basic fisheries data recorded by community observers can be applied to decrease uncertainty by providing a rapid characterisation of community vulnerability to management decision-making, in a range of management intervention options.
As in many developing countries, small-scale fisheries including beach seining contribute significantly livelihoods and food security of coastal communities. Beach seining in Sri Lanka is seasonal mainly during calm season deprived of strong monsoonal winds, and essentially a multi-species fishery. Knowledge about the seasonal occurrence of pelagic species is important to be known for proper planning of the fishing activity, especially due to the reason that beach seine fishers in many parts of Sri Lanka make decisions to attach the cod-end of correct type depending on the target species. The possibility of identifying pattern of seasonal occurrence of target fish species in beach seine fishing sites off the southern region of north-western coast of Sri Lanka was therefore investigated using Self Organizing Maps (SOM). The analysis indicated that beach seine fishers’ local knowledge to predict the occurrence of certain species in the fishing sites to adjust their fishing strategies to target desirable species was consistent with the findings of SOM approach. Consequently, it was concluded that as beach seine fishers use indirect indicators such as colour of sea water and behaviour sea birds predict the species occurrence fairly accurately, their local knowledge can be incorporated in the management planning of beach seine fisheries in the North Western coastal area of Sri Lanka.
This paper investigates the impact of the European Union landing obligation in the Galician (North West of Spain) multispecies small-scale gillnet fishery. By combining results from semi-structured interviews with small-scale fishers and a bioeconomic model, we found that the percentage of discards for small-scale fisheries is usually low, which is consistent with general empirical observations globally but can be high when quotas are exhausted.
Our results also confirm that the landing obligation would generate negative impacts on fishers' activities by investing more time on-board to handle previously discarded fishes, and putting at risk the security of fishers at sea due to full use of allowable storage on-board coupled with often adverse sea conditions in Galician bays. The application of the landing obligation policy to small-scale fisheries would result in short- and long-term losses of fishing days and yields, with high negative impacts on sustainable fisheries such as the Galician multispecies small-scale gillnet fishery. The expected number of fishing days under the landing obligation is estimated to be reduced by 50% during the five years following the implementation of the policy. The future yield (catches) under the landing obligation would be only 50% of catches expected in the absence of the landing obligation, regardless of the total volume of quotas allocated to the fleet.
Most of the fishers of coastal East Africa particularly among the Bajuni, Kojani, Macua and Vezo ethnic communities have historically practiced migration. This study explores the strategies used by migrant fishers’ of Pemba in the Western Indian Ocean region. By adopting a modified sustainable livelihoods framework (SLF), the study uses in-depth interviews and questionnaires to explore the life histories of the fishers in migrant communities, their motivations to migrate, and their associated socioeconomic and ecological implications. Results point out to a complexity of factors contributing to migration including natural, to economic and social factors. Interaction of such factors is instrumental in shaping fisher migration as an activity into an important livelihood strategy. The study concludes that SLF provides holistic understanding of migration. However the incorporation of the ‘livelihood spaces’ extends this knowledge by integrating the spectrum of spatial aspects. This understanding is critical in the design of policies and interventions necessary to ensure resource sustainability and secure fishers livelihoods. This multi-method approach is critical in empirical study of fisher migration.
This paper revisits the 1979 seminal work of Ian Smith and the research agenda for small-scale fisheries which identified areas of research which would have the greatest potential for contributing to the solution of problems facing small-scale fisheries and their communities. The paper provides an historical perspective on the changing issues and research and development agendas for small-scale fisheries over the last fifty years. Several suggested research priorities on small-scale fisheries for the next decade are identified including overcapacity, livelihoods, markets and secure and resilient communities.
Cabrera National Park is a Marine Protected Area (MPA) located in the South of Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain. It has a valuable ground fishery that includes several species of crustaceans of commercial interest, such as the European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas. Lobster traps, although permitted and even promoted by the park's authorities, have been abandoned due to the higher efficiency and catch per unit effort of the trammel nets. This study evaluates traditional and modern lobster trap designs to determine the most suitable one as an alternative to trammel nets. The gear was first tested in an aquarium and consisted of a reed trap, a plastic trap and a metal trap, all three historically used in Mallorca, and a modern Japanese collapsible trap. By conducting behavioral observations and exposing 40 lobsters to the traps it was found that the collapsible trap captured 20% of the lobster exposed to the trap, while the plastic trap only 10% and the reed and metal trap only 2.5% and 0%, respectively. In addition, experimental trials were conducted in a fishing ground of Cabrera National Park using two 450 m long strings of traps. Each string was composed of 30 collapsible traps or 30 plastic traps, with traps spaced at 15 m intervals along the line. Lobster catches were 24 (0.8 lobster/450 m) in the plastic traps, but only 9 (0.3 lobster/450 m) in the collapsible ones. When considering that the minimum legal size for lobsters is larger than 9 cm carapace length (CL), only 9 lobster (0.3 lobster/450 m) could be landed after deploying 1800 traps, and all of them coming from plastic ones. To compare the effectiveness of traps with lobster trammel nets, 14 fishing operations were carried out with a total of 5950 m of net deployed. Thirty-three lobsters were captured (2.37 lobster/450 m) in the nets, of which only 17 reached commercial size (1.22 lobster/450 m). Although the collapsible trap has caught more lobsters in the aquarium compared to the plastic trap, the plastic trap performed better in the field. This appears to be due to the effects of bycatch species, particularly octopus. Our results stressed the necessity of implementing an evaluation of the lobster population dynamics to design more efficient management measures. The fishers themselves recognize the need to an agreement for changing the paradigm from maximizing catches to maximizing profit.
In response to concerns over wastage and negative impacts on stocks, the damage (antennae loss) and collateral mortality of artisanally trawled-and-discarded juvenile seabob shrimp (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri) and the key factors explaining variability were assessed in the South Brazil Bight. During 20 deployments across 7 d of fishing, 1562 X. kroyeri (14.5 ± 3.1 mm carapace length, CL) were discarded into replicate on-board tanks at both the start and end of sorting, with some individuals monitored immediately for antennae loss and mortalities, and the rest assessed after 3 h. Virtually, all X. kroyeri discarded towards the end of sorting (mean ± SD air exposure of 15.9 ± 3.9 min) died. By comparison, those discarded at the start (2.7 ± 2.8 min) had variable temporal mortalities (total of 52.3% immediately vs. 66.2% after 3 h) which, like antennae loss (total mean ± SE of 50.4 ± 34.2%) were positively associated with haul duration/catch weight and deck exposure, and more frequent among individuals with soft than hard exoskeletons. Antennae loss was also negatively correlated with CL. The results support (i) improving trawl selectivity to reduce the catches of small, unwanted X. kroyeri and other bycatch (and therefore total weights of catches) and/or (ii) sorting catches in water (to minimize air exposure). Such modifications might be promoted through awareness of the potential harvest benefits to fishers associated with reducing unaccounted fishing mortality of the targeted species.