Social-Ecological Systems and Human Wellbeing

Does Tourism Improve the Community’s Well-Being in Marine-Protected Areas?

Pham-Do KHang, Pham TThanh Thuy. Does Tourism Improve the Community’s Well-Being in Marine-Protected Areas?. International Advances in Economic Research [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11294-019-09741-8
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Tourism plays a vital role in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Achieving sustainable tourism is a continuous process, requiring the informed participation of all relevant stakeholders, as well as strong political leadership to ensure broad participation and consensus building (Making Tourism More Sustainable - A Guide for Policy Makers, United Nations Environment Programme and United Nations World Tourism Organization, 2005, p.11–12).

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are special areas of the marine environment specifically established and managed, through legal or other effective mechanisms, to “achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values” (Day et al., International Union for Conservation of Nature, 2012). Tourism development has been considered a key accompanying strategy in creating alternative livelihood options for communities living adjacent to MPAs, particularly in Nha Trang Bay (NTB), where the first MPA was...

Socio-ecological resilience and the law: Exploring the adaptive capacity of the BBNJ agreement

Blanchard C, Durussel C, Boteler B. Socio-ecological resilience and the law: Exploring the adaptive capacity of the BBNJ agreement. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;108:103612. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19303641?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

In search for sustainability of the oceans, the concept of resilience arises as a necessary perspective from which to analyse what course of action to take. Resilience refers to the capacity of a system to absorb change, but also to adapt and develop in face of those changes. Resilience thinking has recently permeated the sphere of legal studies, and the two fields have been interested in exploring the impact they have on one another. To explore this interaction further in the context of the management of the oceans, the present paper looks at areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) as a socio-ecological system. It argues that the law can be a tool for improving the resilience of a system, but that it must, for that purpose, be able to ensure at least some adaptive capacity. In light of the upcoming, consolidated regime for the sustainable management of biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ) through the development of an internationally legally binding agreement on the topic, and considering the uncertainty surrounding our knowledge of ABNJ, this paper suggests to look at the BBNJ agreement from the perspective of resilience thinking. The paper explores how this perspective could bring new insights to the development of the BBNJ agreement, as well as the emerging literature linking law and resilience.

The health of commercial fishers in England and Wales: Analysis of the 2011 census

Turner RA, Sainsbury NC, Wheeler BW. The health of commercial fishers in England and Wales: Analysis of the 2011 census. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;106:103548. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18308510
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Studies of commercial fishing have shown that it is a hazardous occupation with high rates of injury and fatal accidents. Research has also identified a range of other health risks faced by fishers, yet the general health outcomes of fishers have not been compared to those of workers in other industries. This study aimed to assess self-reported health outcomes among workers in the fishing industry, and to compare this to those working in other industries. Drawing on 2011 census data for England and Wales we used generalised linear models to compare self-reported measures of 1) general health and 2) limiting long-term illness across industry categories, calculating odds ratios adjusted for age, geographic region and socio-economic profile of local authorities. Of the population working in 87 industry classes, those in category ‘03 Fishing and aquaculture’ had the fifth highest rate of poor general health (2.8% reported ‘bad’ or ‘very bad’ health) and the sixth highest rate of reporting limiting long-term illness (10.3% reported their activities to be limited ‘a lot’ or ‘a little’). Odds ratios adjusted for age, geographic region and socio-economic profile of local authorities showed that only two other industries demonstrated statistical evidence for higher odds of poor general health or limiting long-term illness than workers in fishing and aquaculture. This study demonstrates that fishing is among the industries with the poorest general health and limiting long-term illness outcomes in the UK, demonstrating the need for tailored occupational health services to support UK fishing communities.

Money, use and experience: Identifying the mechanisms through which ecosystem services contribute to wellbeing in coastal Kenya and Mozambique

Chaigneau T, Brown K, Coulthard S, Daw TM, Szaboova L. Money, use and experience: Identifying the mechanisms through which ecosystem services contribute to wellbeing in coastal Kenya and Mozambique. Ecosystem Services [Internet]. 2019 ;38:100957. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041618303723
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Despite extensive recent research elucidating the complex relationship between ecosystem services and human wellbeing, little work has sought to understand howecosystem services contribute to wellbeing and poverty alleviation. This paper adopts concepts from the “Theory of Human Need” and the “Capability Approach” to both identify the multitude of links occurring between ecosystem services and wellbeing domains, and to understand the mechanisms through which ecosystem services contribute to wellbeing. Focus Group Discussions (N = 40) were carried out at 8 sites in Mozambique and Kenya to elicit how, why, and to what extent benefits derived from ecosystem services contribute to different wellbeing domains. Our results highlight three types of mechanisms through which ecosystem services contribute to wellbeing, monetary, use and experience. The consideration of these mechanisms can inform the development of interventions that aim to protect or improve flows of benefits to people. Firstly, interventions that support multiple types of mechanisms will likely support multiple domains of wellbeing. Secondly, overemphasising certain types of mechanism over others could lead to negative social feedbacks, threatening the future flows of ecosystem services. Finally, the three mechanism types are interlinked and can act synergistically to enhance the capacities of individuals to convert ecosystem services to wellbeing.

Preparing for the Inevitable: Ecological and Indigenous Community Impacts of Oil Spill-Related Mortality in the United States’ Arctic Marine Ecosystem

Suprenand PM, Hoover C, Ainsworth CH, Dornberger LN, Johnson CJ. Preparing for the Inevitable: Ecological and Indigenous Community Impacts of Oil Spill-Related Mortality in the United States’ Arctic Marine Ecosystem. In: Murawski SA, Ainsworth CH, Gilbert S, Hollander DJ, Paris CB, Schlüter M, Wetzel DL Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2019. pp. 470 - 493. Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-12963-7_27
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $29.95
Type: Book Chapter

While hydrocarbon exploration and extraction in the Arctic ebb and flow, reduced sea ice has opened new travel routes across the Arctic. The opening of the Northwest Passage has allowed larger ships (including oil tankers) and higher traffic into remote regions. More ice loss is expected in the future. With this comes the potential for hydrocarbon spills. To quantify the ecosystem impacts of a spill in the Alaska North Slope region, an Ecospace model using the Ecopath with Ecosim software was developed. We highlight the impacts of four potential hydrocarbon contamination scenarios: a subsurface crude oil pipeline release, a surface platform oil spill, a surface cruise ship diesel spill, and a surface tanker oil spill. Hydrocarbon contamination was modeled using SIMAP (Spill Impact Model Analysis Package), which was developed from the oil fate sub-model in the Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for the US Department of the Interior and under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Spatial-temporal SIMAP results were coupled to the Ecospace model. We show that in all four hydrocarbon contamination scenarios, there are spatial changes in harvested species resulting in long-term declines in harvest levels for the communities within the model area (Nuiqsut, Kaktovik, and Barrow Alaska), depending on the severity of the scenario. Responses to hydrocarbon events are likely to be slow in the Arctic, limited by the ice-free season. We highlight this area for scenario testing as ecological impacts are also an issue of food security to the local communities and human health issue.

Developing a Social–Ecological–Environmental System Framework to Address Climate Change Impacts in the North Pacific

Bograd SJ, Kang S, Di Lorenzo E, Horii T, Katugin ON, King JR, Lobanov VB, Makino M, Na G, R. Perry I, et al. Developing a Social–Ecological–Environmental System Framework to Address Climate Change Impacts in the North Pacific. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00333/full?utm_source=F-NTF&utm_medium=EMLX&utm_campaign=PRD_FEOPS_20170000_ARTICLE
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

“Forecasting and Understanding Trends, Uncertainty and Responses of North Pacific Marine Ecosystems” (FUTURE) is the flagship integrative Scientific Program undertaken by the member nations and affiliates of the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES). A principal goal of FUTURE is to develop a framework for investigating interactions across disciplinary dimensions in order to most effectively understand large-scale ecosystem changes and resulting impacts on coastal communities. These interactions are complex, often nonlinear, occur across a range of spatial and temporal scales, and can complicate management approaches to shared and trans-boundary problems. Here, we present a Social–Ecological–Environmental Systems (SEES) framework to coordinate and integrate marine science within PICES. We demonstrate the application of this framework by applying it to four “crisis” case studies: (a) species alternation in the western North Pacific; (b) ecosystem impacts of an extreme heat wave in the eastern North Pacific; (c) jellyfish blooms in the western North Pacific; and (d) Pacific basin-scale warming and species distributional shifts. Our approach fosters a common transdisciplinary language and knowledge base across diverse expertise, providing the basis for developing better integrated end-to-end models. PICES provides the structure required to address these and other multi-national, inter-disciplinary issues we face in the North Pacific. An effective and comprehensive SEES approach is broadly applicable to understanding and maintaining resilient marine ecosystems within a changing climate.

A Systematic Review of the Socioeconomic Factors that Influence How Marine Protected Areas Impact on Ecosystems and Livelihoods

Mizrahi M’ira, Diedrich A, Weeks R, Pressey RL. A Systematic Review of the Socioeconomic Factors that Influence How Marine Protected Areas Impact on Ecosystems and Livelihoods. Society & Natural Resources [Internet]. 2019 ;32(1):4 - 20. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08941920.2018.1489568
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are among the most widely accepted methods of marine management. MPAs are not, however, always placed such that they can maximize impact on conservation and livelihoods. Current MPA guidelines fall short in focusing primarily on biophysical criteria, overlooking interrelated socioeconomic factors. We identified 32 socioeconomic factors that influence whether MPA placement has an impact on biodiversity and/or livelihoods and weighted the quality of evidence using a novel “Evidence for Impact” Score. Results suggest that stakeholder engagement, poverty, population density, and strong leadership have most potential to positively impact biodiversity and/or livelihoods, but the direction of impact (i.e., positive or negative) can be context-dependent. We found a generally poor evidence base for impact evaluation of socioeconomic factors: though some factors were highly cited, few studies actually evaluate impact. Results indicate the need for a more interdisciplinary approach to MPA placement and more empirical studies that assess impact.

The social-ecological status of small islands: An evaluation of island tourism destination management in Indonesia

Kurniawan F, Adrianto L, Bengen DGeoffrey, Prasetyo LBudi. The social-ecological status of small islands: An evaluation of island tourism destination management in Indonesia. Tourism Management Perspectives [Internet]. 2019 ;31:136 - 144. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2211973619300534
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Journal Article

A social-ecological system approach has been applied to measure the complexity of sustainable tourism development on small islands. In general, tourism development and ecosystem management have been shown to be relatively unbalanced. Tourism development attempts have not yet been accompanied by environmental management efforts. In this paper, the social-ecological status is measured to improve the sustainable development mechanism with appropriate indicators. Using the Gili Matra Islands as a case study, the social-ecological status of tourism in the region was examined using the social-ecological status index (SESI), a coupling index of the coastal waters quality index (CWQI), the coordination degree model (CCDM) and the index of information entropy weight (IEW) as tools for measuring and evaluating the social-ecological status and sustainable development of small island tourism.

Improving Representation of Human Well-Being and Cultural Importance in Conceptualizing the West Hawai‘i Ecosystem

Leong KM, Wongbusarakum S, Ingram RJ, Mawyer A, Poe MR. Improving Representation of Human Well-Being and Cultural Importance in Conceptualizing the West Hawai‘i Ecosystem. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00231/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Ecosystem-based management approaches are increasingly used to address the critical linkages between human and biophysical systems. Yet, many of the social-ecological systems (SES) frameworks typically used in coastal and marine management neither represent the social and ecological aspects of the system in equal breadth or depth, nor do they adequately operationalize the social, or human, dimensions. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s West Hawai‘i Integrated Ecosystem Assessment, a program grounded in ecosystem-based management, recognizes the importance of place-based human dimensions in coastal and marine resource management that speak to a fuller range of social and cultural dimensions of ecosystem-based management. Previous work with stakeholders in West Hawai‘i revealed noteworthy SES dynamics and highlighted both the importance and lack of understanding of the links between ecosystem services and human well-being, particularly services that enhance and maintain active cultural connections to a place. While cultural ecosystem services and human well-being are often recognized as important elements of SES, there have been substantial barriers to fully representing them, likely due to perceived difficulties of measuring non-material benefits and values, many of which are socially constructed and subjective. This study examined SES frameworks related to cultural ecosystem services and human well-being to advance the representation and operationalization of these important concepts in coastal and marine management. We describe key insights and questions focused on: (1) points of inclusion for human dimensions in SES models, (2) culturally relevant domains of human well-being and related indicators, (3) the importance of place and its interaction with scale, and finally (4) the tension between a gestalt vs. discrete approach to modeling, assessing, and sustainably managing social-ecological systems.

Limitations to growth: Social-ecological challenges to aquaculture development in five wealthy nations

Young N, Brattland C, Digiovanni C, Hersoug B, Johnsen JPetter, Karlsen KMari, Kvalvik I, Olofsson E, Simonsen K, Solås A-M, et al. Limitations to growth: Social-ecological challenges to aquaculture development in five wealthy nations. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;104:216 - 224. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18302781
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Aquaculture is a major contributor to global food production, but has attracted considerable controversy. Disagreements over the social and ecological impacts of aquaculture (positive and negative) have hindered further expansion of aquaculture production, particularly in wealthy democratic countries. This article presents findings from a series of workshops bringing international aquaculture scholars together from the natural and social sciences to examine and compare social-ecological challenges facing aquaculture development in five nations: Canada, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. This multinational comparison provides unique insights into common and particular challenges in aquaculture governance – a dimension that is missing in current literature about the industry. A political ecology framework from the environmental social sciences is used to examine how natural and human phenomena interact to shape these challenges and frame the conflicts that often result. The analysis reveals a wide range of social-ecological factors limiting aquaculture expansion in the five countries, including access to suitable environments, interactions with other sectors, and policy and regulatory gaps – not only with respect to aquaculture, but also on related issues such as marine spatial planning and the involvement of indigenous peoples in decision-making. The findings provide preliminary guidance for future policy development and comparative aquaculture research.

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